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and overcome, except by one that is a stronger than he.” Luke 11:22.
PRACTICAL INFLUENCE. If a man half believes the doctrine of Edwards; or if he believes it under a misapprehension of what it is; or if he believes it with a true apprehension of its nature, but gives it undue importance, compared with other portions of divine truth; or if he entertains the speculative belief in a heart destitute of holiness ;-in either of these cases, the conse. quences of his belief will probably be pernicious. And it is the same with regard to all moral and religious truth. But let a man of clear understanding, and decided, ardent piety, like Edwards, Brainerd, Calvin, Hopkins, or Fuller, rightly apprehend and cordially believe this doctrine, and the consequences will be, in a high degree, salutary. The men who speak of the bad influence of believing Edwards' scheme, are those who do not believe it. But what intelligent, good man ever believed it, without experiencing happy effects from it? The great body of ministers in New England since the days of Edwards, have embraced his theory. They have all along heard it alleged by Arminians and other opposers of the theory, that it has a bad practical tendency. But they have never discovered such a tendency. It has been lodged in the minds of multitudes of the wisest and best men. But they have all found its influence to be directly favorable to morality and piety. While those who declaim against it, and say that the belief of it has a pernicious effect, are those who do not cordially believe it. I will only add, that my full conviction is, that the doctrine of Edwards, in all its essential parts, is the doctrine of the Bible, presenied in a scientific form, and arrayed against hurtful errors; that it tends to honor God, to humble man, and to promote growth in grace, and that those who reject it and embrace any of the antagonist doctrines, will suffer loss.
There are many other important subjects suggested by the essay, on which I have so freely remarked. But I can proceed no farther.
The questions proposed in the last number of the Repository by “ Inquirer," appear to me worthy of special consideration; and in compliance with the wishes of the Editor, 1 intend to make such a reply as I may find convenient, in a future number of the Repository.
1–Psychology; or, A View of the Human Soul ; including An
thropology: being the substance of a Course of Lectures, delivered to the Junior Class of Marshall College, Penn., by Frederick A. Rauch. New-York: M. W. Dodd,
1840. pp. 388. Dr. Rauch, who is already favorably known to our readers, is a native of Germany, where he received his education, under the best advantages. He is now at the head of Mar. shall College in Pennsylvania, an institution which, while it aims at the general promotion of literature in our country, has particular reference in its origin and design to the German population of that state, and embraces a theological department designed to train men for the ministry in the German Reformed Church. The work before us is the substance of a course of Lectures delivered to the undergraduates, and is designed as a text-book in that College:
A foreigner publishes a book in this country under some disadvantages, similar to those which an American experiences who publishes a book in France or Germany. There is the difficulty of acquiring an intimate acquaintance with the idiom of our language; the difficulty of becoming familiar with our habits and modes of thought; the difficulty of becoming so thoroughly conversant with the opinions that are prevalent in philosophy and religion, as not to arouse prejudice, or alarm the apprehensions of the community; and perhaps not the least obstacle in his way is the feeling, that, if a foreigner among us publishes a book, he writes for his own countrymen particularly who reside here, and not for the community at large. These difficulties are increased, if the author happen to be from Germany. The language is one of the most unmanageable of all the numerous tongues which the unhappy builders of Babel have spread over the earth; and nothing is more difficult than for a German to become perfectly famil. iar with the idiom of our language, and to think and write like an American. The prevalent opinions too in Germany are materially different from those which prevail in this country, on the great subjects of morals, philosophy, and religion; and
much as a foreigner may desire and design to conform to the usual sentiments in this land, and much as he may in heart accord with evangelical Christians here, still it is difficult to avoid phrases and modes of speech which will seem to savor of the neology of Germany, and which will excite alarm when the author little intended or expected it. There are not a few, moreover, in our land, who look with suspicion on every thing that comes from Germany, and who are ready to regard it as prima facie proof that an author is a skeptic, or a neologist, who happened to be born in the land even of Luther, and who publishes a book on any subject whatever. This number, we believe, is rapidly diminishing; and the time will come, we trust, in this land of freedom, when every book shall be judged by its own intrinsic worth, and not by the country from which the author happened to come, nor from the prejudiced opinion of any self-constituted tribunal.
We are happy to perceive that Dr. Rauch has succeeded in overcoming, to a remarkable degree, the difficulties above referred to. In general the style is simple, pure, and direct. In the main, too, he has mastered our modes of thinking, and has become well acquainted with the prevailing views of morals, philosophy and religion in our land.
If there are disadvantages, however, under which a German is placed, who publishes a book in our language and country, there are also great advantages which a ripe scholar from a German university has. The vast amount of learning in that language, and the rich collection of facts on all subjects that can claim the attention of the human mind, furnish peculiar facilities for enabling a native German to prepare a work that shall be useful; and we regard it as a very valuable accession, when those who come to dwell with us are disposed to employ the materials thus accumulated, with so much toil, to further the cause of education and piety.
The work before us relates to one of the most interesting subjects, to man himself. We would have preferred a somewhat different title to the work—a title that would better convey an idea of its nature and design, than the word psychology or anthropology; but the following partial summary of the contents will show that the subjects discussed are interesting to ev. ery man, and open a vast field of inquiry. Introduction. Chap. I. Difference between man and animal. Chap. JI. Life. The principle of individual life, instinct, the ingenuity of animals, rela. tion of instinct to man. Part I. Anthropology. Ch.s. The influence of nature upon man-of the sun, moon, earth, races, national differences, etc.;-sexual difference; temperaments
sanguine, melancholic, choleric, phlegmatic; mental capacities, idiosyncracy, etc. Ch. II. The natural modifications of mind produced by age, waking, sleeping, dreaming, etc. Ch. III. The power of the mind over the body; its form, its health, its habits, its power of expressing emotions, etc. Part II. Psychology. Introduction. Self-consciousness. Section I. On reason, sensation, conception, pure thinking. Sect. II. On the will, the desires, inclinations, passions, social inclinations, etc. On the emotions, pleasure pain, hope, fear, melancholy, wrath, joy, RELIGION, ete. From this quite imperfect analysis, it will be seen that the work comprises the wide series of topics pertaining to man.
We by no means intend an extended review. Our object is simply to introduce this work to the favorable notice of the American public. It has, in general, the following characteristics : (1.) The subject itself is one on which every man should feel a deep interest. It pertains to himself. (2.) It abounds with facts of a very interesting character, designed to illustrate the various subjects referred to above. Much industry has been evinced in collecting and arranging those facts, and they give a value to the work which will not usually be found connected with works of this nature, and especially in our language. The collecting of these facts indicates an extensive range of reading and inquiry, and places the work almost wholly beyond the charge of being a work of mere speculation or theorizing. It contains in these facts the kind of information which the young need in forming an acquaintance with themselves, and in furnishing them with a knowledge of the wondrous human frame. (3.) The work is characterized by a sound discrimination on the various subjects of mental philosophy. It indicates that on these topics there has been much patient thinking, and much desire to tell exactly how a thing is. Emotions and feelings are separated and analyzed which are usually supposed to be blended together; and no student can peruse this work with attention who will not derive benefit from the aid which it furnishes in the power of analyzing mental operations, and in fixing attention on the workings of his own mind. (4.) Its general sentiments we regard as correct, and such as may be safely and profitably taught to the young men in our institutions.
While we would thus commend the work to the favorable notice of the public, we would at the same time suggest to the respected and learned author a few points on which a revision might be made with advantage. (1.) In a few instances there might be a more exact adoption of the English idiom.
A reperusal of the work would probably suggest the places where such changes could be made. (2.) In a few places the sense is to us obscure. To one trained in German literature, it may be clear, but we are not certain that we exactly get the idea of the author. There is to us an aspect of mysticism in a few places—a want of that direct, and clear, and straightforward expression of an idea, which in this country we expect. Our countrymen either have no time, or will take no time, to study out that which is not clear at once; and there is no law of literature better understood among us than that no author has a right to make us look twice to understand what he means. (3.) Some of the sentiments, though few in number, will not be found to be in accordance with those prevailing in this country, and, which is of more importance, with the truth. Of these, the most prominent is the view of the author on the will. We refer particularly to p. 143. If we understand his views on this page, they conflict essentially with proper notions of moral agency; and we would earnestly recommend to him a careful reconsideration of the views there presented and urged. “The human will,” says he, free only when it receives the divine will as its soul.” We are not certain that we understand what this means. “ As long, therefore, as a will is capable of choosing between the good and the evil, between heaven and hell, between the source of its life and that of its death, so long this will is not free.” Now we should suppose that this was as good a definition of freedom as could well be given ; and if the will in such a state is not free, we would ask, how is man responsi. ble? Is "a planet that has no light in itself, but must receive it from the sun around which it revolves"-with which the author compares the will of man—is such a planet free? (4.) We would especially recommend to the author the revision and enlargement of the portion of the work on religion. We do not mean to imply that he holds any false and dangerous views on that subject; but we would be glad of a more full and distinct enunciation of the nature of the Christian religion, and of its relation and adaptedness to the human mind as it is. We would be glad to see such a statement of the work of the Redeemer, and of the special agency of the Holy Ghost on the human heart, as should make a young man acquainted with what Christianity is; and instead of the quotation from Plato at the close, we think the work would be greatly improved by a condensed view of the Scripture doctrine about man, and of Christianity as adapted to man though fallen; of Christianity as fitted to act on a fallen intellect and a perverted heart; as adapted to