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CHAP.

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PAGE
XXIV. HOW WE SHOULD STRUGGLE WITH CIRCUMSTANCES 70
XXV. ON THE SAME

73
XXVI. WHAT IS THE LAW OF LIFE

77
XXVII. IN HOW MANY WAYS APPEARANCES EXIST, AND WHAT
AIDS WE SHOULD PROVIDE AGAINST THEM

80
XXVIII. THAT WE OUGHT NOT TO BE ANGRY WITH MEN; AND

WHAT ARE THE SMALL AND THE GREAT THINGS
AMONG MEN

83
XXIX. ON CONSTANCY (OR FIRMNESS)

87
XXX. WHAT WE OUGHT TO HAVE READY IN DIFFICULT
CIRCUMSTANCES

. 96

. 97

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BOOK II.
I. THAT CONFIDENCE (COURAGE) IS NOT INCONSISTENT

WITH CAUTION
II. OF TRANQUILLITY (FREEDOM FROM PERTURBATION) . 103
III. TO THOSE WHO RECOMMEND PERSONS TO PHILOSOPHERS 106
IV. AGAINST A PERSON WHO HAD ONCE BEEN DETECTED
IN ADULTERY

107
V. How MAGNANIMITY IS CONSISTENT WITH CARE

108
VI, OF INDIFFERENCE

. 112
VII. How WE OUGHT TO USE DIVINATION

. 116
VIII. WHAT IS THE NATURE (ů ovcía) OF THE GOOD '. 118
IX. THAT WHEN WE CANNOT FULFIL THAT WHICH THE

CHARACTER OF A MAN PROMISES, WE ASSUME THE
CHARACTER OF A PHILOSOPHER

123
X. HOW WE MAY DISCOVER THE DUTIES OF LIFE FROM
NAJIES

127
XI. WHAT THE BEGINNING OF PHILOSOPHY IS

130
XII. OF DISPUTATION OR DISCUSSION

133
XIII. OF ANXIETY (SOLICITUDE)

. 136
XIV. To Naso

140
XV. To OR AGAINST THOSE WHO OBSTINATELY PERSIST IN
WHAT THEY HAVE DETERMINED

144
XVI. THAT WE DO NOT STRIVE TO TSE

OUR OPINIONS
ABOUT GOOD AND Evil

147
XVII, HOW WE MUST ADAPT PRECONCEPTIONS TO PARTICULAR
CASES

153
XVIII. HOW WE SHOULD STRUGGLE AGAINST APPEARANCES 158
XIX. AGAINST THOSE WHO EMBRACE PHILOSOPHICAL
OPINIONS ONLY IN WORDS

162
XX. AGAINST THE EPICUREANS AND ACADEMICS

167

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CHA,

· 173

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PAGE
XXI. OF INCONSISTENCY
XXII. OF FRIENDSHIP

. 176
XXIII. ON THE POWER OF SPEAKING

. 182
XXIV. To (OR AGAINST) A PERSON WHO WAS ONE OF THOSE

WHO WERE NOT VALUED (ESTEEMED) BY HIM 188
XXV. THAT LOGIC IS NECESSARY

· 192
XXVI. WHAT IS THE PROPERTY OF ERROR

. 192

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211

BOOK III.
I. OF FINERY IN DRESS

195
II. IN WHAT A MAN OUGHT TO BE EXERCISED WHO HAS

MADE PROFICIENCY; AND THAT WE NEGLECT THE
CHIEF THINGS

201
III. WHAT IS THE MATTER ON WHICH A GOOD MAN SHOULD

BE EMPLOYED, AND IN WHAT WE OUGHT CHIEFLY TO
EMPLOY OURSELVES

201
IV. AGAINST A PERSON WHO SHOWED HIS PARTIZANSHIP IN
AN UNSEEMLY WAY IN A THEATRE

207
V. AGAINST THOSE WHO ON ACCOUNT OF SICKNESS GO
AWAY HOME

209
VI. MISCELLANEOUS
VII. TO THE ADMINISTRATOR OF THE FREE CITIES WHO
WAS AN EPICUREAN

213
VIII. HOW WE MUST EXERCISE OURSELVES AGAINST APPEAR-
ANCES (pavtao lal).

218
IX. TO A CERTAIN RHETORICIAN WHO WAS GOING UP TO
ROME ON A SUIT.

219
X. IN WHAT MANNER WE OUGHT TO BEAR SICKNESS 222
XI. CERTAIN MISCELLANEOUS MATTERS

225
XII. ABOUT EXERCISE

225
XIII. WHAT SOLITUDE IS, AND WHAT KIND OF PERSON A
SOLITARY MAN IS

228
XIV. CERTAIN MISCELLANEOUS MATTERS

233
XV. THAT WE OUGHT TO PROCEED WITH CIRCUMSPECTION
TO EVERYTHING

234
XVI. THAT WE OUGHT WITH CAUTION TO

ENTER INTO
FAMILIAR INTERCOURSE WITH MEN

236
XVII. OF PROVIDENCE

238
XVIII. THAT WE OUGHT TO

BY ANY
NEWS

239
XIX. WHAT IS THE CONDITION OF A COMMON KIND OF MAN
AND OF A PHILOSOPHER

210

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CHAP.

PAGI
XX. THAT WE CAN DERIVE ADVANTAGE FROM ALL EXTERNAL
THINGS

241
XXI. AGAINST THOSE WHO READILY COME TO THE PROFES-
SION OF SOPHISTS

244
XXII. ABOUT CYNISM

248
XXIII. TO THOSE WHO READ AND DISCUSS FOR THE SAKE OF
OSTENTATION

264
XXIV. THAT WE OCGHT NOT TO BE MOVED BY A DESIRE OF

THOSE THINGS WHICH ARE NOT IN OUR POWER 270
XXV. To THOSE WHO FALL OFF (DESIST) FROM THEIR
PURPOSE

287
XXVI. TO THOSE WHO FEAR WANT

289

BOOK IV.

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I. ABOUT FREEDOM

295
II. OF FAMILIAR INTIMACY

322
III. WHAT THINGS WE SHOULD EXCHANGE FOR OTHER
THINGS

324
IV. TO THOSE WHO ARE DESIROUS OF PASSING LIFE IN
TRANQUILLITY

325
V. AGAINST THE QUARRELSOME AND FEROCIOUS

333
VI. AGAINST THOSE WHO LAMENT OVER BEING PITIED 339
VII. ON FREEDOM FROM FEAR

315
VIII. AGAINST THOSE WHO HASTILY RUSH INTO THE PHILO-
SOPHIC DRESS

351
IX. TO A PERSON WHO HAD BEEN CHANGED TO A CHAR-
ACTER OF SHAMELESSNESS

357
X. WHAT THINGS WE OUGHT TO DESPISE AND WHAT
THINGS WE OUGHT TO VALLE

360
XI. ABOUT PURITY (CLEANLINESS)

. 366
XII. ON ATTENTION

372
XIII. AGAINST OR TO THOSE WHO READILY TELL THEIR OWN
AFFAIRS

375

.

THE ENCHEIRIDION OR MANUAL
FRAGMENTS
INDEX

379
405
441

EPICTETUS.

VERY little is known of the life of Epictetus. It is said that he was a native of Hierapolis in Phrygia, a town between the Maeander and a branch of the Maeander named the Lycus. Hierapolis is mentioned in the epistle of Paul to the people of Colossae (Coloss. iv. 13); from which it has been concluded that there was a Christian church in Hierapolis in the time of the apostle. The date of the birth of Epictetus is unknown. The only recorded fact of his early life is that he was a slave in Rome, and his master was Epaphroditus, a profligate freedman of the emperor Nero. There is a story that the master broke his slave's leg by torturing him; but it is better to trust to the evidence of Simplicius, the commentator on the Encheiridion or Manual, who says that Epictetus was weak in body and lame from an early age. It is not said how he became a slave; but it has been asserted in modern times that the parents sold the child. I have not, however, found any authority for this statement.

It may be supposed that the young slave showed intelligence, for his master sent or permitted him to attend the lectures of C. Musonius Rufus, an eminent Stoic philosopher. It may seem strange that such a master should have wished to have his slave made into a philosopher; but Garnier, the author of a Mémoire sur les ouvrages d'Epictète, explains this matter very well in a communication to Schweighaeuser Garnier says: “Epictetus, borr

at Hierapolis of Phrygia of poor parents, was indebted apparently for the advantages of a good education to the whim, which was common at the end of the Republic and under the first emperors, among the great of Rome to reckon among their numerous slaves Grammarians, Poets, Rhetoricians, and Philosophers, in the same way as rich financiers in these later ages have been led to form at a great cost rich and numerous libraries. This supposition is the only one which can explain to us, how a wretched child, born as poor as Irus, had received a good education, and how a rigid Stoic was the slave of Epaphroditus, one of the officers of the Imperial guard. For we cannot suspect that it was through predilection for the Stoic doctrine and for his own use, that the confidant and the minister of the debaucheries of Nero would have desired to po:ssess such a slave.

Some writers assume that Epictetus was manumitted by his master ; but I can find no evidence for this statement. Epaphroditus accompanied Nero when he fled from Rome before his enemies, and he aided the miserable tyrant in killing himself. Domitian (Sueton. Domit. 14) afterwards put Epaphroditus to death for this service to Nero. We may conclude that Epictetus in some way obtained his freedom, and that he began to teach at Rume; but after the expulsion of the philosophers from Rome by Domitian A.D. 89, he retired to Nicopolis in Epirus, a city built by Augustus to commemorate the victory at Actium. Epictetus opened a school or lecture room at Nicopolis, where he taught till he was an old man. The time of his death is unknown. Epictetus was never married, as we learn from Lucian (Demonax, c. 55, Tom. ii. ed. Hemsterh. p. 393). When Epictetus was finding fault with Demonax and advising him to take a wife and beget children, for this also, as Epictetus said, was a philosopher's duty, to

1 Lucian’s ‘Life of the Philosopher Demonax.'

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