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spanned instead, from one column to another, on which walls were carried up to bear the roofing; but there is no instance on record, nor any authentic example in existence of such a method of construction, till long after the age of Augustus or Claudius, probably not earlier than the time of Constantine, under whom the first Christian churches were erected, and the seat of empire transferred to Constantinopolis.
“ 2. The chair is manifestly a “curule chair.” The curule chair, (latin sella curulis,) was a small portable seat, constructed so that it could be folded together like our camp stools, and expanded to receive a cushion for sitting upon when in use ; but its legs or branches were bent into a curve, instead of being straight, whence the Greek writers call it “the crooked-footed seat." How then can this chair, with its four straight upright posts united by transverse bars above and below, its stiff permanent back, and fixed seat, be a curule chair ? The privilege of using curule seats, moreover, was confined to the sovereign, the consuls, prætors, and curule ediles : and as it is not recorded that St. Peter enjoyed either of these dignities, it is clear that he could not have used the seat when he got it.
"3. The stiff, straight-backed architectural chair, after being crumpled up by some Romish miracle into a low, crooked-legged folding-stool, is again touched by the enchanter's wand, when it undergoes a second process of transubstantiation, by suddenly expanding into a luxurious sedan chair, “a sella gestatoria, with rings at its sides to adapt it for being carried by slaves upon their shoulders."
“It was necessary to commit the absurdity of affixing rings to a curule seat, in order to connect the employment of a chair made by an upholsterer in the age of Augustus, with a peculiar usage of it stated to be prevalent in the age of Claudius. Nothing being said about these rings beyond the bare mention of their existence, it is but a natural inference to suppose that they do not possess anything worthy of observation either in material or design; and we may safely conclude that they are nothing more than four common iron rings attached to the chair at a subsequent period for the purpose stated, when it first came to be used for chairing its owner.
“In the days of St. Peter such chairs were used only by the
emperor himself; and it was not until the time of Dio Cassius, 194 years A.C., that even the consuls were permitted to be borne in them; so that the apostle must have been dead more than a century before he could have enjoyed the privilege here assigned to him !
“4. The chair is enriched with ornaments of the purest gold and carvings in ivory. Now it is remarkable that Chimentelli, who lived and wrote at the very time when Alexander VII. encased the chair in its present covering, and who received the present of a golden medal from the Pope himself as a reward for the fulsome flattery heaped upon his holiness for that actit is certainly remarkable, to say the least of it, that Chimentelli should omit all mention of the ivory and the gold. His account is simply this—that it is made of wood, and of very coarse workmanship-lignea est, et admodum rudi opificio. Not a word more does he say about it.
“5. The ornaments and sculptures on the chair are of exquisite finish. Be it admitted that the ivory carvings really are the most exquisite, and of the best period, this will not help us to determine the time when the chair was made; still less will it prove
that the wooden frame was constructed at the same time as the ivory carvings attached to it. Then what proof is there that the carvings of a pure and early age were not affixed to the wood-work of a chair manufactured in the age of decadence ?-just as our Wardour-street dealers “make up” their old-modern furniture with bits of carving executed some centuries ago.
“6. Now, these bassi-relievi represent the exploits of the monster-killing Hercules. In the very primitive ages of Christianity—that is, under St. Peter, the votaries of that simple faith, which, in practice as well as doctrine, was then directly antagonistic to the rites and usages of paganism, had not yet begun to mix up the sacred with the profane. Subsequently, when converts were increasing, and there was a reason for inducing conformity, it is admitted by the Roman Catholic writers that many objects and customs were adopted or retained by them as being “ indifferent in themselves, and applicable as symbolical in their own rites and usages;" but it is not conceivable to any rational mind that St. Peter would have countenanced a myth extracted from heathen text-books, by permitting his apostolic chair to be decorated with graven images embodying one of the legends which he came purposely to destroy. Amidst all the host of sculptures, mural paintings, engraved gems, terra cottas, coloured glass, &c., preserved in the Christian sepulchres of subterranean Rome, or elsewhere, none are ornamented with other than Scriptural subjects, signs, and symbols. If any trifling article of pagan character be discovered in them, as the cuckoo's egg is found in another bird's nest, it is on that very account rejected by antiquarians as the genuine property of Christian men.
“ 7. With regard to thec ontested inscription, we see no reason to doubt the occular testimony of two respectable witnesses, such as Denon and Champollion, we therefore believe that it is, or was, there, although the “religion of Mohammed does not tolerate any graven images at all.” Truly so. Neither does the religion of Christ tolerate the adoration of a statue of the heathen Jupiter. Yet crowds of Christians may be seen every day in the “ Vatican basilic" kissing the bronze toe of that divinity, who has had the paganism“ taken out of him” by a papal consecration, and the substitution of a door-key for a thunderbolt in his hand.”
THE ONE-EYED SERVANT. Do you see those two pretty cottages on opposite sides of the Common? How bright their windows are, and how prettily the vines trail over them. A year ago, one of them was the dirtiest and most forlorn-looking place you can imagine, and its mistress the most untidy woman.
She was once sitting at her cottage door with her arms folded, as if she were deep in thought, though to look at her face, one would not have supposed she was doing more than idly watching the swallows as they floated about in the hot, clear air. Her gown was torn and shabby, her shoes down at heel; the little curtain in her casement which had once been fresh and white, had a great rent in it, and altogether she looked poor and forlorn.
She sate sometime, gazing across the common, when all on a
a very fine
sudden she heard a little noise, like stitching, near the ground, She looked down, and sitting on the border under a wall-flower bush, she saw the funniest little man possible, with a blue coat, a yellow waistcoat, and red boots; he had got a small shoe on his lap, and he was stitching away at it with all his might.
“Good morning, mistress," said the little man, day. Why may you be looking so earnestly across the common?”
"I was looking at my neighbour's cottage," said the young woman.
“What, Tom the gardener's wife ?-little Polly she used to be called ; and a very pretty cottage it is too! Looks thriving, does'nt it?"
“She was always lucky,” said Bella (for that was the young wife's name) and her husband is always good to her.”
They were both good husbands at first;" interrupted the little cobbler, without stopping—"reach m my awl, mistress,
for you seem to have nothing to do; it lies close by
“Well, I can't say but they were both very good husbands at first,” replied Bella, reaching him the awl, with a sigh, but mine has changed for the worse, and hers for the better; and then, look how she thrives. Only to think of our both being married on the same day; and now I've nothing, and she has two pigs, and a
“ And a lot of flax that she spun in the winter," interrupted the cobbler; " and a Sunday gown, as good green stuff as ever was seen, and, to my knowledge, a handsome silk handkerchief for an apron; and a red waistcoat for her good-man, with three rows of blue glass buttons, and a flitch of bacon in the chimney—and a rope of onions.”
“Oh, she's a lucky woman!” exclaimed Bella.
• Aye, and a tea-tray, with Daniel in the lion's den upon it," continued the cobbler, “and a fat baby in the cradle.”
“Oh, I'm sure I don't envy her that last,” said Bella, pettishly. “I've little enough for myself and my husband, letting alone children."
Why, mistress, isn't your husband in work ?” asked the cobbler.
“ No, he's at the ale-house."
Why, how's that? he used to be very sober. Can't he get work?"
“ His last master wouldn't keep him because he was so shabby."
“ Humph !" said the little man—"he's a groom is he not? Well, as I was saying, your neighbour opposite thrives wonderfully; but no wonder! Well, I've nothing to do with other people's secrets—but I could tell you, only I'm busy, and must go.”
“ Could tell me what ?” cried the young wife. “O, good cobbler, don't go, for I've nothing to do. Pray tell me why its no wonder that she should thrive ?"
“Well,” said he, “its no business of mine you know, but as I said before, it's no wonder people thrive who have a servant-a hard-working one too-who is always helping them."
“A servant !" repeated Bella--"my neighbour has a servant ? No wonder, then, every thing looks so neat about her ; but I never saw this servant. I think you must be mistaken ; besides how could she afford to pay her wages ?”
“She has a servant, I say," repeated the cobbler—"a oneeyed servant—but she pays her no wages, to my certain knowledge. Well, good-morning, mistress, I must go."
“Do stop one minute," cried Bella, urgently—where did she get this servant from ?”
“0, I don't know," said the cobbler, “ servants are plentiful enough ; and Polly uses her's well, I can tell you."
“ And what does she do for her ?"
“Do for her? Why, all sorts of things I think she's the cause of her prosperity. To my knowledge she never refuses to do anything—keeps Tom's and Polly's clothes in beautiful order, and the baby's."
“ Dear me!” said Bella in an envious tone, and holding up both her hands; "well she is a lucky woman, and I always said so.
She takes good care I shall never see her servant. What sort of a servant is she, and ow came she to have only one eye ? "
" It runs in her family," replied the cobbler, stitching busily, " they are all so--one eye apiece ; yet they make a very good use of it, and Polly's servant has four cousins who are blind