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thing,' he said, 'could have been done for the Vaudois, Lord William would have effected it; but the restored king was deaf even to his intercessions.' We will not say, Oh for an hour of Cromwell! but of this we are sure, that if on such an occasion an ambassador had spoken as one of Cromwell's ambassadors would have spoken, the people, and the parliament, and the sovereign of Great Britaiu would have borne him out. emancipate the Irish Catholics,” said the King of Sardinia, and I will emancipate the Vaudois.' It was rejoined, 'We only beg of your majesty to concede as much to the Protestants of the valleys as has been conceded to the Roman Catholics of Ireland.' The king had been taught to believe that the Romanists are persecuted in Ireland, by those orators and journalists who care not how they injure their country in the eyes of foreign powers, so they can but serve a purpose at boine.

The good offices of the British government, then, have been altogether unavailing in behalf of the Vaudois. But these poor people have a claim

upon it. Of the sum raised for their relief under the Protectorate, £ 16,000 was put out to interest here, by the authorized commissioners, for their use. It is one of the scandalous acts of Charles II. that he withheld that interest upon the plea that he did not consider himself bound by the engagements, nor responsible for the debts, of an usurper. This example was followed by James, who would have rejoiced in the extirpation of the Vaudois, as in duty bound. It was restored by William and Mary, and regularly paid till the year 1797, when the annual payment was discontinued, because Piemont then became subject to France; and it has not been renewed since the restoration of the legitimate government. They now ask for its restitution as what is their due, and the claim, Mr. Gilly tells us, is under investigation. We may be permitted to observe, that whether till that time it were paid as a debt, or given as a benefaction, in either case the reasons for continuing it remain in full force. But independently of this sum, the repayment of which we cannot but consider as certain, we are glad to find that individual charity has been awakened on behalf of the Vaudois, and that committees have been formed in London and elsewhere for the promotion of subscriptions for their use. We refer our readers to the · Brief Sketch' for information as to the specific objects which it is desired to accomplish by them; and heartily approving of them, and wishing success to the undertaking, we will close our paper by the just and forcible appeal, with which Mr. Gilly concludes his warm-hearted and right-hearted work.

• They are as poor and as aggrieved as they were previous to the year in which the pension ceased. They are as quiet and as unoffending, and


as submissive to the constituted authorities of their country, as when the King of Sardinia declared, in June, 1794, that he had not more loyal subjects than themselves. Be it remembered too, that in the late attempt at revolution, in the Sardinian dominions, the Vaudois took no measures which could excite the slightest jealousy on the part of their sovereign.

• They are so far from being apostates, or unfaithful to the cause which recommended their fathers to the protection of England, that they have preserved their integrity, unsullied and unimpaired, in the midst of greater seductions, if not greater perils, than ever threatened the constancy of the ancient Waldenses.

They are esteemed so deserving of notice by other Protestant sovereigns and states, that the Emperor Alexander, and the kings of Prussia and of the Netherlands, have very lately exerted their kind offices, and extended their royal bounty, by remonstrances in their behalf, and grants of money for their relief.

' It cannot then be apprehended that this country will now neglect a community, which has been so supported by us in former years, when the same reasons still exist for holding them in estimation, viz. respect for the cradle of the reformed churches, respect for the descendants of the men to whom we are indebted for our religious doctrines, and respect for the people themselves, whose faith hath failed not, under persecution, want, or sufferings. There is a solemn bond of justice and gratitude incurred by us, wbich we cannot be unwilling to redeem; and when it is considered that there never was a period in English history when the interests of humanity and true religion were more consulted than by those who guide the counsels of the nation at this present time, it is not possible to be otherwise than sanguine in expecting that the claims of the Vaudois, if they are proved to be founded in equity and justice, will be amply recognized.'-p. 264.

ART. VI.-Derniers Momens de Napoléon. Par le Docteur F.

Antommarchi. Londres. 1825. IT T is not for its merit, or general interest, that we notice the

work which we have placed at the head of this paper; nor are we inclined to throw away our time in the useless but easy task of exposing to the derision of Europe a writer, whose folly, ignorance, vanity, and egotism, really surpass belief. But these volumes afford us an opportunity of settling tinally a question in which it is impossible not to feel some interest, we mean the cause of Napoleon Buonaparte's death. The enemies of Eng. land, internal and external, have delighted to attribute the disorder .which destroyed him to the climate of St. Helena; and if that could have been established upon satisfactory evidence, every one must have regretted, though no one could have blamed, the unfortunate choice of a residence, which, according to all previous rea

appeared to be singularly favourable to the human constitution.* Let us now exainine whether the evidence leads to this, or whether it warrants that other and very different conclusion, at which we arrived in a former Numbert upon information satisfactory but less full than that which now lies before us,

The medical reports of Mr. O'Meara are the first source to which we turn for information. These were delivered verbally to Dr. Baxter, by him committed to writing, and are now verified on his oath. From them it appears, that the first serious failure in Buonaparte's health was observed in the summer of 1817, nearly four years

before his death. He had then been living for some time in a way which was almost certain to injure his constitution, whatever might be the salubrity of the climate. From the active habits to which he had been accustomed all his life, he had become more sedentary than an artisan. Mr. O'Meara says,'he has not been on horseback for six months, and latterly, scarcely in the carriage, or out walking in the garden.' He used to confine himself not merely to the house, but to his bed-room, without going out of it, even to dinner, entirely occupied in reading or writing, with the doors and windows carefully shut, so as to make the room oppressively close. After living in this way several months, he was visibly altered in appearance, his face was pale, his gums spongy, his legs swollen and cold, and his breathing short on the slightest exercise.

In the autumn of the same year we discover the first noticeable symptoms of that disease which was ultimately to destroy him. There was pain in the right side, under the ribs, this part was a little swollen, and on examining it, a firm tumour was discovered, · which was painful on being touched; even when not touched

. As to the climate of St. Helena, we liave been looking over a journal of the thermometer, taken at Longwood, from April, 1816, to April, 1817. As the eye runs over the figures it lights upon nothing but 600 and 70.; and on carefully examining it, we find the lowest temperature at noon to be 58., and the highest 73°, taking the whole year. There is not a climate in the world subject to slighter variations of temperature, and where the state of the atmosphere is more exactly between inclement cold and oppressive heat. If it were within reach, we should certainly send our consumptive patients to it. We have likewise before us the report of Mr. Walter Henry, assistant surgeon of the 66th Regincnt, dated 9th June, 1823, and verified on oath. It states that

he resided at St. Helena from July, 1817, 10 May, 1821; that it is equally removed from the oppressive heat of India, and the sudden vicissitudes of England. Diseases of the lungs are rare. Those parts of the island in which Longwood and Deadwood are situated are much more salubrious than the low portions of the island. Out of nearly 500 men whom he had under his care, he did not lose one by discuse during twelve months. Many who had come from Bengal, enervated and emaciated, recovered their health at St. Helena. The climate of the higher parts of the island (in which Buonaparıc resided) is superior to that of the south of Spain, the south of Italy, and Sicily.'

+ Vol. XXVII, p. 262.



there was a dull pain, and a sensation of warmth which did not exist on the left side. In consequence of the obesity of the part,' says Mr. O'Meara, • I have not been able to ascertain correctly, whether the tumefaction proceeds from an enlargement of the left Jobe of the liver, or is external to it.' He decides, however, in favour of the former, and that the disease was chronic inflammation of the liver. He expressed also his firm conviction, that if he put it (exercise and regimen) in practice, his complaint would be reinoved in twelve or thirteen days. This opinion was formed, and this valiant promise made at a time when there can be no doubt that the lower end of the stomach was schirrous, and just beginning to pass into cancer. So much for Mr. O'Meara's opinions and promises.

From the first mention of pain and swelling in the right side, Napoleon never ceased to feel uneasiness in this part, except for short intervals, after more than usual evacuation by the skin or bowels. About this time (Nov. 27, 1817) his countenance grew yellow, or rather sallow. Medical men, particularly those who have practised in warm climates, see this appearance so continually connected with disease of liver, that they fancy it can be connected with nothing else, and are continually mistaking the sallow countenance which is a constant attendant on schirrus and cancer, for the sallow countenance which depends on liver disease. This blunder was committed in Napoleon's case, from the first failure of his health down to the moment, not only of his death, but even of his dissection; and this blunder naturally influenced the choice of remedies, as far, at least, as Napoleon's dislike of medicine would permit. On Jan. 13, 1818, exactly three months and a fortnight from the time when pain and swelling had been first observed in the right side, we find the first complaint of sickness. From this time it was a frequent, though not constant symptom; palpitation of the heart also frequently troubled him, and was relieved only by the erect posture. In May, 1818, Mr. O'Meara states that the complaint is evidently hepatitis, in a chronic and insidious form—that Napoleon stands in need of, first, repeated and active purgatives, and subsequently, some preparation of mercury;' that was he any other person one that would do as he was desired, he would give him a strong purgative, and recommend him a good deal of exercise; and if that would not do, put him through a course of mercury.' Napoleon, fortunately for himself, in this instance, at least, was not one * who would do what he was desired,' and therefore escaped, for a short time, a mercurial course, which could not have relieved a non-existent hepatitis, and would certainly have aggravated the commencing cancer in his stomach. At length, however, he was


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prevailed on to try this mischievous course. He began it on the 1 Ith June, 1818, and continued it till the 27th, (sixteen days,) and then left it off, because it occasioned distressing nervous irritability. • Experience,' says Dr. Franklin,' is a dear school, but fools will learn in no other.' Mr. O'Meara's folly, it seems, was not of a sort which could learn even in this school; on the 2d July, another mercurial course was commenced, which produced nervous agitation and weakness to such an alarming extent, that the doctor was called out of his bed before six o'clock in the morning, and was so heartily frightened at the state in which he found his patient, that he requested a consultation. Mr. Stokoe, the surgeon, was selected. It is amusing to see how these gentlemen were terrified at the responsibility of their office. Mr. Stokoe came up at three o'clock in the afternoon, not for the purpose of consultation, but to excuse himself, on the plea that he was not willing to get himself into scrapes. Here Mr. O'Meara's reports terminate, for about this time he quitted the island. In his “Voice from St. Helena,' the last date of his Journal is the 25th of this month, July, 1818. We now turn to Antommarchi.

Information of the dismissal of Mr. O'Meara having arrived in England, Lord Bathurst thought, probably, that the attendance of a French or Italian physician would be satisfactory to Napoleon, and wrote to Cardinal Fesch at Rome, requesting him to select one. His choice was singular: instead of procuring an experienced physician or surgeon, he chose Antommarchi, a man who was only · Prosecteur d'Anatomie’ in the university of Pisa, an office exactly similar to that of our demonstrators of anatomy, persons who are employed in dissecting bodies for the professors to lecture upon, and who have no experience themselves in the treatment of disease. Before he set off, he received a report from Mr. O'Meara, upon the nature of Napoleon's disease, which was laid before a consultation of physicians at Rome, and they, after perusing it, gravely drew up their opinion, which was to be his law and guide in the treatment of his patient. This document states that Napoleon's disease is obstruction of the liver, and a scorbutic dyscrasy; that he was to take hemlock, rhubarb, soap, dandelion, with a long list of anti-scorbutic plants, and to drink mare's milk. When one considers that this consultation was held at Rome, upon a patient at St. Helena, there is nothing in Molière equal to it.

Autommarchi arrived in London, and bad daily interviews with Mr. O'Meara, who, of course, only plunged him more deeply in error; but this was not his only misfortune. Some reports had been received from Mr. Stokoe; in one of these, dated 19th January, he said, I examined the hepatic region mo:e particularly than I had done before, and I am now convinced that the liver is



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