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highest psychical activities : in other words, that the transverse series, as an aggregate or whole, is the nervous apparatus of the intellectual consciousuess.
“It cannot be denied that the transverse are anatomically a distinct series of convolutions. They do not spring from the same central part as the longitudinal; they have not a common origin, nor any direct connexion with the locus perforatus, though the two series are most intimately connected and closely associated by a third, the commissural or anastomosing, through the instrumentality of which a co-ordinating and unifying action is maintained throughout the whole of the hemispherical ganglia. They are almost exclusively human, but not altogether and entirely so; still, wherever they do exist, as they manifestly do in the horse and the elephant, there we have unmistakeable evidence of the manifestation of reasoning processes being at times carried on. Now, as the longitudinal convolutions of the hemispheres increase in number, volume, and complexity of structure, in the same ratio as the perceptive activities of the animal increase in number, and as the range of their action is widened, so do I hold and believe that, on an appeal to nature, it will be found that the transverse convolutions, from their first appearance on the surface of the hemispheres, become more distinct and numerous as the animal rises in the scale of intellectual being, and as phenomena of the intellectual consciousness become more unequivocally manifested by it."
The differences between man and the inferior animals are thus defined by Mr. Dunn. Admitting that the sensory-apparatus of man are inferior in degree to those of the animals, Mr. Dunn alleges :
“But the difference between him and them rests specifically and fundamentally in the greater number and higher order of his psychical activities in his intellectual, moral, and religious endowments, his reasoning and reflective powers; for the lower animals are alike destitute of the highest plane of perceptive development-of the frontal, towering, and backwardly extending convolutions—the seat of the moral and religious intuitions—the sole prerogatives of man; and, through the whole series, with some rare exceptions among the highest mammalia, of those characteristically large and deep, but unsymmetrical transverse convolutions on the surface of the hemi. spheres, adorning the human brow as with a diadem,' and which, as I believe, are the seat of the faculties of the intellectual consciousness -of imitation, imagination, ratiocination, and reflection—in fine, of the faculties of calculation, of order or arrangement, of comparison and causality, of ideality and wonder.”
He further goes on to cite the parrot and the mocking-bird, the horse and the elephant, as examples of brains possessing “ transverse convolutions on the surface of the hemispheres," and (if we understand him correctly) correlates this cerebral complication with the higher degree of mental energy manifested by these animals.
Into the purely pathological portions of this interesting little work we shall not enter; we have no doubt that the medical profession, for which they are especially intended, will peruse them with the deepest interest. Mr. Dunn's previously published papers on “ The Unity of the Human Race," conceived frequently in a spirit which transgresses the bounds of proved inductive science, illustrate a phase of anthropological thought which we believe is rapidly passing away. We, however, commend the present little work to the attention of our readers as one which places the theories of the physiological school, in which Mr. Dunn is a teacher, in a pleasant and palatable form before the public.
ON THE DISCOVERY OF SUPPOSED HUMAN REMAINS IN THE TOOL-BEARING DRIFT OF MOULIN-QUIGNON.
BY ALFRED TYLOR, Esq., F.G.S., F.L.S. A NOTICE of the discovery of human remains in the celebrated gravelpit of Moulin-Quignon, near Abbeville, appears in l’Abbevillois of April 9th, 1863. The important details are as follows. At the end of last March a quarryman named Halatre, who was working in this quarry, brought M. Boucher de Perthes a shaped flint with a fragment of bone, both stated to have been found there. On clearing away the sand in which this fragment was imbedded, M. Boucher de Perthes found it to be a human molar much damaged. He immediately followed Halatre to Moulin-Quignon, verified the spot from which the hatchet and tooth had been taken, ascertained that the place was free from any infiltration or intrusion, and had the search continued, but for that day without success. Feeling sure that some other remains of the body to which this molar had belonged ought to be found there, M. Boucher de Perthes charged the workmen not to disturb anything they might come upon during his absence, but to let him know if anything came to light, and on the 28th of March a quarryman named Vasseur came to tell him that something resembling a bone was to be seen in the bed of gravel. M. Boucher de Perthes went to the place, found the extremity of the bone enveloped in its matrix, visible to the extent of nearly an inch : the bone was carefully extracted whole by working round it with a pickaxe, and proved to be a human jaw, very much discoloured, but not injured by rolling. The jaw, on a cursory inspection, showed no marked deviation from the ordinary type, was light, and not converted into phosphate of lime. A few inches off was a flint hatchet, also imbedded in the gravel, whence M. Oswald Dimpré removed it, but not without having to use a pickaxe in this case also. All the spectators were struck with the perfect identity of the patina or coloured crust which covered not only the jaw and the flint axes, but also the rolled pebbles of the bed, and the colour of which, a brown approaching to
black, contrasted remarkably with the yellow tint of the gravel beds above and the grey of the underlying chalk. The jaw and the hatchets were about five yards below the surface, and close to the chalk.
A few days later, however (on the 13th of April), Mr. Prestwich, Mr. Evans, and myself, visited M. Boucher de Perthes, and observed circumstances which led us to fear that a deception had been practised by the quarrymen. It appeared to Mr. Evans, on inspection, that the axes had been artificially stained with the irony deposit of the gravel. The external surface of the flints bore evidently the marks of recent fractures, and were distinguishable also by their shape from the well known shapes of Amiens and Abbeville. On being put into water for a time the flint axes looked so much changed that it seemed likely that a good brushing would have brought the whole of the colour away, an opinion confirmed afterwards by experiment. Moreover, the presence of certain flints lying on a heap in the quarry, which flints had evidently been practised upon, did not escape the experienced eye of Mr. Evans. Mr. Prestwich's examination of the bone and teeth led him to suspend any opinion of the genuineness of the relics until he had made further investigations.
M. Boucher de Perthes, however, took a different view of the matter. He said that he had extracted the jaw bone from the substance of the bed itself, and that M. Dimpré had taken out the axe in the same way, in the presence of a number of spectators, and that they felt sure that the gravel had not been in any way disturbed. He had a high opinion of the two men, whom he considered to be persons of irreproachable character.
In the Abbevillois Journal, for April 18th, there is a further account of M. Buteux and Mr. Brady, who have also found implements in the same bed. While residents, like M. Boucher de Perthes, have rarely found any object of interest, it seems strange that these gentlemen should have been so fortunate.
On the other side of the question it is to be remarked that M. Boucher de Perthes has for many years offered large rewards for the discovery of fossil remains in the quaternary deposits, and that quarrymen have repeatedly brought him bones which they represented to have been found in undisturbed drift, but which he found to be not genuine. There are, however, bone-bearing gravels not far from Abbeville.
That the quarrymen of Abbeville and Amiens began to make sham drift implements, as soon as it paid them to do so, is well known, and the number of such imitations, which have been sold to unwary tourists, amount to thousands. The skill which these men have attained to in imitating the real drift implements is so great, that only the most experienced observers can be sure of their judgment, and, even then, have often to rely more upon the patina and the discoloration of the surface of the flints than upon the shaping. At one locality the quarrymen offered Mr. Henry Christy, one of the best judges of stone implements in England, a basketful of flint axes, etc. He selected the few genuine ones, and ve a price for them, and offered a penny or twopence apiece for the counter