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OF A CASE OF MICRO-CEPEALI.
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feits. The men protested and pledged their honour, quite as earnestly as M. Boucher de Perthes' townsmen could have done, that the implements were all genuine, till Mr. Christy quietly suggested that the long winter evenings were just coming on, so that they would have plenty of time to make a fresh batch for the spring tourists. This was too much for them, and they let him take the false implements away at his own price.
Further investigations may possibly prove either that the bone is genuine, or not. At present the discovery cannot be accepted as proved, as there are such strong grounds for suspecting that years of practice in fabricating sham antiquities, with the additional stimulant of the reward offered by M. Boucher de Perthes, have at length enabled the quarrymen to put bones and implements into the gravel so skilfully as to deceive even the Patriarch of Primeval Archæology himself.
What we want to know is if the colour on the human jaw is merely a tint, or if it permeates the internal structure, and we may hope that this point may be soon settled. It would be well to ascertain the specific gravity of the jaw. It is possible that the human remains may have been obtained from the Roman cemetery at Amiens, or the Merovingian burying ground near Montreuil, from which numerous remains are on sale at Abbeville. The ramus of the Abbeville jaw is more oblique than ordinary, and is incurved, but such forms are not uncommon in Europe, although they may be characteristic of some Australian races.
We should not expect the gravel of Abbeville to be favourable for the preservation of human remains that may have been imbedded in it. It contains no fine sands charged with mollusca in which delicate bones might be preserved.
We saw the fragment of human jaw in the collection of the Marquis de Vitré ; but in this case also there is a difficulty, as the marquis had left the cave a few minutes previously to the discovery of the specimen.
NOTICE OF A CASE OF MICRO-CEPHALY.
By R. T. GORE, Esq., F.A.S.L., ETC.
I have much satisfaction in offering to the Anthropological Society a contribution towards the important objects for which it is instituted, and which presents some special points of interest on a subject comparatively new in its scientific relations. Many of the members of the society are, I am aware, well acquainted with the valuable essay of Wagner on the subject (Vorstudien, Th. 2), of micro-cephaly; and, therefore, in describing the physical and mental conditions of the case I now submit, I shall mainly limit myself to description and history, guided by a constant reference to that eminent man's production.
The individual in question, now some years dead, was for a long time (several years), under my own observation. She was a female, the offspring of healthy parents, and without any known instance of idiotcy or defective intellect in the family. She lived to her fortysecond year, and died of phthisis. Her height was about five feet, her figure slight and rather well proportioned. She menstruated with regularity for some years after puberty, but had ceased to do so for some years before death. As far as I am aware no sexual propensities ever showed themselves.
As regards intellect, the best expression that can be used is to say, that it was infantine; i.e. corresponding to that of a child three to four years of age, beginning to talk. She could say a few words, such as, “good," " child," "mama," “morning,” with tolerable distinctness; but without connection or clear meaning, and was quite incapable of anything like conversation. Her habits were decent and cleanly; but she could not feed herself, at least with any degree of method or precision. She was fond of carrying and nursing a doll. In walking, her gait was unsteady and tottering, the heels not bearing with any firmness on the ground.
As regards the skull, the photographs will give a better idea of the exterior than any description, though they, perhaps, fail to show the perfection of all the sutures, and the absence of anything like consolidation (Synostosis)—a point that negatives the notion that premature consolidation of the bony case has any effective part in bringing about the arrest of development characterizing such cases.
The large orbits, with the comparatively narrow inter-orbital space, give some approximation to an ape-like character to the facial region ; but, on the other hand, the transverse diameter of the face is proportionally rather large.
The best idea of the interior of the skull will be afforded by the plaster cast exhibited, which is at least fairly correct. The sphenoidal alæ (anterior), are sharply and well defined, as are also the margins of the sella turcica. The petrosal ridge is a good deal elevated, and well marked, with a very deep depression at its mesial and anterior extremity for the lodgment of the Gasserian ganglion. All foramina for nerves, etc. are proportionally large and well marked. The occipital foramen is situated far back, i.e., at a point corresponding to one-fifth of the antero-posterior diameter of the basis cranii, which measures 4.25 inches (say 106 millimetres). The greatest transverse
diameter is 3.25 inches (say 84 millimetres). The occipital foramen is 1.25 inch long (31 millimetres), and 1.125 inch wide (28 millimetres). The crista galli is well marked and projects fairly within the cranium, leaving a rather deep but narrow fossa on each side. The greatest depth of the cranium corresponds to the region of the vertex, and may be taken as 2:625 inches (68 millimetres).
The relations of the brain and cerebellum to each other are shewn by the photographs, due allowance being made for flattening unavoidably consequent on even careful suspension in spirit; though to obviate this, much care was originally taken by well supporting and maintaining a due position on and in a thick bed of horse-hair. The cast of the interior of the skull, though less sharp than could be wished, may also be relied on for the same purpose. Leaving a due estimate of the character and meaning of the cerebral convolutions as well shown in the photographs, I content myself with noting the narrowing of the anterior lobes towards the apex, the comparative breadth of the hemispheres, the well-marked separation of the posterior lobes, and their extreme shortness, whether considered absolutely, or with reference to the portion of cerebellum left uncovered. The length of the cerebrum is now, after long maceration in alcohol, 3.1 inches (77 mill.). The extreme breadth of each hemisphere is 2 inches (50 mill.). The length of the posterior lobe from the apex to a well-marked fissure at its inner margin is 1.1 inch (27 mill.). The portion of cerebellum left uncovered is 0.8 inch (20 mill.). The parts of the base of the brain will be seen in the photograph to be well marked and developed in due proportion to the superior parts. The cerebellum is proportionally large, and all its parts well developed, as are, also, the component parts of the medulla oblongata.
The weight of this brain is remarkably small. Carefully weighed when recent, after the membranes and vessels had been removed, it weighed 10 ounces 5 grains (avoirdupois)=4380 grains=283.75 grammes. I see no reason to doubt the correctness of the memorandum made at the time (now some years since), as I find, on again weighing it, after having been long immersed in alcohol frequently changed, that the present weight is 7 ounces (avoirdupois)=3281.75 grains=212.75 grammes, or less by, say, circa one-fourth: a fair correspondence.
I abstain from any attempt to enter upon any estimate of the special development of individual convolutions, or groups of convolutions, as designated by Gratiolet and Wagner, knowing that this