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to Japan the world is in spiritual collapse. Everywhere the cry of desolation, the wail of despair, the groan of death, ascends from the deserted temple, whose priesthoods with difficulty repair the waste of time, and with failing hearts, make a feeble show of resistance to their advancing and victorious foes. It is the twelfth hour of the night; and we must wait for the dawn, which will surely come, ere we can hope for the temple of humanity's glorious future, to become a realized fact among the things of time. In the interval we do well to reproduce classic or gothic piles, as temporal or spiritual occasions permit. Let us fully master the old, so perhaps shall we be better prepared to appreciate the new—when it is vouchsafed.
Let it not be supposed, from the rather severe tone of the foregoing remarks that we at all undervalue Mr. Fergusson's merits in his own department. As a writer on architecture his profound and extensive knowledge, combined with a naturally refined and cultured taste, eminently qualify him for his self-imposed task as the historian of the past, and the critic, if not the guide, of the present. But in venturing on ethnology he has entered on a domain of thought and knowledge for which his previous studies have but very imperfectly prepared him; and as a result, his remarks, however startling and ingenious, are utterly devoid of all scientific value, being based throughout on those misapprehensions which ever attach to the opinions of those who write on a subject which they have but imperfectly mastered. Let him not, however, despair even ethnologically. His superior talents, and vast attainments in his own particular sphere, may yet prove of immense service to anthropological science. We want his aid. There is an immense field of inquiry, where the properly qualified architect and engineer can alone efficiently aid us. We allude to the vast province of archæology. We want from the latter, both in his civil and military capacity, a careful survey and skilful restoration, both in plan and pictorial outline, of the great earthworks of the primæval and prearchitectural periods. We want him to afford us an estimate of the labour required, and the means employed for the effectuation of these stupendous remains of a prehistoric civilization. While from the former we need a similar restoration of all the more important architectural efforts of various ages and countries. Such a work might commence with the monolith and cromlech of the North-west of Europe and Southern India. Its second division should fully illustrate Cyclopean architecture in its successive stages, wherever found, whether around the Mediterranean area of the old, or amidst the tropical altitudes of the
ision should fully found, whether at ders of the
new world. Its third chapter might embrace pyramidal erections, from the grandly sublime and finished masses of the Nile to the ruder teocallis of Mexico. Its fourth might be appropriately devoted to those caverned temples, where the taste and skill of early ages have stamped their lasting imprints on the living rock. And from this, emerging into architecture proper, we might, at a glance, survey the successive styles which have prevailed under Egyptian, Indian, Assyrian, Etruscan, Classic, Saracenic, and Gothic culture. For such a work Mr. Fergusson has peculiar qualifications. The materials must be largely in his possession, and in his Handbook of Architecture he has already approached to the fulfilment of the latter part of the idea. Thus, by a judicious application of the results of a life of study in his own branch, rather than by crude speculations on ethnology, to which he is incompetent, can he best serve the great science of man, and help us ultimately to some definite conclusions as to the effect of race on art.
CREATION OF MAN, AND SUBSTANCE OF THE MIND.*
BY PROFESSOR RUDOLPH WAGNER.+
It was with some hesitation that I yielded to the repeated request of your worthy Secretary to deliver this address, a request backed by several eminent members. My friends were of opinion that a resident of this town, which you have honoured with your presence, should deliver the inaugural address, on some general scientific subject.
I have selected the science of man, that is anthropology, in its physical and psychical aspect, or rather a mere section of it, which, if I must give a name to my discourse, I shall term “ Creation of Man and Substance of the Mind.”
* An Anthropological Lecture, delivered at the first public meeting of the Thirty-First Assembly of German Naturalists and Physicians at Goettingen, Sept. 1854, by Professor Wagner of Goettingen.
# Several passages touching on the supposed connection of the science of Man with historical Christianity and Revelation have not been translated, as these subjects have nothing to do with Anthropology. EDITOR.
I trust you will not find the subject without interest. Whether the mode in which I have treated it will please you is a different question. There is also a local cause which led me to select this subject.
Physical anthropology, the natural history of the human species, had its scientific cradle within the walls of this city. The house (now devoted to a benevolent object) is still standing in which the man, from a few fragments which his grateful pupils sent him from all parts of the world, laid the foundations of a new branch of human science, which connects the natural history of our species with the history of the universe. Some of those present personally knew that man, and the documents upon which he founded his studies are preserved to our University, by the liberality of our government.
Blumenbach's style was so popular that the results of his investigations have become common property of all educated persons. His fundamental principles with regard to the natural connection and diversities of the nations on the globe are introduced in all our schoolbooks.
There is, however, one question which I wish specially to discuss, which is, whether certain dogmas touching the original relationship of the varieties of mankind have been confirmed by the enlargement of our ethnographical knowledge.
Let us glance at certain results, which I shall sum up in seven axioms.
Axiom 1. All physical differences presented by the various nations on the globe are not greater than the diversities presented by animals and plants of the same species, and which differences, e.g. in the dog and sheep, we term varieties.
All the facts collected since Blumenbach's first investigations, that ís during the last eighty years, tend to confirm that axiom.
Axiom 2. The varieties of the human species consist, (a) of accidental varieties, e. g. albinos, owing to absence of pigment, occurring among all peoples, many mammals, and birds. (b) Climatic varieties, exhibiting the influence of climate in the colour of the skin, stature, etc. (c) So called permanent varieties, or races.
Axiom 3. The determination of the number of such races is, to a certain extent, arbitrary, depending on the degree of deviation which is considered requisite to constitute a separate race. Blumenbach, as is known, assumed five races, which on the whole correspond with the five parts of the world. With singular tact, he described the four continental races, or according to colour, the white, the
yellow, the black, and the red race. We may even retain Blumenbach's fifth race, the brown or Malay race, if we add as a sixth race the lank-haired race of New Holland, and add the Papuan as a seventh race, whilst we include the wool-haired negroes of the seacoast in the continental negroes. Linguistic investigations have since then established the remarkable fact that the great groups of languages appear to run parallel with the development of races.
Axiom 4. All races of mankind intermix ; they are fertile, producing cross breeds, mulattoes, mestizoes, etc., which again are productive. All human races constitute, therefore, on physiological principles, but one species, which is here identical with genus humanum.
This latter axiom is now an undoubted consequence of the physiology of generation. It is established that only animals of the same species are fertile. Animals of different species may interbreed under particular, generally artificial conditions, but the offspring is sterile. This all-pervading law is necessary, for the historical existence of the various species.
Axiom 5. Historical documents, mummies, and sub-fossil human skeletons prove that man has not undergone any material changes in form or stature; and geology has also proved that man appeared last.
To these five axioms we may add a sixth and a seventh, which I will put in the form of two questions, which are certainly the most interesting in the science of man.
Can all human races be reduced to one original type, and if so, how have the varieties originated ? And again, can we, from natural causes, assume or deduce that they have descended from a single pair ? You will admit that an affirmative answer to these questions, founded on science alone, irrespective of tradition, would be of the greatest importance.
Blumenbach adhered to the principle that all men were but varieties of one species, and he arrived at the result that there exists no sufficient scientific reason against the descent of these varieties from one and the same original stock. All races, he declares, run so much into each other, by so many gradations that only arbitrary limits can be given to each race.
This theory of Blumenbach has been much attacked, and a number of eminent naturalists, who have made this subject their special study, have arrived at the conviction that there must have been originally different stocks, and that the negroes and some other chief races had their own Adams and Paradises ; a result which no doubt appeared highly satisfactory to slaveholders. With regard to the number of these original pairs authors are much divided.
They have first assumed five Adams, corresponding with Blumenbach's five races ; and subsequently extended the series to fifteen or sixteen Adams.
If you ask me on my scientific conscience, quite irrespective of my religious convictions, how I would formulate the final results of my investigations on this subject, I should do so in the following manner :-All races of mankind can (like the races of many domestic animals) be reduced to one original existing, but only to an ideal type, to which the Indo-European type approached nearest. The mode by which races have been formed is perfectly unknown. It reaches back in a primordeal time, perfectly inaccessible to science.
Whether all human beings descended from one pair can be as little proved by scientific data as the contrary theory; and in this respect theology can derive no assistance from natural science. Still the possibility of descent from one pair cannot, on physiological principles, be disputed. We see with our own eyes, in some colonies, physiognomical characters arise in men and animals which apparently become permanent, and exhibit certainly some analogy to the formation of races.
This is, if you like to take it so, my scientific confession of faith, as regards this interesting question, in which neither historical investigation nor anthropology, combined with geology, rest on a firm support, but are lost in an inacessible depth.
I now turn from the physical to the psychical aspect of the question.
Has physiology, which investigates the vital process of the individual, also occupied itself with the question what becomes of that individual after death, or what is tantamount, has this science which has made such progress, spoken out plainly on the nature of the soul ?
Not all physiologists have ventured to touch this question; and if they have done so, they have either, on account of the difficulty of the subject or from other considerations, avoided to speak out plainly. Still, gradually, they have more and more encroached on a province which has hitherto been abandoned to philosophy and theology. Materialistic views have gained ground among naturalists, and specially among physiologists the belief in a substantial soul gradually diminishes, and the attempt to fuse psychology with natural science seems to be for him who can read the signs of the times the present problem. Thongh men perfectly acquainted with the present state of