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space of a few minutes about one hundred of them were massacred. A few were shot, others were cut to pieces with hatchets; others had their brains dashed out with the fearful clubs of these horrible dogs of war.' Only a few of the number were saved, and the rest were taken to Bau, cooked, and eaten.

Some writers, betrayed by appearances, have imagined that scarcity of food was the real cause of anthropophagism in the Pacific; but the ground of this argument is taken away as regards Fiji, when we consider that, notwithstanding the islands do not produce but a fraction of what they might, yet enormous feasts are of constant occurrence; and furnishing fresh provisions to whalers and others has long been a source of profitable barter, and this often on a large scale.

As a matter of course, there would be many among the rude savages of the Pacific in whom the horrid practice of eating their victims ended in a morbid relish for such food; and out of much information on the point, we are willing to rely upon the authority of Dr. Seemann, as given at p. 174, et seq. The views of the French navigator, Dumont D'Urville, resting upon evidence gained on the spot, are so pertinent to this subject that we cannot forbear quoting them :-“Ceci démontre que les préjugés superstitieux, et les plaisirs de la vengeance, dirigent ces sauvages dans leurs festins barbares bien plus encore que les simples besoins de l'appétit physique. A cet égard, nous partageons complétement les idées de Forster, Savage, Nicholas, Marsden, Kendall, etc."'*

Dr. Seemann touches upon the question of the spread of the light coloured race over the Pacific, and its subjugation of the black (p. 236, et seq.); and we have a few judicious remarks, which are worthy of the attention of ethno-anthropologists. He says, “ Ethnologists have long been watching the spread of the Tonguese over the South Sea, and Viti has become a field of high interest, as the light-coloured Tonguese, a genuine Polynesian people, have here met face to face powerful representatives of the dark-coloured Papuan race.” And, speaking of the two races—Tongans and Fijiansobserves, “the Tonguese, or Friendly Islanders, may well be called the flower of the Polynesian race. .... They are tall men, with fine intelligent features, dark, often curly, hair, and of a light-brown complexion.” It is also stated, “ they are far beyond the Fijians, in good looks.” Commander Wilkes' evidence is similar; and he adds, “it was pleasant to look upon the Tonguese, but I felt more

* Voyage de l'Astrolabe. Paris : 1830. Tom. ii, p. 547.

interest in the Fijis." Using the word race to mean such a branch of the great human family, as is readily distinguishable, by marked peculiarities of physical structure and language, it would appear that the dark men of the Pacific—to whom the Fijians belong-are inimical to the light race, and that the latter, being more powerful and warlike, tend towards the subjugation of the former. Here, again, there seem to be several points of the deepest interest, which, not being settled by rational deduction from ascertained facts, leave the question of race, its limits, variations, etc., in great confusion. Admitting, with Dr. Prichard and M. Lesson, that the Malay race spread from west to east, and that the distant groups in the great Pacific had been peopled “ before the progress of the Pelagian negroes, in a similar direction"-in other words, that the light-coloured race spread somehow over the Pacific, and were succeeded by the dark Malayswe are forced to inquire, whence came the light Polynesians ? They are commonly spoken of as springing from the Samoan group, and they might have arrived there from the clouds, for what evidence we have gained to the contrary; in fact we believe it would suit the arguments of some to give them such an origin, because it simplifies matters to tell us that the inferior race spread over the Pacific till they were met by the superior celestials, who were and are bound “ westward ho!" If the two races of population set in the same direction, how could the weak supplant the strong and the conquered race, by some sudden, unexplained cause, turn conquerors? And yet Dr. Prichard is vexed with Mr. Crawfurd, for not accepting his conclusions.* Space will not permit us to go deeply into the question, but, if we have started questions which are commonly supposed to have been clearly answered, it is because, from personal experience, we are surprised at the grand theories built upon such slight evidence, and astonished, that while our scientific expeditions are despatched to investigate the botany and zoology of distant and little-known regions, by attentive observation and research on the spot, the most superficial attention is given to those points relating to anthropology, upon which, we think, more depends than upon philological notes, and second-hand information. The Novara expedition is an exception to this rule to some extent.

Dr. Seemann,“ more than half a tree worshiper," is at home among the products of the Fiji group, and we have his authority as to some of the vegetable wonders of these islands. Here are palms, useful and ornamental; fruits in profusion; shaddocks, guayava, custard-apples,

• Natural History of Man, vol. ii, p. 428.

plantains, and bananas, weighing from 50 to 80lbs. a bunch ; and as to yams, “ specimens eight feet long, and weighing 100lbs., are by no means rare in the group.” The islands contain also fine timber, some of the Dammara pines rivalling those of New Zealand, in size. Here also are the iron wood and paper mulberry trees; the former being handy for clubs, etc., and the bark of the latter to make the native clothing. Passing these, and numerous others, we must notice that trade is carried on in arrowroot, tortoise-shell, oil, provisions, and articles of native fabrication. As regards the growth of cotton, which is just now a matter of importance, Dr. Seemann states, if I understand the nature and requirements of cotton aright, the Fijis seem to be as if made for it ..... in fine, every condition required to favour the growth of this imporant production seems to be provided.” Surely this will be a cotton-growing group, and if not so serviceable to England, will feed the Manchesters of Australia. And we shall be surprised if the general, as well as the scientific reader, does not find himself interested in the rich and beautiful Flora of Fiji, as described in so pleasing a style.

All those who have had the opportunity of visiting a large Chinese city, or seaport, have noticed baskets of black-looking substances, like pieces of charred leather-and something similar is trepang, or bêche-de-mer, of which the celestials make “a very rich and palatable soup and dress it in different kinds of stews." This* bêche-demer-an echinoderm-is found in large quantities upon the reefs in Fiji, and Dr. Seemann gives us a notice of the character of the trade, and to what an extent the people depended upon it for barter. The Americans seem to have monopolized the trade, and, as "a whole cargo which cost 1200 dollars” has been sold for 12,000 dollars, they make fortunes occasionally by it. In the historical remarks, at p. 405, et seq., we have some interesting particulars respecting the early traders in this “sea-slug" and sandalwood—the former referring to the tastes, the latter to the superstitious worship of the Chinese. It was by means of these traders that Europeans were led to visit these islands, and open up an intercourse which is now ripening into friendly association for the purposes of commerce.

We are glad that Dr. Seemann's book is not encumbered by a heterogeneous massing of so-called manners and customs, but that observation for the most part takes the place of hearsay oddities. Besides, so much has been done in this direction, that we must begin

Specimens of various kinds of trepang may be seen in the Chinese division of the Food Collection at the Kensington Museum.

de novo, and, clearing away much of the rubbish, systematize the really good evidence which remains. This has been done to a great extent in Chapter xix, more especially relating to the Fijian religion. Here we find the usual feeling of connection in some way with the departed

-a belief in the creation, flood, and destruction of the world-of a kind of heaven which is rather difficult to reach—of a punishment for cowards, etc. Their priests are certainly odd characters, and evidently make good use of their friendly relations with the gods, the offerings to which they carefully look after.

Not only may parallels be found between Old-World and Fijian customs, but, to carry comparisons further, the Fijian language does, in Dr. Seemann's estimation, vie with our soft Spanish or Italian in euphony. We should bear in mind that the Sclavonic languages look alarming when written, but are far different spoken. The Fijian, like the Greek language, has its three numbers—which one would hardly imagine-and in reading the names, b is sounded mb, d-nd, g-ng, g-ngg, and c like th soft. Repetition is in great use colloquially, and some of the ordinary compound words are scarcely shorter than formidable German composites, for instance, an ill-tempered man," would be a “tamata dauvakacudrucudruya."

And now the question arises, what will become of Fiji? Its value is before the world. Who will occupy it ? England refuses the offer of Cakobau the king; will the French do so ? However, Dr. Seemann's critical observations enable him to say, “I have no doubt as to the future of Fiji.” Nor have we. “The importance of the group once recognized, nothing will stop our race from taking possession of it, and replacing barbarism and strife by civilization and peaceful industry." It appears that colonization is rapidly taking place. Land is being purchased by our countrymen, trade is spreading, and as a consequence of this, vessels are carrying the means and the instruments of civilization to the group, and collecting the fruits of this new West Indies for the Australian and other markets. Another point of interest attaching to this group is—as will be seen on reference to the appendix—that in the event of mail communication between Panama and Sydney, the island of Kandavu would be a good central position for a coaling station and general depôt for the Pacific. Besides, as the French are masters of Tahiti and New Caledonia—naval and military stations in the Pacific-our shipping would be entirely exposed on this great ocean without a place of refuge or defence.

Au reste, some books of travel are written to sell, and hence they refer to the imagination only; but this is a book evidently intended

to instruct, and to speak throughout to the mind of the reader. And if important topics are not treated so fully as might be, and information in some respects is scanty, we must remember this collection of facts, notes of travel, and general observations, was made by the author while busily and devotedly engaged in a particular duty. Throughout, we perceive the experienced traveller, the practical philosopher, and the man of science, and our great regret is, that Dr. Seemann had not the opportunity and means of devoting himself to the critical examination of the ethnology and ethnography of the Fijian Islanders as he has of the botany of their islands. However, amid a good deal of confused information on these islands, it is refreshing to read a book like this, and feel, that its facts are reliable, its observations forcible, and its arguments to the point-that it is, in fact, a good authority on these islands, and one which the general and the scientific reader will peruse with both satisfaction and profit.




IMPORTANT as is the question of the relation between man and the lower animals, there can be no doubt that all inquiries as to the real nature of that relation have hitherto failed. Both materialists and spiritualists have been alike at fault. Neither of them has got beyond the mere external points of resemblance, the one of the body, the other of the mind; whereas the true question is, not in what do man and the lower animals agree, but in what do they differ so as to cause man's great superiority? The reason why the metaphysicians have thus failed is that, shackled as they have been by the prejudices of a too jealous theology, they have so framed the fundamental idea of their science, that the application of its truths to the subject of man's relation to the lower animals could not have any satisfactory result. On the other hand, the materialists, although their facts are abundant, have failed, because they have sought to deduce their theories from mere physical data, almost ignoring the influence of the spiritual powers in the phenomena of animal being and action. They have

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