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the means of refutation were so Romans to whom they had become easy! Minimus should have accoun- subject, they divided it into four, ted for the almost universal preva- each of three hours length.* lence of this error, should have 2. The Jews commenced their told us the probable causes which civil day at sunset, reckoning the misled the Jews themselves on a evening preceding the artificial day subject regarding their own division as belonging to the natural day. of time; or he should have shown This appears from the account of that the discrepancy supposed to the creation given by Moses. Beexist between the scripture ac- fore the creation of light, 'darkness count and the writings of the Jews was upon the face of the deep.' themselves did not exist. But as And the works of the first day he has found it impossible, on his were, the creation of light, its septheory, to reconcile them, it is pre- aration from darkness, and the namsumptive proof that that theory is ing of the light and the darkness. incorrect. And this presumption The darkness, which he called night, will be strengthened, nay--it will must, therefore, have preceded the amount to absolute certainty, upon day, for it was named previous to a critical examination of the sub- the evening following the first day. ject.

Nor does the attempt of Minimus, I propose to examine first the to show that the time before sunJewish division of time, and then rise is often called morning, at all to show how all the texts quoted lessen the force of this argument. by Minimus can, on that division, For, according to the Jewish combe satisfactorily explained.

putation of time, as has been al1. There were among the Jews ready shown, the time between the three days of different lengths, or first dawn of light and sunrise is commencing at different times. called morning. The argument is The first was the natural day, con- strengthened by the repeated mensisting of twenty-four hours and tion of the evening first. For if reckoned from sunset to sunset. the morning had commenced the The second, called the artificial day, day, such a collocation, to say the consisted of the time between sun- least of it, would have been awkrise and sunset. The third com- ward and unnatural. inenced with the first dawn of light * Initio noctem secabant in tres vigiliand terminated in the afternoon. as, quarum quæque habebat quatuor hoAfterwards, for the sake of an equa

Hoc liquet ex Judicum 7th, ubi ble division of time, the last men

legitur Gideon ingressus fuisse in hostem tioned day and the artificial day igitur vigilia erat in media nocte. Quare

media nocte, vigilia secunda. Secunda began severally at three and six duae aliae extremae partes, erant prima in the morning, and ended at those et tertia vigilia, quarum una vigilia hours in the afternoon. The time vespertina, altera matutina vocabatur. between the evenings of those days Sed postea imitati Romanos, secuerunt was called inter duas vesperas.

noctem in quatuor vigilias : quarum quæ

que haberet tres horas sicut habemus Goodwin De Paschate. That the apud Evangelistas. Zanchius Tom. Ill. last mentioned day did not com- pages 439, 440. Prima vocabatur ift, mence at midnight is evident from Secunda μεσονύκτιον, media nor. Ex. xii. 29–31, compared with Tertia onɛxtopoowia,gallicinium. Quarverse 22. For the Israelites were ta mpwi, mane. Nescitis quando herus not to go out until the morning (fws venturus sit, of è vesperi, ő pedovuxsis aut Tiwi,) which did not commence until media nocte, y ahexTopoPwvias aut galliafter midnight. The Jews at first cinio, in pwi aut diluculo. (Marc. XII. divided their night into three watch- 35.) Goodwin. Lib. III. page 464. es, but afterwards, imitating the +Insuper Moses vicissitudinomnoctis di



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3. The Sabbath, as other days, rily, from profane as well as sacred commenced at six in the afternoon. writers, the true division of Jewish But the preparation commenced at time, I will now examine those of three, at which time the preceding the arguments of Minimus which day coinmencing with the dawn, relate more immediately to the Sabterminated.* It was ushered in bath. The first regards the time by the sound of a trumpet, which of the burial of Christ. - The acalso sounded at its going out.f count of the burial of Christ furThat the Sabbath ended at sunset nishes evidence that the Sabbath is evident from the fact, that at the did not begin at sunset." For the setting of the sun on Sabbath eve- evening after which · Joseph went ning the Jews brought their sick to to Pilate and begged the body of Christ that he might heal them. Jesus' could not mean the first And the attempt of Minimus to evening which began at noon (three prove that they did not consider o'clock?) but the second which the healing of ihe sick as a viola- began at sunset. His arguments tion of the Sabbath, shows only the are not conclusive ; for, the exdilemma to which he is reduced. pression when the evening was That they did so consider it may come (61ás y Evojlévns,) may denote be inferred from Mark iii. 2. · And the first evening. Scapula thus they watched him whether he would defines mpwi-IIPNI, mane, cui opheal on the Sabbath day; that they pon. óté, vesperi. It thus appears might accuse him.' And also from that ótía may denote either the their own writers. · Propter mor- evening of the day commencing at bum quem medici periculosum ha- three in the afternoon, or the first bent, Sabbathum profanare licet, watch of the night commencing at licet laboret ægrotus carnis aliqua six. And the context shows that exteriore parte. Si unus medicus such must be the meaning. •Beaffirmat morbum periculosum esse, cause it was the preparation, that alter vero negat, Sabbathum ta- is, the day before the Sabbath.' men profanatur.

But according to Josephus as quoHaving shown, I trust satisfacto- ted supra, the preparation began at

And aceique recensens constanter vesperæ sive three in the afternoon. noctis prirno meminit, veluti v. 5. el fuit cording to Lightfoot the preparavespera, et fuit mane dies primus conf. v. 8, tion began immediately after the 13, 19, 23, 31, quod argumento est diem evening sacrifice,* which, as will ita hodienum noctem tempori matutino afterwards be shown, was sacrificed præponunt. Goodwin Lib. III. page 462.

a little before three. It may be * Sabhathum incipit hora sexta ves- urged that the first evening cannot pertini pridie. Graeci id nuncupant be meant, since Christ died at the Tapsigodov Cabbats. Preparatio Sabba

commencement of this evening, thi' erat hora tertia pomeridiana, quam and he had been a long time (madas) Hebraei vocant vesperam Sabbathi. Goodvin Lib. III. De Sabbatho.

dead. Our translators render rahas Neque cogi ad praestanda vadimonia “any while,' and Hedericus says, sabbatis, aut pridie sabbatorum post ho- dicitur de brevi tempore. ram nonam in parasceue. Flavii Josephi. The argument founded on Lev. Antiq. Judaei. Lib. XVI. chap. 10.

xxiii. 32. “ From even to even + In omnibus provinciis atque urbibus Israelitarum vespera Sabbathi sextes clan- shall ye celebrate your sabbath," gebant.--Primus clangor edebatur in Mincha, tertia parte elapsa, quando sol * Vespera Sabbati, seu dies precedens, jam occidebat. Ita quoque Sabbatho dies preparationis Sabbati appellabatur, exeunte, stellis ortis, cum in finem clang. Lucae, XXIII. 54, et a pomeridiano sacriebatur, ut quisque ad opera agenda licen- ficio et deinceps Sabbato se preparare tiam acciperent. Rambam Tract. Sabb. coeperent &c. * Lightfoot Tom. II. page Chap. 6.


is not invalidated by the objections Deut. xvi. 6, refers to this time, of Minimus. Because, as has al- mentioning the commencement and ready been shown, the preparation the close, —" at evening, at the of the sabbath commenced on the going down of the sun. That evening of the preceding day. And these two expressions do not refer in the verse preceding, it is express- to the same point of time, is not ly stated that they were to begin the only evident from the parallel pasSabbath on the evening of the ninth sage in Exodus but from the conday. Therefore both evenings tinuation of the sentence,—“at the would be included. There is one season that thou camest forth out other objection to the commence- of Egypt.” The Israelites went ment of the sabbath on the pre- from Egypt in the morning ; the ceding evening, founded upon John expression, therefore, must denote xx. 19, and going to prove that the the preparation for their departure, evening succeeding the sabbath was not the precise time at which they kept as holy time. Might not the left Egypt. But it stands in the same reference, with equal justice, same connexion as the other two be drawn from the same practice expressions—" at even, at the goholding religious meetings on the ing down of the sun, at the season evening succeeding the day, which that thou camest forth out of is prevalent now among those who Egypt.” They cannot, therefore, be begin the sabbath on the preceding interpreted literally as referring to evening?

the same time, but must denote There remains now to be con- generally the time of the sacrifice, sidered the Passover and those and the preparation for their detexts which relate to the general parture. division of Jewish time. The sub- 2. That the feast of unleavened stance of his argument founded bread was eaten on the fifteenth upon the time of the celebration of day, which was, therefore, with prothe passover may be thus briefly priety called the first day of unleavstated. • The children of Israel ened bread. But the preparation were commanded to kill the pas- of the feast commenced on the evechal lamb “ at the going down of ning preceding the fourteenth day the sun" on the fourteenth day, and with searching for leavened bread to eat it on the same day. But if by the light of candles.* This the day ended at sunset, the pas- search continued four hours after chal lamb could not have been the rising of the sun, from which eaten on the fourteenth day. Nor time until noon the leavened bread could that day be called with any was destroyed. As the paschal propriety the first day of unleavened bread.' To this I reply

Quotidianum sacrificium vespertinum 1. That the passover was cele- mactandum fuisse antequam inciperent brated on the evening of the four

mactare pascha. Horas autem sic divi

debant: mactabant quotidianum sacrifiteenth day. The lamb was sacrifi- cium hora octava et dimidia. Sed in ced between evening and sunset preparatione paschatis id mactabant after the daily sacrifice, and eaten hora septima et dimidia, et offerebant in the night. Ex. xii. 8.* Hence hora octava et dimidia. Lightfoot. Tom.

I. page 730. * Tempus quo agnus mactari debuit, * Luce diei decimae quartae investierat vespera. Ex. xii. 6. Sive, ut in gant fermentum per lucem candelae. originali textu, inter duas vesperas. Nocte cui dies insequens est dies decimus Goodwin de Paschate. page 545.

quartus : atque adi omnes commentaPascha non comeditur nisi noctu, ne- tores, et docebunt illi, hoc factum esse exque comeditur nisi ad mcdiam usque eunte jam die decimo tertio. Lightfoot. noctem. Talmud quoted by Lightfoot. Tom. II. page 458. Tom. I. page 609.

*Exterminatio seu conflagratio fermen


lamb was sacrificed on the evening mation of their truth. Indeed how. of the fourteenth day, and as the ever agreeable it may be to the Jews were forbidden to offer the feelings, or convenient to the interblood of sacrifice with leavened ests of some, or how muchsoever it bread, Ex. xxiii. 18, they conse- be fitted to promote a stricter obquently abstained from the use of servance of the Sabbath, the change it on the afternoon of the four- of the evening is absolutely indeteenth day, which might, therefore, fensible on the ground that Minnot improperly be styled the first imus has taken. Nor am I an ad. day of unleavened bread, although vocate for accommodating the comthis was not eaten until the fifteenth mencement of the Sabbath to the

But the reason given by convenience of the worldly and Minimus for calling the fourteenth irreligious. It is true that the day the first day of unleavened “ Sabbath was made for man,” but bread, is very unsatisfactory. For this temporizing, accommodating why should that day be called the policy has been carried too far. It first day of unleavened bread with ought to stand out from other days any more propriety if it ended at with a distinctive prominence. But, midnight, than if it ended at sun- in the rage for innovation which is set, if unleavened bread was not sweeping away the land marks of eaten until the fifteenth, and if they other ages, this too must be condid not abstain from the use of leav- formed to the spirit of an improved ened bread on the fourteenth, a philosophy. Our fathers in view fact of which Minimus seems not to of the positive injunctions of God, be aware? The view of the sub- pleaded not convenience, but obeyject here given presents the only ed with alacrity and cheerfulness satisfactory explanation of these not only the spirit but the letter of seeming contradictions.

the Law. But we their descend. 1. Sam. xxx. 17, is another text ants have found it inconvenient to referred to by Minimus to prove follow their example, and arguthat the evening generally followed ments must forth with be collected the day, and the last that I shall to justify our departure from it. here notice. " And David smote

Q.Q. them from the twilight (aro Śwocopou from the morning dawn) even unto the evening of the next day.”

EXPOSITION OF MATTHEW XI. 11. Which is more probable that the

Verily I say unto you, among them that battle lasted thirty six hours, or are born of women, there hath not that it lasted twelve ?

risen a greater than John the Baptist : Since writing the above I have notwithstanding, he that is least in met with “ Horne's Introduction, the kingdom of heaven is greater than and have been agreeably surprised

he. Mat. xi. 11. at the exact coincidence in the re- This remarkable asseveration of sults to which we have arrived.

Christ occurs twice in the evangelThis coincidence is a strong confir- ists ; once in Matthew, as quoted,

and also in Luke vii. 28. The ti, quae facta a quarta ad sextam horam. Goodwin. page 555.

passages are parallel, and very * Investigatio fermenti erat nocte diei

much the same in both places. decimæ quartae, quamvis comestio fer- Perhaps no intelligent Christian mentati non prohiberatur ante meri- has pondered the sentence, withdiem diei decimæ quartae. Rambam.

out sentiments of wonder and Prohibitum est comedere fermentum die decimo quarto a meridie et porro, ab

trouble—the one, in respect to the initio horae septimæ. Maimonides quoted question, what does the Saviour by Lightfoot. Tom I. page 458.

mean? the other, because no satis


factory solution has been afforded. out the New Testament, has some

The meaning is the soul of any times this meaning, no one, we prewritten instrument. How emphat. sume, will deny. It is therefore ically is it the soul of inspiration. unnecessary to prove it. There Qui haeret in litera, haeret in cor- are at least four senses in which tice. How often do we rest in the phrase is distinctively used mere words; and possibly become with the sacred writers : namely, pugnacious just in proportion to that which refers it to the visible the husky, chaffy character of the church—or to the invisible-or to subject-matter of dispute! The the new dispensation-or to the meaning, the inspired and native estate of glory. To these some add sense of any passage, is that alone other senses : such as that of the which essentially deserves to be de- dominion of Providence, that of the nominated the word of God. How- visible and invisible church comever technical may seem this sen- bined, and that of the government timent, it is practical too-im- or authority of God indifferently, mensely practical in its applicabili- We admit then that such a sense, ty. Every Christian is just so tech- as that assumed, is not without prenical, when, anxious for the pure cedent; and therefore it may be truth, he meditates and prays to adopted here, if sufficient reasons understand the mind of the Spirit, be not advanced in favour of anothin any of the various sentences of scripture which may occupy his We might argue against this view thoughts.

from its destitution of positive ev“ Notwithstanding, he that is idence, from its ill accord with least in the kingdom of heaven is the scope of the context, and from greater than he." What means this its intrinsic inutility and plainness ; declaration? This is the question for, what is the bearing of such a to be tried. We shall adduce some proposition, or what its usethe popular answers (which are profes. least saint in glory is superior to the sional and authoritative too!) with greatest unglorified and earthy" our reasons for supposing them er- one! To whom is this information, roneous : after which, we shall en- or available « for the use of edifydeavour to make the answer ap- ing ?” It

appears more to savour pear.

of the rhapsody of the Koran, or Many solutions, more or less in the puerility of the Apocrypha, genious, have been furnished--we than of the sober and practical notice only two; and these because wisdom of the Bible. they seem (especially the latter) In hope of evincing the right to have been more respectably meaning, and consequently of suadopted and more widely prevalent perseding all others, we remark, than others. Both depend upon 2. That many understand by THE the meaning respectively given to KINGDOM OF HEAVEN here TIE NEW the phrase the kingdom of heaven; OR GOSPEL DISPENSATION. and we agree that the meaning of Such a version of the phrase that phrase must (and finally does) gives substantially the following determine the meaning of the pas- proposition : great as is John the sage.

Baptist, he is surpassed by, and in1. Some suppose the phrase to ferior to, the least of my disciples refer to the beatitude of the glorifi- under the plenary sway of the dised in heaven, and to mean TIIE pensation soon to be introduced.

The general reason urged for That the phrase, so much in use this view is that Christians, formally with the evangelists and through- such, are so much better informed.


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