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Jews' Society, $586. May 10 and 11, printed, be furnished with the Visa of for the Hibernian Society, 1776 dollars. the Burea, which shall authorize the
publication of it, according to art. 5, of Censorship of the French Press.- the law of March, 1820. The censure French papers announce the establish- is said to affect nothing but newspapers. ment of the censorship and the utter Cuvier, the geologist, being appointed destruction of the liberty of the Press. one of the censors, unhesitatingly deHereafter, every number of a journal clined. or periodical writing must, before it be
ORDINATIONS AND INSTALLATIONS.
June 27.-Rev. THOMAS HOLIDAY, Pern, by the saine Presbytery over the Union Presbyterian church, mon by the Rev. Daniel W. Lathrop. at Onesquethaw, Albany Co. N. Y. July 31.-Rev. CHARLES HOOVER, Sermon by the Rev. H. R. Weed. was ordained to the work of the Gos
July 1.-The Rev. Messrs. H.RAM pel Ministry, in the 1st. Presbyterian Adams, John W.Curtis, WILLIAM A. church, Newark, N. J. Sermon by CURTIS, SAMUEL Full, and GEORGE the Rev. John Ford, of Parsippany. L. Hinton, were admitted to the holy Aug 2.-Rev. CORNELIUS VAN order of Deacons, by the Bight Rev. Cliff was ordained to the work of an Bishop Hobart, in St. Thomas' church, Evangelist, by the Classis of PhiladelNew-York.
phia. Sermon by the Rev. Mr. Liv. July 24.-The Rev. Enoch Conger ingston. was installed at Ridgefield, Huron Co. Aug. 8.-The Rev. GEORGE CHAMPOhio, by the Presbytery of Huron, LAIN SHEPARD was admitted to the pastor of the congregation of Ridge- order of Priests, at Hebron, by the Rt. field and Lyme. Sermon by the Rev. Rev. Thomas Church Brownell. SerAlfred H. Betts.
mon by Rev. Professor Doane, of July 25.-Rev. JOHN BEACH was Washington College, Hartford. installed pastor of the congregation at
J. P. W.; E. K.; and B-m, are received.
We would insert the paper of “ Owen,” pointing out a nisquotation of Scripture, were we satisfied, with his exposition of the passage. The error he notices, as well as another of a similar nature in the same connexion, is chargeasle only to II per EurEpos: the Replyer merely repeated his language, without supposing himself to adopt the misquotation. For the benefit of IIpso Eurepos we will name the passage alluded to; “ The Holy Spirit knocks at every human heart, operates in convincing of sin, of righteousness, and a judgment to come." The words “to come" are, as Owen remarks, apocryphal. “Knocking at the heart" is another expression without authority, we believe, from our "authorized version.” “Behold, I stand at the door, and knock."
incident to the greater work of dis
cipling and teaching. The Mosaic economy terminated Whilst many justify innovations with the death of Christ, who was on the ground of expediency, not a minister of the circumcision. Af- a few have thought, that a right has ter his resurrection, he commission- devolved upon the church, through ed eleven apostles, to go and dis- the apostles, of government, disciciple all nations. They were to pline, and dispensing ordinances. testify the things, which they had The present prevailing forms of seen and heard ; and reveal the ecclesiastical government, having truths, which should be suggested originated since the days of the to their minds by the Holy Spirit. apostles, do require some such vinSuch is the basis of all present au- dication ; for certainly there is neithority for evangelizing the world. ther apostolic precept, nor examBut it no more follows, that
ple for any ordination in a particugular preacher has the commission lar church, except those of bishops of an apostle to govern the general and deacons ; and if bishops and church, than that he possesses the presbyters be the same office, the gists of such. For as none can be additional ordination, whether of strictly apostles, that is, immediate the diocesan bishop, or the lay presly instructed and sent by Christ, so byter, finds no authority in the word none can possess, either their in- of God. But if the church
possess spiration and general authority, or the right to create new officers, and their extraordinary power.
to transfer to them the government, Under the theocracy, commis- and rite of ordination, this exceeds sions were by consecration, with the claim of infallibility, it is to leimposition of hands.* The apos- gislate in the place of God. tles being Jews, and tolerated in Matthias was elected, separated the Roman empire only as such, by lct, and numbered with the aposwere guided by the Spirit to bap- tles, but was neither personally tize, teach, and ordain, in the modes sent by Christ, nor ordained by imto which they had been accustom- position of hands, being an apostle ed. But they neither claimed, nor only in the appellative sense, as was exercised a priesthood, nor consid- Barnabas. The first ordination ered ordination as an apostolical was of seven deacons in the church prerogative ; but merely as a duty, at Jerusalem, chosen by the people,
and set apart by prayer, and impo* Num. vii, 10. xxvii. 18.
sition of the hands of the apostles, VOL. I.-No. X.
there being as yet no presbytery. wards the presbytery of every such When the prophets and teachers of church ordained successors to them. the church at Antioch, prayed and selves, and also deacons, not by imposed their hands on Saul and communicating any virtue, which Barnabas, they seemed rather to they had derived mystically from have given a testimony of their con- the apostles or evangelists ; but by currence to a mission, or apostle- assigning them, in the discharge of ship, likely to awaken prejudices, their own duty, with the consent than to have ordained them to an of the people, a share in the goroffice. But Timothy was ordained ernment and service of the church. for general purposes, by the “ lay- The validity of offices in the ing on of the hands of a presbyte- church of Christ, is independent of ry," who had been ordained for an the internal call. But both ordainindividual church. Imposition of ers and ordained, should have reahands might, therefore, designate, sonable grounds to be satisfied of and publicly recognise persons; the truth of this grace ; which is but it neither transmitted virtue, no more, than the ordinary change nor authority ; nor defined duties. of heart or disposition, with a conPaul's commission was, consequent- viction, that it is the duty of the ly, neither enlarged, nor restricted party to preach the gospel, and that by the mission he received at An- he has the requisite knowledge, tioch. Nor was Tirnothy's office learning, talents, and soundness in of evangelist, though an extraordi- the faith, to render him useful. The nary commission to aid the apostle of authority of the officers of the the Gentiles, lessened by the con- church is derived through the aposcurrence of a presbytery in his or- tles, who received their commission dination.
from Christ in person, and were The primitive churches when du- directed by the Holy Spirit, to proly furnished, had each its presbyte- vide teachers for the churches, in ry and deacons ; and of necessity, the manner they have done. If the in planting churches, the apostles case of Matthias, who received and evangelists did, when alone, ST1O XOTNU, an oversight, be not an respectively ordain presbyters in exception, the apostolic authority those which were new.* But after- and gifts were peculiar to those,
who were commissioned by Christ * Paul and Barnabas returning to the after his resurrection; and the churches which they had planted ; dained presbyters for them in every the office of evangelist, wbich was
nearest approximation to theirs was church,” χειροτονησαντες δε αυτους πρεσβυτεpovs kara exxinolar with prayer and fasting. also extraordinary and evanescent. The Greeks used xaporovew for electing No evangelists appear in the histoby lifting the hand. But Paul and Bar- ry of the church after the deaths of nabas could not have thus voted, being those who were cotemporaries of but two, yet the act was theirs. is the expression for imposing hands. the apostles ; nor do any other More must have been intended by xcipo- officers, except those of individual Tovnoarres, than simply that they appoint- churches, for a century after the ed; it must mean that they set them death of John, who died the last of apart to the office of presbyters, for that the apostles. The first interprewas the effect, and such is expressed to have been the office, and it was with
tation of a rule is generally and juster and fasting. Although zespotovew im- ly supposed to be the right one ; phes not necessarily, either voting by the first condition of the churchest lifting the hand, or ordaining by imposing the hand, for it is used for constituting imposition of hands, for Paul imposed his Moses a ruler, and Aaron and his sons priests, by God himself ; yet it is proba
hands on Timothy, at his ordination. ble that Paul and Barnabas did ordain by terian Mag. 1821. pp. 61. 105. 161.
+ The reader is referred to the Presby
establishes the only ordinary offices es, they superseded, during their of the New Testament to have been stay, the ordinary officers in plathose of the presbyter, called also ces already furnished, and ordained bishop, and of the deacon ; and presbyters and deacons in those the only ordainers, except the apos- which were destitute. The works tles and evangelists, appear to have of the apostles procured that prebeen the presbyteries of the respect. cedence and respect, to which ive churches. The presbyter, who their inspiration was entitled ; the presided in each, denominated in evangelists were chiefly regarded, the Apocalypse, the angel of the because they spoke, and wrote the church, was consequently thus or- truths preached by the apostles; dained, and to the same office with but no officers were left, when his brethren. Also, if the sacred these were removed, except those word be alone competent to pre- connected with individual churches. scribe and define legitimate pow- Parochial and diocesan bishops, ers, and rightful commissions of archbishops, primates, patriarchs, officers in the church of Christ, and popes, have all proceeded from there is to this day no higher grade, presbyters, without any other spirthan that of presbyter ; and no one itual ordination, than that, by which inferior to the deacon; neither is they may have been constituted there rightful ordination, but by presbyters. When convenience, presbyters. These may pray for or policy, had, after a lapse of time, the Holy Ghost to breathe upon introduced the rule, that no ordinthose, on whom they put their ation by presbyters should be valid, hands ; but have no power to com
unless performed in the presence of municate that blessing ; and that a the primus presbyter, called for moral virtue should proceed from distinction the bishop, the laying the hands of any, who liow ordain, on of the hands of Paul, 2 Tim. 1.6. is no more to be believed, than that with those of the presbytery, 1 Tim. the water in baptism should either iv. 14. was adopted as an argument physically, authoritatively, or mys- to justify the novelty. But in still tically remove guilt. Words may later times, Timothy, then deemed invest authority, but “so send í to have been a bishop, appeared to you,” did neither transfer the Me- have been ordained only as a presdiator's commission, nor constitute byter, because in the third century the disciples priests. The apostles presbyters were excluded from the were embassadors of God, as well ordination of a bishop. To avoid as witnesses of Christ ; and being this difficulty also, and escape an in all their work inspired of God, opposition to the word of God, the they were directed to ordain evan- presbytery, expressly so called, gelists to plant churches ; and pres. which ordained Timothy, was imabyters and deacons to teach, gov- gined to have been a council of ern, and serve them. But when bishops ; “ Because,” says Chryssuch were designated by ordination, ostom, “mere presbyters had no the gospel was their law, or rule of power to ordain a bishop ;'' conduct; and to this day, no power titio principii worthy of the golis communicated to supersede such den-mouthed father. But Jerom rule, but the rightful offices and or- makes this occurrence an argument dinances remain the same.
to prove presbyters and bishops to Titus, Timothy, and other evan- have been the same : and with gelists, inferior in rank and gifts correctness, for Paul had not Barto the apostles oply, went forth to nabas with him, at the time he rethe work; connected permanently ceived Timothy. Also there were with no particular church or church- no councils of bishops, except the
a pe* Clement. epist. I. c. 54. any one among you, who is gener- t τα δωρα της επισκοπης. 6. 44.
presbyteries, in the respective ous—say if the division is on my churches. The case of Timothy, account-I go where you please, when he had been, by modern and will do what the multitude rules, degraded from the office of shall appoint, let the flock of Christ evangelist to that of bishop, was enjoy peace alone, with the presstill incumbered with remaining ob- byters, mp80 3u7spw, who have been jections ; for no hands ought to have appointed over it.”* Of these he been imposed, either by Paul, or speaks as having the gifts of sixthe presbytery, upon him to make *ns, the oversight." [ him a bishop ; this being proper, When Justin Martyr wrote his by the apostolical canons, only to two apologies for the Christians, presbyters; the canons requiring, which was within fifty years of in the case of bishops, the holding John, there were only presbyters, the Scriptures over the head of him, whereof one in each church was who is to be ordained bishop, du- o sposolws scil. sper Bulepos, the presiring the consecrating prayer. The ding (presbyter) who administered canons, although a forgery of the the eucharist, and deacons who fourth century, are evidence of the carried it to the people. Ordinacustoms of their day, and do by tion was of course performed at this circumstance embarrass also that period, by presbyters only. the moderns, who suppose it an
Near the end of the second cenomission, although the
tury Irenæus wrote against heretics, against such omission are conclu- and relied chiefly on the certainty sive.
of the sameness of doctrines, by The letter of Polycarp, of high referring to the successions of bishcredibility, describes the officers of ops in the primitive churches, but the church at Phillippi only as pres- whom he expressly represents as byters and deacons. In the inspi- presbyters, presiding among their red letter of Paul to the same brethren. Such were Soter, Victor, church, the officers are addressed and others in the catalogue of as bishops and deacons ; the terms popes, whom he terms aper Bulspor a presbyter and bishop being as yet poolavies, and if they were only used promiscuously, the same of- presiding presbyters, their being fice is obviously intended by both. also styled bishops, amounts not Valens had fallen into error, and even to a presumption, that there the letter of Polycarp, recognising had been a secondary ordination. the authority of the presbyters over
Clement of Alexandria places their copresbyter, and representing bishops in honour before presbythim as having been “made a pres- ers, because they occupied the first byter among them,” clearly enough seat, *pwłoxadeòpia, in the presbytshows that the apostolic church at ery. Nevertheless, he makes but Phillippi was under its own pres.
one order above deacons ; also the byters, who exercised the powers ordination to the office of presbyter of ordination and excommunication. he mentions, but nothing of any This being the first testimony after subsequent ordination. He lived the apostles, and by one who lived into the third century. with them, is decisive.
Tertullian, of the first part of the That the same was also the pre- third century, gives the same repcise condition of the church at resentation of things at Carthage. Corinth, when Clement, of whom He distinguishes bishops, presbyPaul speaks, wrote from Rome his ters and deacons; the presbytery only undisputed letter to them, is obvious from its language: