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Galileans, to our own times in which of permanent funds for objects of the world has been blessed with the Christian charity. We trust the labours of such men as Fuller, and hour will never come when the Scott, and Buchanan, and Worcester, American Bible Society, or the and Mills, a majority of the most able and successful ministers has been com- ,

American Board of Foreign Misposed of those whose early life was spent sions, shall become a monied corin neither ease nor affluence.

poration, or shall feel itself in any

measure independent of the conSuch young men as these, the

stant contributions of the churches. society aims to search out and to

But in the present instance it seems bring forward into the service of the church. It takes them in the ear

to us that if permanent funds should

ever be solicited, they may be soliest stages of a course of liberal

licited here. And the present conthe grammar-school to the college, stitution of the Society affords evand from the college to the school ery security which the nature of of Theology. And throughout this sion of these funds.

case admits against the pervercourse, it exercises over them a

Respecting the present system of guardianship which we are happy to learn is becoming more thorough appropriations adopted by the sociand systematic. The present Sec. ety, we must say, with all deference

to the wisdom by which that sysretary—a man in all respects admi

tem was matured, that we have our rably fitted for his work—is expect

doubts. But before expressing ed, we believe, to devote a consid

these doubts, we prefer to let the erable portion of his time to this single object. We have long been Directors speak for themselves, and

exhibit the reasons by which they waiting in hope of such a measure. Each beneficiary is to be watched have been induced to adopt the over not only by his instructers

system. and friends, but by the representative of his patron society. Thus beneficiaries, is another subject upon

The mode of rendering assistance to the relation which the beneficiary which the thoughts of the directors sustains to the institution which have been frequently and anxiously assists him will have more of the employed. On the one hand, they affectionateness of a relation to an have felt it to be important that so much individual and personal benefactor; assistance should be rendered as to preand the society and the public will

vent discouragement and distressing have every possible assurance that embarrassment; and on the other, that their bounty is not misapplied.

it should be given, if possible, in such

a manner as not to weaken the motives The pamphlet before us announ

to personal effort. ces to the public two important means of exciting the mind, and pre

Among all the changes which have taken place in paring it for difficult enterprizes, that the arrangements and plans of the of throwing it upon its own resources, American Education Society. The at an early period of life, and compel. first is, that henceforward all the ling it to seek alone, the means of im. money appropriated to beneficiaries provement, is perhaps the most effectshall be loaned, not given. The sec

ual. The discipline is severe, but it ond is the introduction of a system Not a few of the most active and influ

rarely ever fails of being salutary. of permanent funds, in scholarships ential men in every profession owe of one thousand dollars each.

their elevation and their usefulness Respecting the last mentioned to this cause, more than to any change, we need only say that it other. The Directors of the Amerhas our cordial approbation. We ican Education Society would be are not the advocates, in general, the last to destroy the necessity of personal effort in those whom they are ries experience also, for a similar reatraining up for the ministry, Here, if son, new inducements to contribute to any where, the mind should be vigor- their necessities, in proportion to their ous and active, and preparation should ability. Few parents will withhold be made for arduous and self-denying their aid, when the smallest gift which labours. On this account, they be- they can bestow lessens a burden came early convinced that it was in which is accumulating upon a child. judicious to make their appropriations 3. Another advantage of the sysso large as to cover all the ordinary tem is, that it furnishes a better test expenses of their beneficiaries; and of character than can be had where subsequent experience has taught them the assistance is entirely gratuitous. that it is wisest that what they do ap- A youth whose motives are questionapropriate should be granted not as a ble, or who is greatly wanting in efficharity, but as a loan. Beneficiaries ciency of character, will be less likely were accordingly required not long to apply for a loan, than for a gift; and after the Society was established to if he should so far succeed in imposing give their notes for one half of all which upon the Directors as to obtain access they received; and hereafter they will to the funds, they would hold his oblibe required to give rotes for the whole, gation for all which he might receive,

This is regarded as an important and and be in a situation to recover it highly auspicious change in the system again, whenever he should have the of conducting Education Societies. means of repaying it. At least the Although the loan is in many respects encouragement which is held out by a paternal one, being made without a a loaning fund to persons of an impropsurety; and without interest, until a er character to seek an education is reasonable time after preparation for far less than that which is afforded by the ministry is completed; and with the a charity. further expectation of its being can- 4. Another important benefit of the celled by the Directors in case it should system is, that it renders the funds be impossible or unsuitable to refund; more extensively and permanently use

- although it is a loan upon these pe- ful. A single donation of a benevoculiarly favourable conditions, it pos- lent person may afford assistance to a sesses many obvious advantages. succession of young men; for when

1. It exerts a salutary influence up- one has had the benefit of it, he reon the character of the beneficiaries funds it and it is appropriated to anoththemselves. They cease to be in the er-and that one does the same, and strict and proper sense charity students. it is again appropriated, and thus the All those associations which belong benevolence of the giver is made to expeculiarly to ideas of charity, and tend from youth to youth, and probawhich have often been observed to bly from generation to generation, have an unhappy effect on the charac- long after he has gone to his rest. ter, are in this manner avoided. Each 5. Young men who are most worthy youth is taught to look to his own ef- of the patronage of the Society will be forts as the ultimate means of his edu- better pleased with this mode of recation, and is permitted to cherish in ceiving aid, than with one which makes some degree those feelings of indepen. them entirely dependent on charity. dence which, when properly regulated, If their hearts are warmed with the exert a wholesome influence on the same spirit of benevolence which mind.

prompts Christians, many of whom are 2. The system is also fitted to pro- themselves poor, to patronize them, mote economy. Every degree of aid they will wish to add as little as possiwhich is received increases a debt for ble to the burdens which are sustained which the beneficiary is responsible. on their account, and will ask no more Of course there is a strong induce than to be assisted till they shall have ment to take as little from the funds it in their power to refund what they as possible, and to make that little go have received. Certainly they will as far as possible. Self-interest, the ask no more when it is considered on most powerful of motives, is made a what favourable conditions the loans continual check to extravagance. The are made to them, and how completely relatives and friends of the beneficia- they are guarded from being ultimate

ly oppressed, if they exercise the prop- the “evil days” upon which Christer self-denial and do their duty.—If ian ministers at this period are fallthey finish their preparatory course en, it is the wisest policy to replenand enter upon their destined profes- ish the vacancies of the church sion, they are indulged with sufficient

with ministers whose operations time to repay, before any interest bas begun to accumulate ;-and if they de- shall be impeded, their spirits opvote themselves permanently to the pressed, and their independence of service of Christ in the most destitue character restrained, by a heavy regions, where a scanty subsistence is load of debt. There are few, very all which they can ever hope to receive few churches in the land, who give for their labours, or if, in any other way, their pastors more than is barely they are deprived of the power of re

necessary for their support from funding, the directors will exercise the right entrusted to them, of abating or

year to year; and out of this pitcancelling obligations at their discre

tance each minister must not only tion.

support himself; but he must also The Directors have received the ful. be, as becomes a Christian bishlest assurances from their beneficiaries op,“ given to hospitality;" he must that this system is not less agreeable be an example, in many things, to them, than it has been proved to be of liberality and public spirit; acceptable to a large part of the friends he must, in these days of inquiand benefactors of the American Education Society. As evidence of this, ry and reading and constant init will be sufficient to quote a single vestigation, expend much for the atextract from one of the letters address- tainment of those periodical and by the beneficiaries of the Society to a other publications without which he person appointed to confer with them will soon find himself, in respect to on this subject. That extract is as knowledge, far behind the world follows—“As the Directors have seen which it is his busines- to instruct fit to regard the approbation of the and influence ; he must be so far beneficiaries, we can only say we are

independent of his people as that perfectly satisfied with the measures

he they have adopted, and do unanimously

can decamp and leave them prefer our present, to our former situ

whenever they shall say so ; and in ation.” To this testiniony there is a

addition to all this, he must-if he general assent among all the beneficia has been a beneficiary of this society ries of the Society, so far as their feel- --refund the expenses of his educaings are known to the Directors.

tion. We doubt the policy of fill

ing the church, in these days, with Now we are by no means insens- ministers who must be burthened ible to the force of these consider- and distressed with this peculiarly ations. But at the same time we painful embarassment. We doubt, are not entirely satisfied respecting in the next place, whether it is quite the conclusion to which the Di- so generous or kind as it seems to rectors would lead us.

And we

be, to take up young men, and call say so not because we would di- them beneficiaries, and subject them minish in the least the public confi- to whatever is unpleasant in the dence which they so justly possess; name, and in the complicated liabut because we consider the sys- bilities to public inspection and tem at present adopted, as some- public criticism, and in the mani. thing which is still subject to alter- fold responsibilities of charity stuation and amendment and there- dents, and after all to make them fore fairly open to discussion. Our support themselves. The annual minds we confess are undecided ; appropriations of the Board are onand therefore we doubt, though we ly seventy-two dollars to each benecan hardly venture to object. We ficiary ; and for the loan of seventydoubt in the first place whether, in two dollars a year the student consents to be called a beneficiary, and can be no essential improvement to endure whatever is embarrass- in our system of general education. ing in the supposed dependence And whether the policy of setting and in the actual accountabilities of all the beneficiaries of the American that relation in which all his actions Education Society to teach school become the subject of public watch- does not tend to retard a consumfulness, and all his mistakes and in- mation so desirable, admiis of no discretions the theme of public re- debate. But on the improvement mark. We would not be under of the beneficiaries themselves, the stood as intimating that there can operation of this part of the system be anything uncomfortable in being seems hardly more favourable. All subjected to the paternal guardian- the time and strength which they ship of such a man as the Secre- expend in teaching is necessarily tary; on the contrary we know that withdrawn from their studies. It the intercourse of the beneficiaries is idle to say that in most colleges with bim must be full of affection, long vacations extend over most of and a source of mutual pleasure. the school-keeping season; for it is But who does not know that a ben- as important to the student that he eficiary stands a mark for folly to spend his vacations in relaxation, shoot at, and that those who hate as it is that he spend his terms in the cause of benevolence and those study. All the time then which who would find an excuse for in- is devoted to teaching is withdrawn dulging their avarice at the expense from studying; and if the benefiof that cause, are eager to catch at ciaries teach, on an average, three all his imprudences and all his fail- months in every year, their course ings, and blow the trumpet to pro- of college study is cut down from claim whatever in his conduct, or four years to three. In some colhis manners, or his speech, or his leges, for aught we know, they dress, can be distorted into ridi- may on this plan maintain a good cule. We doubt, thirdly, whether relative standing for scholarship it is good policy to withdraw the without sacrificing their lives or beneficiary from his studies for their health.

In other colleges three months or more in each year this cannot be done. If those who for the sake of teaching school. leave the walls of college at any This is a part of the system to which time to engage in other occupathe Directors have often referred tions form any considerable portion in their reports without any appa- of the classes, there will be substanrent scruples respecting its wisdom. tially a vacation during the period But it seems to us highly question- of their absence, the classes will able. To send out two or three insensibly linger for the return of hundred young men every winter the absentees, or march with slowfrom the recitation rooms of colle- er steps while the loiterers are ges to teach school for a short peri- coming up in the rear. If on the od as a convenient expedient for other hand those who go away bear raising a little money, does not so inconsiderable a ratio to those seem to us like the best way of el- who remain as hardly to be missed, evating the character and useful- then obviously when they return, ness of our common schools. It is they will find that the former comcoming to be generally acknowledg- panions of their studies are far ed that till the business of instruc- ahead, and while perlaps some two tion is made a distinct profession, or three of them wear out their till it shall cease to fall into the hands lives or ruin their constitutions as of those men only who make it a with flushed cheek and sunken eye merely temporary expedient, there they pursue their midnight studies VOL. I.No. II.

13

ren.

to regain their standing, the oth- the principles on which their instiers probably fold their hands in tution rests, remain inviolate, they hopelessness and submit to the des- shall always share in our contributiny of being inferior to their class- tions and our prayers, and they mates. The tendency of the sys- shall never lack our loudest voice tem seems to be that instead of of approbation. We would rather giving to the beneficiaries the best found one scholarship for the Amereducation, it gives them that which ican Education Society than leave shall be the most convenient and a round million to be the inheritmost tolerable substitute for the ance of our children. The former best.

might bless the church and the We know the peculiar difficul- world with a long succession of minties which embarrass the conduct- , isters reaching down from generaing of this charity. We know the tion to generation ; the latter would complaints which some vulgar and be squandered in a few short years, niggardly minds are ever ready to and might ruin the souls of our make against the extravagance of children and of our children's childtaking young men from the field The former might be the and from the work shop and be- means of bringing thousands to the stowing upon them such appropria- paradise of God; the latter would tions as will enable them to live, as in all probability replenish hell with they, the complainers think, in the souls of those whom our influidleness. But we know too that ence ought to have saved from ruin. from men of that class little or nothing can be expected in aid of such a charity as this; and therefore we doubt whether it is needful The Canon of the Old and New

Testaments ascertained; or the to conduct the enterprise in such a manner as to square with their pre

Bible Complete without the Apocjudices or to silence their com

rypha and unwritten Traditions.

By ARCHIBALD ALEXANDER, Proplaints. The Society must depend

fessor of Didactic and Polemie upon men of the most liberal feel. ings and the most enlightened views;

Theology in the Theological and therefore it needs to approve

Seminary at Princeton, N. J.

G. & C. Carvill, New-York. pp. itself only to such men and to God. We have expressed these doubts

418, 12mo. not because we feel any distrust of This volume was designed, the the Society or its Directors, but be- author tells us in his preface, as a cause we do feel the strongest con- supplement to his former work on fidence in their benevolence and the “ Evidences ;'* for it seemed wisdom. If there be in their sys- essential to the completeness of tem the error which we have intima- the argument for the truth of dited, it is an error on the safer side. vine revelation, that it should be And whether they adhere to their ascertained what books do justly present system of appropriations or claim to contain that revelation. adopt some other which would A compendious work on this subseem to us more liberal in its aspect ject, which should be neither too and happier in its tendencies, we learned for common readers, nor bid them God speed. They are

too voluminous for general use, the engaged in a great and arduous author deemed a desideratum. We work of Christian patriotism and think he judged correctly. Every Christian benevolence. And though intelligent Christian must wish to we claim the privilege of canvassing be possessed of all the evidence their measures in the fraternal spir

* For a review of which, see our former it of Christian affection ; yet while series, vol. vii. p. 458.

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