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he applies unto the elect, effectually, all saving graces pur
chased to them in the covenant of redemption, and maketh il a change in their persons. In particular, 1. He doth conEr vert or regenerate them, by giving spiritual life to them, in si opening their understandings, renewing their wills, affec* tions, and faculties, for giving spiritual obedience to his com
mands. 2. He gives them saving faith, by making them, in the sense of deserved condemnation, to give their consent heartily to the covenant of grace, and to embrace Jesus Christ unfeignedly. 3. He gives them repentance, by making them,
with godly sorrow, in the hatred of sin, and love of righBi teousness, turn from all iniquity to the service of God. And,
4. He sanctifies them, by making them go on and persevere la in faith and spiritual obedience to the law of God, mani,
fested by fruitfulness in all duties, and doing good works, W as God offereth occasion.
II. Together with this inward change of their persons, God changes also their state : for, so soon as they are brought
by faith into the covenant of grace, 1. He justifies them, by á imputing unto them that perfect obedience which Christ gave to the law, and the satisfaction also which
the cross Christ gave unto justice in their name. 2. He reconciles
them, and makes them friends to God, who were before enenie mies to God. 3. He adopts them, that they shall be no more
children of Satan, but children of God, enriched with all spiritual privileges of his sons. And, lást of all, after their warfare in this life is ended, he perfects the holiness and blessedness, first of their souls at their death, and then both of their souls and their bodies, being joyfully joined together
again in the resurrection, at the day of his glorious coming d to judgment, when all the wicked shall be sent away to hell,
with Satan, whom they have served : but Christ's own chosen and redeemed ones, true believers, students of holiness, shall remain with himself for ever, in the state of glorification.
PRACTICAL USE OF SAVING KNOWLEDGE, Contained in Scripture, and holden forth briefly in the fore.
suid Confession of Faith and Catechisms, HE chief general use of Christian doetrine is, to con
viner a man of sin, and of righteousness, and of judg. ment, John xvi. 8. partly by the law or covenant of works, that he may be humbled and become penitent; and partly by the gospel or covenant of grace, that he may become an unfeigned believer in Jésus Christ, and be strengthened in his faith upon solid grounds and warrants, and give evidence of the truth of his faith by good fruits, and so be saved.
The sum of the covenant of works, or of the law, is this: “ If thou do all that is commanded, and not fail in any “ point, thou shalt be saved: but if thou fail, thou shalt o die." Rom. X. 5. Gal. iii. 10, 12.
The sum of the gospel, or covenant of grace and reconciliation, is this : “ If thou fee from deserved wrath to the
true Redeemer Jesus Christ, (who is able to save to the " uttermost all that come to God through him,) thou shalt “ not perish, but have eternal life.” Rom. x. 8, 9, 11.
For convincing a man of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment by the law, or covenant of works, let these scriptures, among many more, be made use of. I. For convincing a man of sin by the law, consider Jer.
xvii. 9, 10.
The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked; who can know it? I the Lord search the heart, I try the reins, even to give every man according to his ways, and according to the fruit of his doings.
Here the Lord teachęth these two things : 1. That the fountain of all our miscarriage, and actual sinning against God, is in the heart, which comprehendeth the mind, will, affections, and all the powers of the soul, as they are corrupted and defiled with original sin ; the mind being not only ignorant and incapable of saving truth, but also full of error and enmity against Gori; and the will and affections being obstinately disobedient unto all God's directions, and
bent toward that only which is evil : “ The heart (saith he)
" is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked ;'* dyea, and unséarchably wicked, so that no man can know it's
and Gen. vi. 5. “ Every imagination of the thoughts of u " man's heart is only evil continually," saith the Lord,
whose testimony we must trust in this and all other matters ;
and experience also may teach us, that, till God make us de i ny ourselves, we never look to God in any thing, but fleshly
self-interest alone doth rule us, and move all the wheels of our actions.
2. That the Lord bringeth our original sin, or wicked inclination, with all the actual fruits thereof, unto reckoning before his judgment-seat; “For he searcheth the heart, and “ trieth the reins, to give every man according to his ways, and according to the fruit of his doings."
Hence let every man reason thus: “ What God and my guilty conscience beareth witness of, " I am convinced that it is true :
“ But God and my guilty conscience beareth witness, that
my heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately i wicked ; and that all the imaginations of my heart, by na$ "ture, are only evil continually :
u Therefore I am convinced that this is true.”
Thus a man may be convinced of sin by the law.
sider Gal. iii. 10.
works of the law are under the curse : for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.
Here the apostle teacheth us three things : 1. That, by reason of our uatural sinfulness, the impossibility of any man's being justified by the works of the law is so certain, that whosever do seek justification by the works of the law, are liable to the curse of God for breaking of the
“ For as many as are of the works of the law are un- der the curse," saith he. 2. That, unto the perfect fulfilling of the law, the keeping
or two of the precepts, or doing of some, or of all dusics (if it were possible) for a time, is not sufficient; for the
law requireth, that “ a man continue in all things which are 4 written in the book of the law to do them.”
3. That, because no man can come up to this perfection, every man by nature is under the curse ; for the law saith, “ Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which
are written in the book of the law to do them."
Now, to be under the curse, comprehendeih all the displeasure of God, with the danger of the breaking forth more and more of his wrath upon soul and body, both in this life, and after death perpetually, if grace do not prevent the full execution thereof.
Hence let every man reason thus : 6. Whosoever, according to the covenant of works, is lia“ble to the curse of God for breaking the law, times and
ways out of number, cannot be justified, or find righteousness by the works of the law;
“ But I, (may every man say,) according to the covenant uus works, am liable to the curse of God, for breaking the “ law times and ways without number:
“ Therefore I cannot be justified, or have righteousness, « by the works of the law."
Thus may a man be convinced of righteousness, that it is not to be had by his own works, or by the law. III. For convincing a man of judgment by the law, consider
2 Thess. i. 7.
THE Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with his mighty angels, Ver. 8. In flaming fire, taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ : Ver. 9. Who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power; Ver. 10. When he shall come to be glorified in his saints, and to be admired in all them that believe.
Wherein we are taught, that our Lord Jesus, who now offers to be Mediator for them who believe in him, shall, at the last day, come armed with faming fire, to judge, condemn, and destroy all them who have not believed God, have not received the offer of grace made in the gospel, nor obeyed the doctrine thereof; but remain in their natura! state, under the law or covenant of works,
Hence let every man reason thus ; * What the righteous Judge hath fore warned me shall 16. be done at the last day, I am sure is just judgment:
" But the righteous Judge hath forewarned me, that if I “ do not believe God in time, and obey not the doctrine of - the gospel, I shall be secluded from his presence and his “ glory at the last day, and be tormented in soul and body
66 for ever:
“ Therefore I am convinced that this is a just judgment :
“ And I have reason to thank God heartily, who hath a forewarned me to flee from the wrath which is to come.
Thus every man may be, by the law or covenant of works, convinced of judgment, if he shall continue under the covenant of works, or shall not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus. IV. For convincing a man of sin, righteousness, and judg
ment, by the gospel.
As for convincing ainan of sin, and righteousness, and judgment, by the gospel, or covenant of grace, he must understand three things: 1. That not believing in Jesus Christ, or refusing of the covenant of grace offered in him, is a greater and more dangerous sin than all other sins against the law ; because the hearers of the gospel, not believing in Christ, do reject God's mercy in Christ, the only way of freedom from sin and wrath, and will not yield to be reconciled to God. 2. Next, He must understand, that perfect remission of sin, and true righteousness, is to be had only by faith in Jesus; because God requireth no other conditions but faith ; and testifies from heaven, that he is well pleased to justify sinners upon this condition. 3. He must understand, that upon righteousness received by faith, judgment shall fol. low, on the one hand, to the destroying of the works of the devil in the believer, and to the perfecting of the work of sanctification in him, with power: and that, upon refusing to take righteousness by faith in Jesus Christ, judgment shall follow, on the other hand, to the condemnation of the misbeliever, and destroying of him with Satan and his servants for
For this end, let these passages of scripture, among many others, serve to make the greatness of the sin of not be