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thing in the temple as images, or faces, or the like representa tion of any animal whatsoever. Now the king had put up a golden eagle over the great gate of the temple, which these learned men exhorted them to cut down, and told them, that it there should any danger arise, it was a glorious thing to die for the laws of their country ; because that the * soul was immortal, and that an eternal enjoyment of happiness did await such as died on that account ; while the mean spirited, and those that were not wise enough to thew a right love of their souls, preferred a death by a diseale, before that which is the result of a virtuous behaviour.
3. At the lame time that thele men made this speech to their dilciples, a rumour was spread abroad, that the king was dy, ing, which made the young men set about the work with greater boldness ; they therefore let themselves down from the top of the temple with thick cords, and this at mid-day, and while a great number of people were in the temple, and cut down that golden eagle with axes. This was presently told to the king's captain of the temple, who came running with a great body of soldiers and caught about forty of the young men, and brought them to the king. And when he asked them, forft of all, whether they had been so hardy as to cut down the golden eagle ? they confessed they had done fo ; and when he asked them by whose command they had done it, they replied, at che command of the law of their country; and when he farther asked them, how they could be so joyful when they were to be put to death, they replied, * Becaule they should enjoy greater happiness after they were dead.
4. At this the king was in such an extravagant passion, that he overcame his disease (for the time,] and went out, and spake to the people; wherein he made a terrible accusation a.
Since in theke two sections we have an evident account of the Jewish opinions in the days of Josephus, about a future happy ftate, and the resurrection of the dead, as in the New Testament, John xi. 24. I shall here refer to the other places in Josephus, before he became a Catholic Christian, which concern the fame nacers. Of the War, B. 11. ch. viii. fect. 10, 11. B. III. ch. viii. sect. 4. Vol. III. B. VII. ch. vi. lect. 7. Contr. Apion, B II. fe&t. 30 Vol. III. where we may observe, that none of these passages are in his Books of Antiquities, written peculiarly for the use of the Gentiles, to whoın he thought it not proper to insist on topics lo much out of their way as these were. Nor is ihis observation to be omitted here cspecially, on account of the sensible difference we have now before us in Jolephus's representation of the arguments used by the rabbins to perioade their scholars to hazard their lives for the vindication of God's law, against images, by Moles, as well as of the answers those scholars inade to Herod, when they were caught, and ready to die for the same; I mean as compared with the parallel arguments and an(wers represented in the Antiquities, B. XV NI. ch. vi. sec. 2, 3 Vol. II. A like difference between Jewish and Gentile notions, the reader will find in my notes on Antiquities, B. III. ch. vii. fe&t. 7. Vol. 1. B. XV. ch. ix. fe&t. 1. Vol 11. See the likc also in the case of the three Jewish fects in the Antiquities, B. XIII. ch. v. sect. g. and ch, * fect. 4, 5. Vol. II B. XVIIl. ch. i. ielt. s Vol. II. and coinpared with chis in his Wars of the Jews, B. II. ch. viii. lect. 2-14. Vol. III. Nor does St. Paul himself reafon to Gentiies at Achens, Acts xvii. 16, 34. as die docs to Jews in his epilles.
gainst those men, as being guilty of facrilege, and as making greater attempts under pretence of their law, and he thought they deserved to be punished as impious perfons. Whereup. on the people were afraid left a great number should be found guilty, and desired that when he had first punished those that put them upon this work, and then those that were caught in it, he would leave off his anger as to the reft. With this the king complied, though not without difficulty, and ordered those that had let themselves down, together with their rabbins, to be burnt alive, but delivered the rest that were caught to the proper officers, to be put to death by them.
5. After this the di temper leized upon his whole body, and greally disordered all its parts with various symptoms ; for there was a gentle fever upon him, and an intolerable itching over all the surlace of his body and continual pains in his colon, and dropfical rumours about his feet, and an inflammation of the abdomen, and a putrefaction of his privy inember, that produced worms. Belides which he had a difficulty of breathing upon him, and could not breathe but when he sat upright, and had a convulfion of all his members, infomuch that the diviners said, those diseases were a punishment upon him tor what he had done to the rabbins. Yet did he struggle with his numerous diforders, and ftill had a desire to live, and hope ed for recovery, and confidered of several methods of cure, Accordingly he went over Jordon, and made ule of those hot baths at Callirhoe which run into the lake Asphaltitis, but are themselves sweet enough to be drunk. And here the phyGcians thought proper to bathe his whole body in warm oil, by let, ting it down into a large vellel tull o! oil; whereupon his eyes failed hin, and he came, and went as it he were dying.; and as a tumult was then made liy his servants, at their voice he revived again. Yet did he alter this despair of recovery, and gave orders that each soldier should have fifty drachmæ apiece, and that his commanders and friends thould have great dums of money given them.
6. He then returned back and came to Jericho, in such a melancholy state of body as almost threatened him with prelent death, when he proceeded 10 attempi an horrid wickedne's ; tor he got together the moft illuftrious men of the whole lewith nation, out of every village, into a place called the Hippodroine, and there shut them in. He then called for his riller Salome, and her husband Alexas, and made this speech to them ; " I know well enough that the Jews will keep a fef rival upon my death ; however it is in my power to be mourn. ed for on other accounts, and to have a lplendid_funeral, if you will be but fubfervient to my commands. Do you but take care to send soldiers to encompass thele men that are now in custody, and slay them immediately upon my death, and then all judea, and every family of them, will weep at it whether they will or no."
7 These were the commands he gave them ; when there came letters from his ambassadors at Rome, whereby intormation was given that Acme was put to death at Cæsar's com. mand, and that Antipater was condemned to die ; however, they wrote withal, that if Herod had a mind rather to banish him, Cæsar permitted him so to do. So he for a little while revived and had a desire to live ; but presently after he was overborne by his pains, and was disordered by want of food, and by a convulsive cough, and endeavoured to prevent a nat. ural death ; so he took an apple, and asked for a knite, for he used to pare apples and eat them ; he then looked round a. bout to see that there was no body to hinder him, and lift up his right band as it he would stab himselt; but Achiabus, his first coulin came running to him, and held his hand and' hin. dered him from so doing ; on which occasion a very great lamentation was made in the palace, as it the king were ex. piring. As soon as ever Aniipater heard that he took cour. age, and with joy in his looks, belought his keepers for a fum of money, to loose him and let him go ; but the principal keeper of the prison did only obstruct him in that his intention, but ran and told the king what his design was ; hereupon the king cried out louder than his distemper would well bear, and immediately lent lome of his guards and flew Antipater ; he also gave order to have him buried at Hyrcanium, and altered his teftament again, and therein made Archelaus his eldelt fon, and the brother of Antipas, bis successor, and made Antipas tetrarch.
8. So Herod having survived the slaughter of his son five days. died, having reigned thirty-four years. since he had caused Antigonus to be lain, and obtained his kingdom ; but thirty-seven years since he had been made king by the Romans. Now as for his fortune, it was prosperous in all other respects, if ever any other man could be fo, fince, from a pri. vate man he obtained the kingdom, and kept it so long, and left it to his own sons; but still in his domestic affairs, he was a most untortunate man. Now before the soldiers knew of his death, Salome and her husband came out and dismissed those that were in bonds, whom the king had commanded to be Dain, and cold them that he had altered his mind, and would have every one of them sent to their own homes. When these men were gone, Salome told the soldiers the king was deadl, and got them and the rest of the multitude together to an al. fembly, in the amphitheatre at Jericho where Ptolemy, who was intrufted by the king with his signet-ring, came belore them, and spake of the happiness the king had attained, and comforted the multitude, and read the epiltle which had been left for the foldiers, wherein he earnestly exhorted them to bear good-will to his fuccessor ; and after he had read the ea pistle, he opened and read his testament, wherein Philip was to inherit Írachonitis, and the neighbouring countries, and Antipas was to be tetrarch as was said before, and Archelaus was made king. He had also been commanded to carry Her. od's ring to Cæfar, and the settlements he had made sealed up, because
Cæsar was to be lord of all the fettlements he had made, and was to confirm his teftament; and he ordered that the dispositions he had made were to be kept as they were in his former teftament.
9. So there was an acclamation made to Archelaus, to con. gratulate him upon his advancement, and the foldiers with the multitude, went round about in troops, and promised him their good-will, and belides, prayed God to bless his govern
After this they betook themselves to prepare for the king's funeral; and Archelaus omitted nothing of magnificence therein, but brought out all the royal ornaments to aug. ment the pomp of the deceased. There was a bier all of gold embroidered with precious stones, and a purple bed of varie ous contexture, with the dead body upon it covered with pur. ple; and a diadem was put upon his head, and a crown of gold above it, and a fceptre in his right hand ; and near to the bier were Herod's sons, and a multitude of his kindred; next to which came his guards, and the regiment of Thracians, the Germans also and Galls, all accoutered as if they were going to war; but the rest of the army went foremost, armed, and following tbeir captains and officers in a regular manner; af. ter whom, five hundred of his domestic lervants and freed. men followed with sweet spices in their hands : And the body was carried two hundred furlongs, to Herodium, where he had given order to be buried. And this ihall suffice for the conclusion of the life of Herod.
Containing the interval of fixty-nine years.
(From the death of HEROD till V ESPASIAN was sent to sub
due the Jews by NERO.
Archelaus makes a funeral Feast for the People, on the account
of Herod. After which a great Turnult is raised by the Multitude, and he sends the Soldiers out upon them, who Destroy about three Thousand of them.
ing a journey to Rome was the occasion of new disturbances; for when he had mourned for his father seven * days, and had given a very expensive funeral feast to the multitude, (which custom is the occafion of poverty to many of the Jews because they are forced to feast the multitude ; for if any one omits it, he is not esteemed an holy person), he put on a white garment and went up to the temple, where the people accofted him with various acclamations. 'He also spake kindly to the multitude from an elevated seat, and a throne of gold, and returned them thanks for the zeal they had shewn about his father's funeral, and the submission they had made to him, as if he were already settled in the kingdom ; but he told them withal, that " he would not at present take upon him either the authority of a king, or the names thereto belonging, until Cæsar, who is made lord of this whole affair by this teftament confirm the succession; for that when the soldiers would have set the diadem on his head at Jericho, he would not accept of it; but that he would make abundant requitals, not to the soldiers only, but to the people for their
• Hear Dean Aldrich's note on this place, “ The law, or custom of the Jews," says he,“ requires fever. days mourning for the dead, Antiq. B. XVII. ch. viii. lect. 4. Vol. iv. Whence the author of the book of Eccle!afticus, ch. xxii. 12. afligns seven days, as the proper time of mourning for the dead, and ch. xxxviii. 17. enjoins men to mourn for the dead, that they may not be evil (poken of ; for as Jo. lephus fays presentiy, if any one ornits this mourning (funeral feast) he is not elTeemed a holy perfon. Now it is certain, that such a seven days mouroing has been customary from times of the greatest antiquity, Gen. 1. 10.
Funeral feaits are also mentioned as of considerable antiquity, Ezek. xxiv. 17. Jer, xvi. 7. Prov. xxxi, 6. Deut.xxvė 14. Josephus, of the War, B. III. ch. ix. lect. g. Vel. l.”.