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alacrity and good will to him, when the superior lords (the Romans should have given him a complete title to the king. dom ; for that it should be his study to appear in all things beta ter than his father,"

2. Upon this the muhitude were pleased, and presently made a trial of what he intended by asking great things of him ; for some made a clamour that he would ease them in their taxes, others, that he would take off the duties upon commodities: and some, that he would loose those that were in prison ; in all which cases he answered readily to their satisfaction, in or. der to get the good will of the multitude ; after which he ofa fered the propery sacrifices, and feasted with his friends. And here it was that a great many of those that desired inno. vations came in crowds towards the evening, and began then to mourn on their own account, when the public mourning for the king was over. These lamented thote that were put to death by Herod, because they had cut down the golden eagle that had been over the gate of the temple. Nor was this mourning of a private nature, but the lamentations were very great, the mourning solemn, and the weeping such as was loudly heard all over the city, as being for those men who had perished for the laws of their country, and for the temple. They cried out, that a punishment ought to be inflicted for these men upon those that were honoured by Her. od, and that, in the first place, the man whom he had made high-priest should be deprived, and that it was fit to choose a person of greater-piety and purity than he was.

3. At these clamours Archelaus was provoked, but restrain. ed himselt from taking vengeance on the authors on account of the haste he was in of going to Rome, as tearing lest, upon his making war on the multitude, such an action might detain him at home. Accordingly he made trial to quiet the innovators by persuasion, rather than by force, and sent his general in a private way to them, and by him exhorted them to be quiet. But the seditious threw stones at him, and drove him away as he came into the temple, and before he could say any thing to them. The like treatment they shewed to oihers, who came to them after him, many of which were sent by Archelaus, in order to reduce them to sobriety, and these answered still on all occasions after a passionate manner; and it openly appeared that they would not be quiet, if their numbers were but considerable. And indeed, at the feast of unleavened bread, which was now at hand, and is by the Jews called the Passover, and used to be clebrated with a great number of sacrifices, an innumerable multitude of the people came out of the country to worship : Some of these stood in the temple bewailing the rabbins, lihat hau been put to death] and procured their sustenance by begging, in order to fupport their fedition. Altbis Archelaus was affrighted, and privately sent a tribune, with his cohort of soldiers, upon thein, before the

diseale should spread over the whole multitude, and gave or. ders that they should constrain those that began the tumult by torce, to be quiet. At these the whole multitude were irritated, and threw stones at many of the soldiers, and killed them: But the tribune fled away wounded, and had much ado to es. cape so. After which they betook themselves to their facrifi. ces, as if they had done no mischief ; nor did it appear to Ars 'chelaus that the multitude could be restrained without blood. shed ; so he sent his whole army upon them, the footmen in great multitudes by the way of the city, and the horsemen by the way of the plain, who, falling upon them on the sudden, as they were offering their facrifices destroyed about three thousand of them ; but the rest of the multitude were dispersed upon the adjoining mountains; these were followed by Archelaus's heralds, who commanded every one to retire to their own homes, whither they all went, and left the festival,

снАР. ІІ.

Archelaus goes to Rome with a great number of his kindred.

He is there accused before Cæjar by Antipater; but is superior to his accusers in judgment, by the means of that defence which Nicolaus made for him.

. ARCHELAUS went down now to the sea side, with

A his mother and his friends, Poplas, and Ptolemy, and Nicolau's, and left behind him Philip, to be his steward in the palace, and to take care of his domestic affairs. Salome went also along with him with her sons, as did also the king's brethren and Tons-in-law. These, in appearance, went to give him all the asti stance they were able, in order to secure his succession, but in reality to accuse him for his breach of the laws, bv what he had done at the temple.

2. But as they were come to Cesarea, Sabinus, the procu. rator ot Syria, met them : He was going up to Judea, to lecure Herod's effects : But Varus, president of Syrial, who was come thither, restrained him from going any farther. This Varus Archelaus had sent for, by the earnest entreaty of Pwlemy. At this time indeed, Sabinus, to gratity Varus, neither went to the citadels, nor did he shut up the treasuries where his father's money was laid up, but promised that he would lie still, until Caesar should have taken cognizance of the affair, So he abode at Cesarea ; but as soon as those that were bis hindrance were gone, when Varus was gone to Antia och, and Archelaus was failed to Rome, he immediately went on to Jerusalem, and seized upon the palace. And when he had called for the governors of the citadels, and the stewards [of the king's private affairs, he tried to lift out the accounis of the money, and to take poflession of the citadels. But the

VOL. III.

governors of thole citadels were not unmindful of the com. mands laid upon them by Archelaus, and continued to guard them, and said, the custody of them rather belonged to Cæfar, than to Archelaus. . 3. In the mean time Antipas went also to Rome, to strive for the kingdom, and to infift that the former testament wherein he was named to be the king; was valid belore the latter testament. Salome had also promised to assist him, as had ma. ny of Arcelaus's kindred, who failed along with Archelaus himielt also. He also carried along with him his mother, and Ptolemy, the brother of Nicolaus, who seemed. one of great weight, on account of the great trust Herod put in him, he having been one of his moft honoured friends. However, Antipas depended chiefly upon Ireneus, the orator ; upon whose authority he had rejected such as advised him to yield to Archelaus, because he was his elder brother, and because the second testament gave the kingdom to him. The inclinations allò of all Archelaus's kindred, who hated him, were removed to Antipas, when they came to Rome, although in the first place every one rather desired to live under their own laws, Twithout a king], and to be under a Roman governor; but if they should tail in that point, these deured that Antipas? might he iheir king.

4 Sabinus did also afford these his affiftance to the same purpose; by the letters he fent, werein be accused Archelauss belore Cæfar, and highly commended Antipas. Salome also, and those with her; put the crimes which they aceused Ar. chelaus of in order, and put them into Cæsar's hands : And after they had done that, Archelaus wrote down the reasons of his claim, and, by Piolemy, sent in his father's accounts. And when Cælar had maturely weighed' by himself what both had to alledge for themselves, as also had confidered of the great burder of the kingdom, and largeness of the revenues, and withal the number of the children Herod had left behind him, and had moreover read the letters he had received from Varus and Sabinus on this occasion, he assembled the principal per. fons among the Romans together, (in which allembly: Caius, the son of Agrippa, and his daughter Julias, but by himself adopted for his own lon, fat in the first seat), and gave the pleaders leave to speak.

5. Then stood up Salome's són Antipater, (who of all Aro' chelaus's 'antagonists was the shrewdelt pleader), and accused him in the following speech : “ That Archelaus did in words? contend for the kingdom, but that in deeds he had long exercised royal authority, and so did but insult vælar in defiring to be now heard on that account ; since he had not ftaid for. his determination about the succession, and fince he had suborned certain persons, after Herod's death, to move for puttirg the diadem upon his head ; since he had set himself down in the throne, and given' answers as a king, and altered the

difpofition of the army, and granted to fome higher dignities : That he had also complied in all things with the people in the sequests they had made to him as to their king, and bad alfo dismissed those that had been put into bonds by his father, tori most important reasons. Now, after all this he desires the fhadow of that royal authority, whose substance he had already seized to himselt, and so hath made Cæsar lord, not of things but of words He also reproached him farther, that his mour ning for his father was only pretendent, while he put on a fad countenance in the day time but drank to great excels in the night, from which behaviour, he said, the late disturbance among the multitude came, while they had a. indignation therea!. And indeed the purport of his whole discourse was toaggravate Archelaus's crime in Alaying such a multitude about the temple, which muliitude came to the festival, but were barbariously pain in the midit of their own facrifi. ces ; and he said, there was such a vast number of dead bodies heaped together in the temple, as even a foreign war, that thould come upon them fuddenly), before it was denounced, could not have heaped together. And he added, that it was the forefight his facher had of that his barbarity, which made him never give him any hopes of the kingdom, but when his mind was more infirm than his body, and he was not able to reason foundly, and did not well know what was the character of that son, whom in his second telta. ment he made his successors; and this was done by him at a time when he had no complaints to make of him whom he had named before when he was found in body, and when his mind was free from all paljon. That, however, if any one should fuppole Herod's judgment, when he was sick, was superior to chat at another time, yet had Archelaus torfeited his kingdom by his own behaviour, and those his actions which were contrary to the law, and to its disadvantage. Or what lort of a king will this man be, when he hath obtained the govern. ment trom Cæsar, who hath Plain so many before he hath ob. tained it."

6. When Antipater had spoken largely to this purpose, and had produced a great number of Archelaus's kindred as witnesles, to prove every part of the accufation, he ended his discourse. Then stood up Nicolaus to plead tor Archelaus. He alledged, That “the slaughter in the temple could not be avoided ; that those that were Nain were become enemies not to Archelaus's kingdom only, but to Cæfar, who was to de. termine obout him. He also demonstrated, that Archelaus's accusers had adviled himn to perpetrate other things of which he might have been accused. But he io lifted that the latter teftament should, for this reason above all others, be elteemed valid, because Herod had therein appointed Cæsar to be the person who fhould confirm the succession; for he who shewed luch prudence as to recede from his own power, and yield in up to the Lord of the world, cannot be supposed mistaken it

his judgment about him that was to be his heir; and he that so well krew whom to choose for arbitrator of the succeffion. could not be unacquainted with him whom he chose for his fucceffor."

7. When Nicolaus had gone through all he had to say, Ar. chelaus came, and fell down before Cæsar's knees, without a. ny noise. Upon which he raised him up, after a very obli. ging manner, and declared, that truly he was worthy to suca ceed his father. However, he still made no firm determination in his cale ; but when he had dismissed ihose assessors that had been with him that day, he deliberated by himself about the allegations which he had hoard whether it were fit to con. stitute any of those named in the testaments for Herod's suc: cessor, or whether the government should be parted among all, his posterity, and this because of the number of those that seemed to itand in need ot lapport theretrom,

CHA P. III. The Jews fight a great Battle with Sabinus's Soldiers, and are

great Destruction is made at Jerusalem. 01. NTOW before Cæsar had determined, any thing about

I these affairs, Malthace, Archelaus's mother, felli sick and died. Letters allo were brought out of Syria from Varus, about a revolt of the Jews. This was foreseen by Varus, who accordingly, after Archelaus was failed went up. to Jerusalem to restrain the promoters of the ledition, since it was manifest that the pation would not be at reft ; so he leltone, of thole legions which he brought with him out of Syria in the city, and went himself to Antioch, But Sabinus came, alter he was gone, and gave them an occalion of making innovations; for he compelled the keepers of the citadels lo dę. liver them up to him, and made a bitter search, after the king's money, as depending not only on the soldiers which were left by Varus, but on the multitude of his own servanta, all, which he armed and used as the instruments of his covetouf. ness. Now when that feast, which was observed after leven weeks, and which the Jews call Pentecoit (i. e, the go!h day) was at hand, its name being taken from the number of the days [after the pasfover), the people got together, but not on account of the accustomed divine worthip, but of the indig nation they had (at the present state of affairs). Wherefore an immenle multitude ran together out of Galilee, and Idumea, and Jericho, and Perea, that was beyond Jordan ; but the people that naturally belonged to Judea itselt were above the rest, both in number, and in the alacrity of the men. So they distributed themselves into three parts, and pitched their camps

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