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vessels had been profaned. He also built another altar, and began to offer the sacrifices ; and when the city had already received its sacred conftitution again, Antiochus died; whose .fon Antiochus succeeded him in the kingdom, and in his halred to the Jews also.

5. So this Antiochus got together fifty thousand footmen, and five thousand horsemen, and fourscore elephants, and marched through Judea into the mountainous parts. He then took Bethsura, which was a small city ; but at a place called Bethzacharias, where the passage was narrow, Judas met him with his army. However before the forces joined battle, Judas's brother Eleazar, seeing the very highest of the elephants adorned with a large tower, and with military, trappings of gold to guard him, and supposing that Antiochus himself was upon him, he ran a great way before his own army, and, cutting his way through the enemies troops, he got up to the elephant ; yet could he not reach him who seemed to be the king, by reason of his being so high ; but still he san his weapon into the belly of the beast, and brought him down upon himself, and was crushed to death, having done no more than attempted great things, and newed that he preterred glory before life. Now he that governed the elephant was but a private man, and had he proved to be Antiochus, Eleazar had performed nothing more by this bold stroke than that it might appear he chose to die, when he had the bare hope ot thereby doing a glorious action ; nay, this dilappointment proved an omen to his brothers ludas.) how the entire battle would end. It is true that the Jews fought it out bravely for a long time but the king's forces, being superior in number, and having tortune on their side, obtained the victo. ry. And when a great many of his men were slain, Judas took the rest with him, and fled to the toparchy of Gophra. So Antiochus went to Jerusalem, and fayed there but a few days, for he wanted provisions, and so he went his way. He left indeed a garrison behind hiin, such as he thought sufficient to keep the place, but drew the rest of his army off, to take their winter quarters in Syria.

6. Now after the king was departed, Judas was not idle ; for as many of his own nation came to him, so did he gather thole that had escaped out of the battle together, and gave battle a. gain to Antiochus's generals at a village called. Adala ; and being too hard for his enemies in the battle, and killing a great number of them, he was at last himselt slain also. Nor was it many days afterward that his brother Jobn had a plot laid against him by Antiochus's party, and was slain by them. received a place from him in the Nomus of Heliopolis, where he built a city resembling Jerusalem, and a temple that was like * its temple ; concerning which we shall speak more in its proper place hereafter.

2. Now Antiochus was not satisfied either with his unexpected taking the city, or with its pillage, or with the great slaughter he had made there ; but being overcome with his violent paffions, and remembering what he had suffered during the fiege, he compelled the Jews to dissolve the laws of their country, and to keep their infants uncircumcised, and to sacrifice swines flesh upon the altar ; against which they all opposed themselves, and the most approved among them were put to death. Bacchides also, who was sent to keep the fortresses, having these wicked commands joined to his own natural barbarity, indulged all sorts of the extremest wickedness, and tormented the worthiest of the inhabitants, man by man, and threatened the city every day with open destruction, till at length he provoked the poor suffer. ers by the extremity of his wicked doings to avenge themfelves.

3. Accordingly Matthias, the son of Afainoneus, one of the priests who lived in a village called Modin, armed himself, to. gether with his own family, which had five sons of his in it, and flew Bacchides with daggers; and thereupon out of tear of the many garrisons of the enemy l, he fled to the mountains ; and so many of the people followed him, that he was encouraged to come down from the mountains, and to give battle to Antiochus's generals, when he beat them and drove them out of Judea. So he came to the government by this his success, and became the prince of his own people by their own free consent, and then died, leaving the government to Judas his eldest son.

4. Now Judas, supposing that Antiochus would not lie still, gathered an army out of his own countrymen, and was the first that made a league of friendship with the Romans, and drove Epiphanes out of the country when he had made a second expedition into it, and this by giving him a great defeat there ; and when he was warmed by this great success, he made an assault upon the garrilon that was in the city, for it had not been cut off hitherto ; so he ejected them out of the Upper City, and drove the soldiers into the Lower, which part of the city was called the Citadel. He then got the temple under his power, and cleansed the whole place, and wall. ed it round about, and made new vellels for sacred miniftrations, and brought them into the temple, because the former

* I see little difference in the liveral accounts in Josephus about the Egyptian temp.e Onion, of which large complaints are made by his commentators. Onias, it fermos, hoped to have made it very like that at Jerusalem, and of the same die mentions; and so lie appears to have really done, as far as he was able, and thought proper. Of this temple, lee Antiq. B. XIII. chap, iii $ 1, 2, 3. Vol. II. and Of the W'ar, B. VII. ch. x. $ 3.

vessels had been profaned. He also built another altar, and began to offer the sacrifices ; and when the city had already received its sacred conftitution again, Antiochus died; whose .fon Antiochus succeeded him in the kingdom, and in his halred to the Jews also.

5. So this Antiochus got together fifty thousand footmen, and five thousand horsemen, and fourscore elephants, and marched through Judea into the mountainous parts. He then took Bethsura, wliich was a small city ; but at a place called Bethzacharias, where the passage was narrow, Judas met him with his army. However before the forces joined battle, Judas's brother Eleazar, seeing the very highest of the elephants adorned with a large tower, and with military, trappings of gold to guard him, and supposing that Antiochus himself was upon him, he ran a great way before his own army, and, cutting his way through the enemies troops, he got up to the elephant ; yet could be not reach him who seemed to be the king, by reason of his being so high ; but still he ran his weapon into the belly of the beast, and brought him down upon himself, and was crushed to death, having done no more than attempted great things, and Mewed that he preterred glory before life. Now he that governed the elephant was but a private man, and had he proved to be Antiochus, Eleazar had performed nothing more by this bold stroke than that it might appear he chose to die, when he had the bare hope of thereby doing a glorious action ; nay, this disappointment proved an omen to his brother (Judas.) how the entire battle would end. It is true that the Jews fought it out bravely for a long time but the king's forces, being superior in number, and having tortune on their side, obtained the victory. And when a great many of his men were flain, Judas took the rest with him, and fled to the toparchy of Gophra. So Antiochus went to Jerusalem, and stayed there but a few days, for he wanted provisions, and so he went his way. He left indeed a garrison behind hiin, such as he thought sufficient to keep the place, but drew the reit of his army off, to take their winter quarters in Syria.

6. Now after the king was departed, Judas was not idle; for as many of his own nation came to him, so did he gather those that had escaped out of the battle together, and gave battle again to Antiochus's generals at a village called. Adala ; and being too hard for his enemies in the battle, and killing a great number of them, he was at last himselt slain also. Nor was it many days afterward that his brother Jobn had a plot laid against him by Antiochus's party, and was sain by them.

CHA P. II. Concerning the successors of Judas, who were Jonathan, and

Simeon, and John Hyrcanus. § 1. W H EN Jonathan, who was Judas's brother,lucceed.

VV ed him, he behaved himself with great circumspection in other respects, with relation to his own people ; and he corroborated his authority by preserving his friendship with the Romans. He also inade a league with Antiochus the fon. Yet was not all this sufficient for his security ; for the tyrant Trypho, who was guardian to Antiochus's son, laid a plot against him; and besides that endeavoured to take off his friends, and caught Jonathan by a wile, as he was going. to Ptolemais to Antiochus, with a few persons in his company, and put him in bonds, and then made an expedition against the Jews ; but when he was afterward driven away by Simeon, who was Jonathan's brother, and was enraged at his de. feat, he put Jonathan to death.

2. However, Simeon managed the public affairs after a courageous manner, and took Gazara, and Joppa, and Jamnia, which were cities in the neighbourhood. He also got the garrison under, and demolished the citadel. He was afterward an auxiliary 10 Antiochus, against Try pho, whom he besieged in Dora, before he went on his expedition against the Medes; yet could not he make the king ashamed of his ambition, though he had affilted him in killing Try pho; for it was not long ere Antiochus sent Cendebeus his general with an arıny to lay waste Judea, and to lubdue Simon; yet he, though he were now in years, conducted the war as if he were a much younger man. He also sent his sons with a band of strong men against Antiochus, while he took part of the army himself, with him, and fell upon him from another quarter : He also laid a great many men in ambush in many places of the mountains, and was superior in all his attacks upon them; and when he had been conqueror after so glorious a manner, he was high priest, and also freed the Jews from the dominion of the Macedonians, after an hundred and seventy years of the empire (of Seleucus).

3. This Simon allö had a plot laid against him, and was slain at a least by bis son-in-law Ptolemy, who put his wife and two sonsinto prison, and sent some persons to kill John, who was also *

* Why this john, the son of Simon, the high-priest, and governor of the Jews, was called Hyrcanus, Jofephus no where informs us ; nor is he called other than Fohn at the end of the first book of the Maccabees. However, Sixtus Senensis, when he gives us anpitome of the Greek version of the book here abridged by Jofephus, or of the chronicles of this John Hyrcanus, then extant, assures us that he was called Hyrcanus from his conquest of one of that name. See Authent. Rec. Part, 1. p. 207. But of this younger Antiochus, fee Dean Aldrich's note here

called Hyrcanus. But when the young man was informed of their coming beforehand, he made hafte to get to the city, as having a very great confidence in the people there, both on account of the memory of the glorious actions of his father, and of the hatred they could not but bear to the injustice of Ptolemy. Ptolemy also made an attempt to get into the city by another gate; but was repelled by the people, who had just then admitted Hyrcanus ; fo he retired presently to one of the fortresses that were above Jericho, which was called Dagon. Now when Hyrcanus had received the highpriesthood, which his father had held before, and had offered sacrifice to God, he made great haste to attack Ptolemy, that he might afford relief to his mother and bretbren.

4. So he laid siege to the fortress, and was superior to Ptolemy in other respects, but was overcome by him as to the just affection she had for his relations] ; for when Ptolemy was distressed, he brought forth his mother, and his brethren, and let them upon the wall, and beat them with rods in every body's sight, and threatened, that unless he would go away inmediately, he would throw them down headlong; at which fight Hyrcanus's commiferation and concern were too hard for his anger. But his mother was not dismayed, neither at the stripes she received, nor at the death with which she was threatened; but stretched out her hands, and prayed her son not to be moved with the injuries that she suffered to spare the wreich; Gince it was to her better to die by the means of Ptolemy than to live ever id long, provided he might be punished for the injuries he had done to their family. Now John's case was this; when hesconsidered the courage of his mother, and heard her entreaty, he fet about his attacks; but when he saw her beaten, and torn to pieces with the stripes, he grew feeble, and was entirely overcome by his affections. And as the sige was delayed by this means, the year of rest came on, upon which the Jewsrest every seventh year as they do on every seventh day. On this year therefore Prolemy was freed from being besieged, and flew the brethren of John, with their mother, and fled to Zeno, who was also called Coiylas, who was the tyrant of Philadelphia.

5. And now Antiochus was so angry at what he had !uffer. ed from Simon, that he made an expedition into Judea, and sat down before Jerusalem, and besieged Hyrcanus ; but Hyr. canus opened the Sepulchre of David, who was the richest of all kings, and took thence about three thousand talen's in money, and induced Antiochus, by the promise of three thou. fand talents, to raise the fiege. Moreover, he was the first of the Jews that had money enough, and began to hire foreign auxiliaries also.

6. However, at another time, when Antiochus was gone upon an expedition against the Medes, and so gave Hyrcanus an

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