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were lelt had endured such iniseries, that they called those that were dead happy men : That he had not only tortured the bodies of his subjetis, but entire cities, and had done much harm to the cities of his own country, while he adorned those that belonged to foreigners, and he shed the blood of Jews, in order to do kindnels to those people that were out of their bounds: That he had filled the nation full of poverty, and of the greatest iniquity, instead of that happiness, and those laws which they had anciently enjoyed : That, in short, the Jews had borne more calamities from Herod, in a few years, than had their forefathers during all that interval of time that had passed since they had come out of Babylon, and returned home, in the reign of * Xerxes : That, however, the nation was come to so low a condition by being inured to hardships, that they submitted to his succeflor of their own accord, though he brought them into bitter slavery : That accordingly they readily called Archelaus, though he was the son of lo great a tyrant, king, after the decease of his father, and joined with him in mourning for the dea:h of Herod, and in wishing him good success in that his fucceffion ; while yet this Archelaus, left he lould be in danger of not being thought the genuine son of Herod, began his reign with the murder of three thousand citizens ; as it he had a mind to offer lo many bloody facrifices to God for his government, and to fill the temple with the like number of dead bodies at that festival : That, however, thole that were lett after so many miseries had just reason to consider now at last the calamities they had under. gone and to oppose themselves, like soldiers in war, to receive those stripes upon their faces but not upon their backs, as hitherto, Whereupon they prayed that the Romans would have compassion upon the poor remains of Judea, and not expole what was left of them to such as barbarously tore them to pieces, and that they would join their country to Syria, and administer the government by their own commanders; whereby it would [soon] be demonstrated that those who are under the carumny of seditious persons, and lovers of war, know how to bear governors that are set over them, if they be but tolerable ones.” So the Jews concluded their accusation with this request. Then role up Nicolaus, and conluted the acculations which were brought against the kings, and himself accused the Jewish nation, as hard to be ruled, and as naturally disobedient to kings. He also reproached all thole kinsmeg of Archelaus who had left him, and were gone over to his ac. cusers,

3. So Cæsar, after he had heard both sides, diffolved the af.

* Here we have a Rrong confirmation that it was Xerxes, and not Artaxerxes, minder whom the main part of the Jews returned out of the Babylonianı captivity ; i e, in the days of Ezra and Nehemiah. The fame thing is in the Antiquitics Bu XI. chap. v. lect. u. Vol. I.

sembly for that time ; but a few days afterward he gave the one half of Herod's kingdom to Archelaus, hy the name of Ethrarch, and promised to make him king also afterward, if he rendered himself worthy of that dignity. But as to the other half he divided it into two tetrarchies, and gave them to two other fons of Herod, the one of them to Philip, and the other to that Antipas, who contested the kingdom with Archelaus. Under this last was Perea, and Galilee, with a revenue of two hundred talents : But Batanea, and Trachoni. tis, and Auranitis, and certain parts of Zeno's house about Jamnia, with a revenue of an hundred talents, were made fub. ject to Philip ; while Idumea, and all Judes, and Samaria, were parts of the ethnarchy of Archelaus, although Samaria was ealed of one quarter of its taxes, out of regard to their not having revolted with the rest of the nation. He also made fubject to him the following cities, viz. Strato's Tower, and Sebafte, and Joppa, and Jerusalem ; but as to the Grecian cities, Gaza, and Gadara, and Hippos, he cut them off from the kingdom, and added them to Syria. Now the reventie oł the country that was given to Archelaus, was four hundred tala enis. Salome allo, besides what the king had left her in his testaments, was now made mistress of Jamnia, and Alhdod, and Phalaelis. Cæsar did moreover bestow upon her the royal palace of Alcalon; by all which the got together a revenue of sixty talents ; but he put her house under the ethnarchy of Archelaus And for the rest of Herod's offspring, they rea ceived, what was bequeathed to them in his testaments ; but, besides that, Cæsar granted to Herod's two virgin daughters five hundred thousand drachmäe of silver, and gave thein in marriage to the sons of Pheroras : But after this family difa tribution, he gave between them what had been bequcathed ro, him by Herod, which was a thousand talents, reserving to himself only fome inconsiderable presents, in honour of the deceased.

CH A P. VII. The Hisory of the Spurious Alexander. Archelaus is Banish

ed and Glaphyra dies, after what was to happen to both of them had been Jhewed them in Dreams.

91. IN the mean time there was a man, who was by birth a

1 Jew, but brought up at Sidon with one of the Roman freed-men, who falsely pretended, on account of the relemblance of their countenances, that he was that Alexander who was lain by Herod. This man came to Rome, in hopes of not being detected. He had one who was his affiftant of his own nation, and who knew all the affairs of the kingdom, and instructed him to say, how those that were sent to kill him and

Ariftobulus had pity upon them, and stole thein away, by put ting bodies that were like theirs in their places. This mande. ceived the Jews that were at Crete, and got a great deal of money of them for travelling in fplendour ; and thence failed to Melos, where he was thought lo certainly genuine, that he got a great deal more money, and prevailed with those that had treated him to rail along with him in Rome. So he landed at Dicearchia, (Puteoli,], and got very large presents from the Jews who dwelt there, and was conducted by his father's friends as it he were a king ; nay, the resemblance in his countenance procured him so much credit, that those who had seen Alexander, and had known hin very well, would take their oaths that he was the very fame person. Accordingly the whole body of the Jews that were at Rome, ran out in crowds. to see him, and an innumerable multitude there was which stood in the narrow places, through which he was carried ; for. those of Melos were so far distračted, that they carried him in a sedan, and maintained a royal attendance for him at their. own proper charges..

2. Bui Cæsar, who knew perfectly well the lineaments of Alexander's face, because he had been accused by Herod be. fore him, discerned the fallacy in his countenance, even be. fore he saw the man. However, he suffered the agreeable fame that went of him to have some weight with him, and sent Celadus, one who well knew Alexander, and ordered him to bring the young man to him. But when Cælar saw himn, he immediately discerned a difference in his countenance, and when he had dilcovered that his whole body was of a more robust texture, and like that of a slave, he understood the whole was a contrivance. But the impudence of what he said greatly provoked him to be angry at him ; for when he was asked about Ariftobulus, he said, "That “ he was also preserved alive, and was left on purpose in Cyprus, for fear of treachery, be. cause it would be harder for plotters to get them boih into. their power while they were separate." Then did Cæsar take bin by himselt privately, and laid to him, " I will give thee thy life, if thou wilt discover who it was that persuaded thee to forge such stories.” So he said that he would discover him, and followed Cælar, and pointed to that Jew who abused the reremblance of his !ace to get money ; for that he had receiv. ed more presents in every city than ever Alexander did when he was alive. Cesar laughed at the contrivance, and put this fpurious Alexander among his rowers, on account of the strength of his body, but ordered him that persuaded him to be put to death. But for the people of Melos, they had been sufficiently punished for their folly by the expences they had been at on his account.

3. And now Archelaus took poslestion of his ethnarchy and used not the Jews only, but the Samaritans also barbarously ; and this out of his resentment of their old quarrels with him..

Whereupon they both of them fent ambassadors against him to Cæsar and in the ninth year of his government he was banish. ed to Vienna, a city of Gaul, and his effects were put into Cæsar's treasury. But the report goes, that before he was sent for by Cæsar, he seemed to see nine ears of corn, full and Jarge, but devoured by oxen. When, therefore, he had lent for the diviners and some of the Chaldeans, and inquired of them what they thought it portended, and when one of them had one interpretation, and another had another, Simon, one of the seat of the Essens, said, That" he thought the ears of corn denoted year, and the oxen denoted a mutation of things, because by their ploughing they made an alteration of the country. That therefore he should reign as many years as there were ears of corn, and after he had passed through va. rious alterations of fortune, should die.” Now five days af. ter Archelaus had heard this enterpretation he was called to his trial,

4. I cannot also but think it worthy to be recorded, what dream Glaphy ra, the daughter of Archelaus, king of Capa. docia, had, who had at firit been wife to Alexander, who was the brother of Archelaus, cencerning whom we have been discoursing. This Alexander was the lon of Herod the king, by whom he was put to death, as we have already related. This Glaphyra was married, after his death, to Juba, king of Lybia, and, after his death, was returned home, and lived a widow with her father. Then it was that Archelaus, the ethnarch saw her, and fell so deeply in love with her, that he divorced Mariamne, who was then his wife, and married her. When, therefore, the was come into Judea, and had been there for a little while, Khe thought the Taw Alexander Stand by her, and that he said to her, “ Thy marriage with the king of Lybia might have been sufficient for thee; but thou walt not contented with him, but art returned again to my family, to a third husband, and him, thou impudent woman haft thou cholen for thine husband, who is my brother. However, I thall not overlook the injury thou hast offered me; I shall soon) have thee again, whether thou wilt or no.” Now Glaphyra hardly survived the narration of this dream of hers two days,

CH A P. VIII. Archelaus's Ethnarchy is reduced into a [Roman] Province.

The Sedition of Judas of Gulilee. The three fects of the

Jews. 01. AND now Archelaus's part of Judea was reduced into

La province, and Coponius, one of the equestrian or. der among the Romans, was sent as a procurator, having the power of Llife and death put into his hands by Cæfar. Ua.

der his administration it was, that a certain Galilean, whose name was Judas, prevailed with his countrymen to revolt, and said they were cowards it they would endure to pay a tax to the Romans, and would, after God, submit to mortal men as their lords. This man was a teacher ot a peculiar feet of his own, and was not at all like the rest of thole their lead. ers.

2. For there are three philolophical seats among the Jews, The followers of the firff of' which are the Pharisees of the second the Sadducees, and the third lect. which pretends to a leverer discipline, are called Essens. Thele last are Jews by birth, and seem to have a greater affection for one another than the other fects have. These Ellens reject pleasures as an evil, but esteem continence, and the conquest over our passions to be virtue. They neglect wedlock, but choose out other per. fons children while they are pliable, and fit for learning, and esteem them to be of their kindred, and form them accord. ing to their own manners. They do not absolutely deny the fitness of marriage, and the succession of mankind thereby continued ; but they guard against the lascivious behaviour of women, and are persuaded that none of them preserve their fidelity to one man.

3. These men are despilers of riches, and so very communi. cative as raises our admiration. Nor is there any one to be found among them who hath more than another; for it is a law among them, that those who come to them must let what they have be common to the whole order, inson uch that among them all there is no appearance of poverty or excess of riches, but every one's possessions are intermingled with every other's por sessions,and so there is as it were,one patrimony among all the brethren. They think that oil is a defilement; and it any one of them be anointed, without his own approbation, it is wiped off his body ; for they think to be {wcay is a good thing, as they do also to be clothed in white garments. They also have Itewards appointed to take care of iheir cominon affairs, who every one of them have no separate business for any, but what is for the uses of them all.

4. They have no one certain city, but many of them dwell in every city; and if any of their left come from other places, what they have lies open for them, just as if it were their own, and they go into such as they never knew before, as it they had been ever so long acquainted with them. For which reason they carry nothing at all with them when they travel into remote parts, though till they take their weapons with them, for fear of thieves. Accordingly there is, in every city where they live, one appointed particularly to take care of strangers, and to provide garments and other necessaries for them. But the habit and managernent of their bodies is such as children use who are in fear of their inafters. Nor do they allow of the change of garments, or of shoes, till they be first

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