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entirely torn to pieces, or worn out by time. Nor do they either buy or sell any thing to one another, but every one of them gives what he hath to him that wanteth it, and receives from him again in lieu of it what may be convenient for him. felt; and although there be no requintal made, they are fully allowed to take what they want of whomfuever they pleafe.
5. And as for their piety towards God, it is very extraordinary ; For before sun-rising they !peak not a word about profane matters, but put up certain prayers, which they have feceived from their foretathers, as it they made a supplication for its rising. After this every one of them are sent away by their curators to exercise some of those arts wherein they are skilled, in which they labour with great diligence till the fifth hour. After which they assemble themselves together again into one place, and when they have clothed themselves in white veils, they then bathe their bodies in cold water. And after this purification is over, they every one meet together in an apartment of their own, into which it is not permitted to any one of another feet to enter ; while they go, after a pure manner, into the dining-room, as into a certain holy temple, and quietly set themselves down ; upon which the baker lays them loaves in order; the cook' allo brings a Single plate of one tood, and fets it before every one of them ; but a priett says grace before meat, and it is unlawful for any one to taste of the tood before grace he said. The fame priest, when he hath dined, says grace again after meat ; and when they begin, and when they end, they praise God, as he that bestows their food upon them; after which they lay aside their (white garments, and betake themselves to their labours again till the evening; then they return home to fupper, after the same manner, and if there be any ftrangers there they fit down with them. Nor is there ever any clamour or difturbance to pollute their house, but they give every one leave to speak in their turn; which silence thus kept in their house appears to foreigners like lome tremendous mystery ; the cause of which is that perpetual sobriety they exercile, and the fame settled measure of meat and drink that is allotted them, and that such as is abundantly sufficient for them.
6. And truly, as for other things, they do nothing but according to the injun&tions of their curators ; only these two things are done among them at every one's own free will, which are to afsift those that want it, and to shew mercy; for they are permitted of their own accord to afford succour to such as deserve it, when they stand in need of it, and to beftow food on thole that are in distress ; but they cannot give any thing to their kindred without the curators. They dif. pense their anger after a just manner, and restrain their paffion. They are eminent for fidelity, and are thë ministers of peace; whatloever they lay also is firmer than an oath ; but swearing įs avoided by them, and they esteem it * worse than perjury ; for they fay, that he who cannot be believed, without siwear ing by God. is already condemned. They allo take great pains in studying the writings of the ancients and choose out of them what is most for the advantage of their soul and body, and they enquire after such roots and medicinal stones as may cure their distempers,
7. But now, if any one hath a mind to come over to their fećt, he is not immediately admitted, but he is prescribed the fame method of living which they use for a year, while he continues excluded, and they give him also a small hatchet, and the forementioned girdle, and the white garment. And when he hath given evidence, during that time, that he can observe their continence, he approaches nearer to their way of living, and is made a partaker of the waters of purification; yet is he not even now admitted to live with them; for after this demonstration of his fortitude, his temper is tried two more years, and it he appear to be worthy, they then admit him into their society. And before he is allowed to touch their common food, he is obliged to take tremendous oaths, that in the first place, he will exercise piety towards God, and then that he will observe justice towards men, and that he will do no harm to any one, either of his own accord, or by the command of others; that he will always hate the wicked, and be alsistant to the righteous; that he will ever thew fidelity to all men and especially to those in authority ; becaule no one ob. tains the government without God's aslistance; and that if he be in authority, he will at no time whatever abuse bis authority, nur endeavour to outshine his subjects, either in his garmenis, or any other finery ; that he will be perpetually a lover of truth, and propose to hiinself to reprove those that tell lies; that he will keep his hands clear from thelt, and his soul from unlawful gains; and that he will neither conceal any thing from those of his own sect, nor discover any of their doctrines to others, no, not though any one should compel him fo to do at the hazard of his lite. Moreover he swears to communicate their doctrines to no one any otherwise than as he received them himself; that
• This praêlice of the Essens, in refusing to swear, and esteeming swearing on ordinary occasions, worse than perjury, is delivered here in general words, as are the parallel injunctions of our Saviour, Matt. v. 34. xxiii. 16. and of St. James, . 12. but all admit of particular exceptions, for solemn causes, and on great and necellary occasions. Thus thele verv Ellens, who here do fo zealously avoid (wearing, are related, in the very next section, to admit none till they cake tremendous caths to perform their leveral duties to God, and to their neighbour, without supposing they thereby break this rule not to swear at all. The case is the fame in Christianity, as we learn from the Apostolical Constitutions, which although they agree with Christ, and St. James, in torbidding to swear in general, ch. v. 12. ch. vi. 23 yet do they explain it elsewhere, by avoiding to Twear fallely, and to swear ofen and in vain," ch ii 36. and again, by * not swearing at all," but with al adding, that " if that cannot be avoided, to swear truly," ch vii. 3, ; which a bundantly explain to us the nature of the measures of this general injunction.
he will abstain from robbery, and will equally preserve the books belonging to their sect, and the names of the * angels (or messengers). These are the oaths by which they secure their profelytes to themselves.
8. But for those that are caught in any heinous fins, they calt them out ot their fociety, and he who is thus feparated from them, does often die alter a miserable manner; for as he is bound by the oath he hath taken, and by the customs he hath been engaged in, he is not at liberty to partake of that food that he meets with elsewhere, but is forced to eat grass, and to familh his body with hunger, till he perilh ; for which reason they receive many of them again, when they are at their last gasp, out of compassion to them, as thinking the miseries they have endured till they came to the very brink of death, to be a sufficient punishment for the fins they had been guilty of
9. But in the judgments they exercise they are most accu. rate and juft; nor do they país sentence by the votes of a court that is fewer than an hundred. And as to what is once determined by that number, it is unalterable. What they most of all honour, after God himself, is the name of their legilator (Moses], whom if any one blaspheme he is punished capitally. They also think it a good thing to obey their elders, and the major part. Accordingly, it ten of them be siting together, no one of them will Ipeak while the other nine are against it. They alla avoid spitting in the midst of them, or on the right side. Moreover, they are stricter than any other of the Jews in resting from their Jabours on the seventh day ; for they not only get their food ready the day before, that they may not be obliged to kindle a fire on that day, but they will not remove any vessel out of its place, nor go to stool thereon. Nay, on other days they dig a fmall pit, a foot deep, with a paddle, (which kind of hatchet is given them, when they are first admitted among them), and cover. ing the lelves round with their garment that they may not affront the divine rays of light, they ease themselves into that pit, after which they put the earth that was dug out again into the pit; and even this they do only in the more lonely places, which they choose out for this purpose; and although
* This mention of the names of angels, fo particular preserved by the Ellens, (if it means more than tholę me lengers which were imployed to bring them the peculiar books of their teci), looks like a prelude to that worshipping of angels, blained by St Paul, as fuperititious, and unlawful, in some such lort of people as these Effens were, Colot. ii. 8 as is the prayer to, ur towards the fun for his rising every moming, mentioned before, 5, very like those not much later observances made mention of in the preaching of Peter, Authent. Rec Pt II. pag. 669 and regarding a kind of worihip of angels, of the month, and of the moon, and not celebratiog the new moons, or other feitivals, unless the moon appeared. Which indeed seems to me the earliest mention of any regard to the moon's phasis in fixing the Jewish calendar; of which the Talmud and later sabbits lak to much, and upon so liule very abcreat foucd sion,
this easement of the body be natural, yet it is a rúle with them to wash themselves alier it, as if it were a defilement to them.
10. Now after the time of their preparatory trial is over, they are parted into four classes ; and so far are the juniors inferior to the seniors, that it the seniors thould be touched by the juniors, they must wash themselves, as if they had intermixed themselves with the company of a foreigner. They are long-lived also, infomuch that many of them live above an hundred years, by means of the fimplicity of their diet, nay, as I think, by means of the regular course of lite they ob. serve also. They contemn the miseries of life, and are above pain, by the generosity of their mind. And as for death. if it will be for their glory, they esteem it better than living always; and indeed our war with the Romans gave abundane evidence what great fouls they had in their trials, wherein, although they were tortured and distorted, burnt and torn to pieces, and went through all kinds of instruments of torment, that they might be forced either to blafpheme their legiflator, or to eat what was forbidden them, ģet could they not be made to do either of them, no, nor once to flatter their tormentors, or to shed a tear ; but they smiled in their very pains, and laughed those to lcorn who inflicted the torments upon them, and resigned up their souls with great alacrity, as expecting to receive them again.
11. For their doctrine is this, That bodies are corruptible, and that the matter they are made of is not permanent; but that the fouls are immortal, and continue for ever, and that they come out of the most fubtil air, and are united to their bodies as to prisons, into which they are drawn by a certain natural incitement; but that when they are set tree from the bonds of the fleth, they then, as released from a long bondage, rejoice and mount upward. And this is like the opinion of the Greeks, that good souls have their babitations beyond the ocean, in a region that is neither oppressed with forms of rain, or Inow, or with intenle heat, but that this place is such as is refreshed by the gentle breathing of a weft wind, that is perpetually blowing from the ocean ; while they allot to bad louls a dark and tempestuous den, full of never cealing pun. ishments. And indeed the Greeks seem to me to have followed the same notion, when they allot the iftands of the blessed to their brave men, whom they call heroes, and demigods; and to the souls ot the wicked, the region of the une godly in Hades, where their fables relate that eertain persons, fuch as Sisyphus, and Tantalus, and Ixion, and Tityus, are punished ; which is built on the first fuppofition, that fouls are immortal ; and thence are those exhortations to virtue, dehortations from wickedness collected, whereby good men are bettered in the conduct of their life by the hope they have of reward after their death, and whereby the vehement incli.
nations of bad men to vice are restrained, by the fear and expectation they are in that although they should lie concealed in this life they should suffer immortal punishment after their death. There are the divine doctrines of the Ellens * about the soul, which lay an unavoidable bait for such as have once had a taste of their philosophy.
12. There are also those among them who undertake to + foretel things to come, by reading the holy books, and using several sorts of purifications, and being perpetually convert ant in the discourses of the prophets; and it is but seldom that they miss in their predictions.
13. Moreover, there is another order of Effens, who agree with the rest as to their way of living, and customs, and laws, but differ from them in the point of marriage, as thinking that by not marrying they cut off the principal part o human lite, which is the prospect of succeflion; nay rather, that if all men should be of the same opinion, the whole race of mankind would tail. However, they try their spouses for three years, and if they find that they have their natural purgations thrice, as trials that they are likely to be fruitful, they then actually marry them. But they do not use to accompany with their wives when they are with child, as a demontration that they do not marry out of regard to pleasure, but for the sake of pol. terity, Now the women go into the baths with some of their garments on, as the men do with somewhat girded about them. And these are the customs of this order ot Effens.
14. But then as to the two other orders as first mentioned, the Pharisees are those who are esteemed most skilful in die exact explication of their laws, and introduce the first feet. These afcribe all to late, (or providence, and to God, and yet allow, that to act what is right, or the contrary, is principally in the power of men; although fate does Co-operate in every action. They say, that all Touls are incorruptible, but that the I fouts of good men only are removed into other bodies, but that the fouls of bad men are subject to eter
* Of these Jewish or Efene, and indeed Christian doctrines concerning souls, both good and bad, in Hades, sec that excellent discourse or homily, of our Josephus's concerning Hades, at the end of Vol. III.
+ Dean Aldrich reckons up three examples of this gift of prophecy in several of these Ellens out of Josephus himself, viz. in the History of the War. B. I. ch. iii, . 5. Vol. III, Judas foretold the death of Antigonus at Strato's Tower ; B. II. chap. vii. $ 3. Simon foretold that Archelaus should reign but nine or ten years ; and Antiq 8. XV. chap x. 64 & Vol. II. Menehem foretold that Herod should be king, and should reign tyrannically, and that for more than twenty or even thirty years. All which came to pass accordingly.
* There is so much more here about the Efiens, than is cited from Josephus in Porphyry and Eufebius, and yet so much less about the Pharisees and Sadducees, the two other Jewish fedts, than would naturally be expected in proportion to the Esens or third sect, nay than leems to be referred to by himself ellew here, that one is tempted to suppose Josephus had at first written less of the one, and more of the two others than his present copies afford us; as also, that, by some unknown apcident, our preseos copies are here made up of the larger edition is the firß cabing