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nal punishment. But the Sadducees are those that compose, the second order, and take away fate entirely, and suppose that God is not concerned in our doing or not doing what is evil; and they say, that to act what is good, or what is evil, is at mens own choice, and that the one or the other belongs so to every one, that they may act as they please. They also take away the beliet of the immortal duration of the soul, and the punishments and rewards in Hades. Moreover, the Phar. isees are friendly to one another, and are for the exercise of concord, and regard for the public ; but the behaviour of the Sadducees one towards another is in some degree wild, and their conversation with those that are of their own party is as. barbarous as if they were strangers to them. And this is what I had to say concerning the philofophic sects among the Jews.
CHA P. IX.
The Death of Salome. The Cities which Herod. and Philip
built. Pilate occahons Difurbances. Tiberius puts Agrippa into Bonds, but Caius frees him from them, and makes. him King. Herod. Antipas is Banished.
ND now as the ethnarchy of Archelaus, was fallen.
into a Roman province, the other sons of Herod Philip, and that Herod who was called Antipas. each of them took upon them the adminiftration of their own tetrarchies ; for when Salome died, she bequeathed to Julia, the wife of Augustus, both her toparchy, and Jamnia, as also her planta. tion of palm-trees that were in Phasaelist. But when the Roman empire was translated to Tiberius, the son of Julia. upon the death of Augustus, who had reigned fifty-seven years,
and of the smalier in the record. See the note iq Havercamp's edition However, what Josephus says in the name of the Pharisees, that only the louis of good men go out of one body into another, although all lovls" be immortal, and Sill the souls of the bad are liable to eternal punishment ; as allo what he says afterwards, Antiq. B. XVIII chap i 3. Vol. II. that the soul's vigour is inmorial, and that under the earth'they receive rewards or punishments according as their lives have been virtuous or vicious in the present world ; that to the bad is allotted an eternal prison, but that the good are permitted to live again in this world, are neare Jy agreeable to the doctrines of Christianity. Only Jolephus's rejection of the return of the wicked into other bodies, or into this' world, which he grants to the good, looks tomewhat like a contradi&tion to St Paul's account of the doctrine of the Jews, that they themselves allowed that there should be a resurrection of the dead, both of the juft and unjust,"'Acts ch. xxiv, 15. Yet because josephus's account is that of the Pharisees, and St Paul's that of the Jews in general, and of him. feif, the contradiction is not very certain
* We have here, in that Greek MS. which was once Alexander Petavius's, but is now in the library at Leyden, two most remarkable additions to the common coo' pies, though deemed worth little remark by the editor ; which, upon the mention of Tiberius's coming to the empire, inferts first the famous testimony of Josephus concerning Jesus Christ, as it flands verbatim in the Antiquities, B. XVIII. chap. iii, $. 3. Vol. II. with some parts of that excellent discourse or homily of Jose
fix months and two days, both Herod and Philip continued in their tetrarchies, and the latter of them built the city Cæfarea, at the fountains of Jordan, and in the reign of Paneas; as also the city Julias, in the lower Gaulanitis. Herod also built the city Tiberias in Galilee, and in Perea [beyond Jordan another that was also called Julias.
2. Now Pilate, who was sent as a procurator into Judea by Tiberius, sent by night those images of Cæsar that are called enhgns, into Jerusalem. This excited a very great tumult a. mong the Jews when it was day ; for those that were near them were astonished at the fight of them, as indications that their laws were trodden under foot ; for thote laws do not permit any sort of image to be brought into the city. Nay, belides the indignation which the citizens had themselves at this procedure, a valt number of people came running out of the country. These came zealously to Pilate to Cefarea, and besought him to carry those ensigns out of Jerusalem, and to preserve chem their ancient laws inviolable; but upon Pilate's denial of their request they fell down prostrate upon the ground, and continued immoveable in that posture for five days and as many nights.
3. On the next day Pilate sat upon his tribunal in the open market place, and called to him the multitude, as desirous to give them an answer; and then gave a signal to the soldiers, that they should all by agreement at once encompass the Jews with their weapons ; fo the band of soldiers stood round about the Jews in three ranks. The Jews were under the utmost confternation at that unexpected light. Pilate also said to them, that they should be cut in pieces, unless they would admit of Cæsar's images, and gave intimation to the soldiers to draw their naked swords. Hereupon the Jews, 'as it were at one signal, fell down in vast numbers together, and exposed their necks bare, and cried out that they were soones ready to be slain, than that their law should be tranigressed. Hereup. 012 Pilate was greatly surprised at their prodigious superstition, and gave order that the ensigns should be presently carried out ot Jerusalem.
4. After ibis he raised another disturbance, by expending that facred treasure which is called * Corban upon aqueducts, whereby he brought water from the distance of four hundred furlongs. Ac this the multitude had indignation; and when Pilate was come to Jerusalem, they came about his tribunal, and made a clamour at it. Now when he was apprised afore
phus concerning Hades, annexed to the work. But, what is here principally to be noted, is this, that in this homily, Jofephus, having just mentioned Christ, as “ God the Word, and the Judge of the world, appointed by the Father," &c. adds, That he had himself elsewhere ipoken about him more nicely or particularly.".
* This use of the corban, or oblation, as here applied to the sacred money dedicated to God in the treasury of the temple, illuflrates our Saviour's words, Mark vii. 1., 12.
hand of this disturbance, he mixed his own foldiers in their armour with the multitude, and ordered them to conceal themfelves under the habits of private mep, and not indeed to ufe their swords, but with their staves to beat those that made the clamour. He then gave the fanal from his tribunal (to do as he had bidden them. Now the Jews were lo fadly beaten, that many of them perished by the stripes they received, and many of them perished as trodden to death by themfelyes; by which means the multitude was astonished at the calamity of those that were slain, and held their peace.
5. In the mean time Agrippa, the lon of that Ariftobulus who had been sain by his father Herod, came to Tiberius, to accuse Herod the tetrarch; who not admitting of his accufa. tion, he stayed at Rome, and cultivated a friendship with others of the men of note, but principally with Caius the son of Germanicus, who was then but a private person. Now this Agrippa, at a certain time, feasted Caius; and as he was very complaifant to him on several other accounts, he at length stretched out liis hands and openly wished that Tiberius might die, and that he might quickly see him emperor of the world. This was told to Tiberius by one of Agrippa's domeftics, who thereupon was very angry, and ordered Agrippa to be bound, and had him very ill treated in the prilon for six months, until Tiberius died, after he had reigned twenty-two years six months and three days.
6. But when Caius was made Cæsar, he released Agrippa from his bonds, and made him king of Philip's retrarchy, who was now dead; but when Agrippa had aşrived at that degree of dignity, he inflamed the ambitious desires of Herod the tetrarch, who was chiefly induced to hope for the royal ay. thority by his wife Herodias,, who reproached him for his floth, and told him that it was only because he would not fail to Cæfar, that he was destitute of that great dignity ; for boce Cæfar had made Agrippa a king, from a private person, much more would he advance him from a tetrarch to that dignity. These arguments prevailed with Herod, fo that he came to Caius, by whom he was punished for his ambition, by being banilhed into Spain; for Agrippa followed him, in order to accuse him ; to whom also Caius gave his tetrarchy, by way of addition. So Herod died in Spain, whither his wife had followed him.
CH A P. X. Caius Commands that his Statue should be set up in the Temple
itself; and what Petronius did thereupon. 1. N OW Caius Cæsar did so grossly abuse the fortune he
had arrived at, as to take himself to be a god, and to desire to be so called also, and to cut off those of the greatest nobilitý out of his country. He also extended his impiècy as far as the Jews. Accordingly he sent Petronius with an army to Jerusalem, to place his * ftatues in the temple, and commanded him that in case the Jews would not admit of them, he lhould lay those that opposed it, and carry all the rest of the nation into captivity ; but God concerned himselt with thele his commands. However, Petronius marched out of Antioch into Judea, with three legions and many Syrian auxiliaries. Now as to the Jews, some of them could not believe the stories that spake of a war, but thole that did be lieve them were in the utmost distress how to defend them. selves, and the terror diffused itself presently through them all; for the army was already come to Ptolemais.
2. This Piolenais is a maritime city of Galilee, built in the great plain. It is encompafled with mountains ; that on the east side sixty furlongs off, belongs to Galilee; but tbat on the south belongs to Carmel, which is distant from it an hundred and twenty furlongs; and that on the north is the bigbeft of them all, and is called by the people of the coun. cry, the Ladder of the Tyrians, which is at the distance of an hundred furlongs. The very Imall river + Belus runs by it, at the distance of two furlongs ; near which there is † Mema non's monument, and hath near it a place no larger than an hundred cubits, which deserves admiration; for the place is found and hollow, and affords fuch fand as glass is made of. which place, when it hath been emptied by the many ships there loaded, it is filled again by the winds, which bring in. to it, as it were on purpofe, that fand which lay remote, and was no more than bare common sand, while this mine pref. ently turns it into glasly sand. And what is to me ftill more wonderful, that glasfy (and which is fuperfluous, and is once removed out of the place, becomes bare common sand a. gain. And this is the nature of the place we are speaking of
3. But now the Jews got together in great numbers with their wives and children into that plain that was by Ptolemais, and made fupplication to Petronius, first for their laws, and, in the next place, for themselves. So he was prevailed upon by the multitude of the supplicants, and by their lupplica. tions, and left his army and the statues at Ptolemais, and then went forward into Galilee, and called together the multitude, and all the men of note to Tiberias, and shewed them the power of the Romans, and the threatenings of Cæsar ; and,
• Tacitus owns that Caius commanded the Jews to place his effigies in their temple, though he be mistaken when he adds, that the Jews thereupon took arms.
† This account of a place near the mouth of the river Belus in Phenicia, whence came that sand out of which the ancients made their glass, is a known thing in hifi tory, particularly in Tacitus and Strabo, and more largely in Fliny.
ITbis Memnon had several inonuments, and one of them appears, both by Strabo snd Diodorus, to have been in Syria, and not improbably in this very place,
besides this, proved that their petition was unreasonable, be, caule while all the nations in subjection to them had placed the images of Cæsar in their several cities, among the rest of their gods, for them alone to oppose it, was almost like the behaviour of revolters, and was injurious to Cælar. ..
4. And when they insisted on their law, and the custom of their country, and how it was not only not permitted thein to make either an image of God, or indeed of a man, and to put it in any despicable part of their country, much less in the temple itself; Petronius replied, " And am not I also, said he, bound to keep the law of my own lord ? Fur if I transgress it, and spare you, it is but just that I perish ; while he that sent me, and not I, will commence a war against you; for I ani under command as well as you:" Hereupon the whole mul. titude cried out, That " they are ready to luffer for their law." Petronius then quitted them, and said to them, “Will you then make war againl Cæsar ?" The Jews laid, “ We offer, sacrifice twice every day for Cæsar, and for the Roman peo. ple; but that if he would place the images among them, he must first sacrifice the whole Jewish nation ; and that they were ready to expose themselves, together with their children and wives, to be fain.” At this Petronius was astonished, and pitied them on account of the inexpressible senle of re. ligion the inen were under, and that courage of theirs whichi made them ready to die for it; so tbey were ditmiffed with out fuccels,
5. But on the following days he got together the men of power privately, and the multitude publicly, and sometimes he used perluasions to them, and sometimes he gave them his advice ; but he chiefly made use of threatenings to them, and inlifted upon the power of the Romans, and the anger of Caius ; and befides upon the necessity he was himself under [to do as he was enjoined). But as they could be no way prevailed upon, and he saw that the country was in danger of lying without tillage ; for it was about feed time that the multitude continued for fitty days together idle ; so he at last got them together, and told them, That "it was best for him to run some hazard himselt; tor either, by the divine aslistance, I shall prevail with Cæsar, and thall myself escape the danger as well as you, which will be matter of joy to us both; or, in case Cæsar continue in his rage, I will be ready to expose my own lite for such a great number as you are.” Whereupon he dismissed the multitude, who prayed greatly for his prosperity; and he took the army out of Ptolemais, and reTurned to Antioch; from whence he presently sent an epiftle to Cæsar, and intormeit him of the irruption he had made in. to Judea, and of the supplications of the nation ; and that un. less lie had a mind to lose both the country, and the men in it, he must permit them to keep their law, and must countermand his former injunction. Caius answered that epiflle in a violent