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way, and threatened to have Petroniuš put 10 death for his being so tardy in the execution of what he had commanded. But it happened that those who brought Caius's epifle were tossed by a storm, and were detained on the sea for three months, while others that brought the news of Caius's death had a good voyage. Accordingly Petronius received the epistle concerning Caius seven and twenty days before he re. ceived that which was against himsell.

C H A P. XI.

Concerning the Government of Claudius, and the Reign of A.

grippa. Concerning the Deaths of Agrippa, and of Herod, and what Children they both left behind them. NOW

OW when Caius had reigned three years and eight

months, and had been Dain by treachery, Claudius was hurried away by the armies that were at Rome to take the government upon him : But the lenate, upon the reler. ence of the consuls, Sentius Saturninus, and Pomponius Se. cundus, gave orders to the three regiments of soldiers that stayed with them to keep the city quiet, and went up into the capitol, in great numbers, and resolved to oppose Claudius by force, on account of the barbarous treatment they had met with from Caius ; and they determined either to settle the na. tion under an aristocracy, as they had of old been governed, or at least to choose by vote such an one for emperor as might be worthy of it.

2. Now it happened that at this time Agrippa sojourned at Rome, and that both the senate called him io consult with them, and at the same time Claudius sent for him out of the camp, that he might be serviceable to him as he should have occasion for his lervice. So he perceiving that Claudius was in effect made Cæsar already, went to hiin, who sent him as an ambassador to the senate, to let them know what his inten. tions were ; That" in the first place, it was without his seek. ing. that he was hurried away by the soldiers ; moreover, that he thought it was not just to delert those toldiers in such their zeal for him, and that it he should do so, his own fortune would be in uncertainty : For that it was a dangerous case to have been once called to the empire. He added farther, that he would administer the government as a good prince, and not like a tyrant ; for that he would be satisfied with the hono ir ot being called emperor, but would, in every one of his actions, permit them all to give him their advice; for that although he had not been by nature for moderation, yet would the deaih of Caius afford him a sufficient demonstration how soberly he ought to act in that station."

3:, This meliage was delivered by Agrippa; to which the VOL. III.


senate replied, That “ since they had an army, and the wiseft counsels on their fide, they would not endure a voluntary flavery.” And when Claudius beard what answer the senate had made, he sent Agrippa to them again, with the following message, That "he could not bear the thoughts of betraying them that had given their oaths to be true to him ; and that he saw he must fight; though unwillingly, against such as he had no mind to fight; that however, sit it must come to that), it was proper to choose a place without the city for the war; because it was not agreeable to piety to pollute the temples of their own city with the blood of their own countrymen, and this only on occasion of their imprudent conduct." And when Agrippa had heard this message, he delivered it to the senators.

4. In the mean time one of the soldiers belonging to the sea nate drew his sword, and cried out, O my fellow soldiers, what is the meaning of this choice of ours, to kill our brethren, and to use violence to our kindred that are with Claudi. us? while we may have him for our emperor whom no one can blaine, and who hath so many just reasons (to lay claim to the government]; and this with regard to those against whom we are going to fight." When he had said this, he Inarched through the whole fenate, and carried all the soldiers along with him. Upon which all the patricians were immediately at a great fright at their being thus defertedBut still. because there appeared no other way whither they could turn themselves for deliverance, they made haite the farne way with the soldiers, and went to Claudius. But those that had the greatest luck in flattering the good fortune of Claudius betimes, met them before the walls with their naked swords, and there was reason to fear that those that came first might have been in danger, before Claudius could know what violence the loldiers were going to offer them, had not Agrippa ran before, and told him what a dangerous thing they were going about, and that unless he reitrained the violence of these men, who were in a fit of madness against the patricians, he would lose those on whose account it was most desirable to rule, and would be emperor over a delart.

5. When Claudius heard this, he reflrained the violence of the soldiery, and received the senate into the camp, ard treat. ed them alter an obliging manner, and went out with them presently to offer their

thank offerings to God, which were proper upon his first coming to the empire. Moreover be beRowed on Agrippa his whole paternal kingdom immediately, and added to it, besides those countries that had been given by Auguflus to Herod, Trachonitis and Auranitis, and ftill be. fides these, that kingdom which was called the kingdom of Li. Janias. This gift lie declared to the people by a decree, but ordered the magiftrates to have the donation engraved on tables of brals, and to be set up in the capitol. He bestowed on his brother Herod, who was also his fon-in-law, by marrying his daughter Bernice, the kingdom of Chalcis.

6. So now riches flowed in to. Agrippa by his enjoyment of Jo large a dominion, nor did he abuse the money he had on {mall matters, but he began to encompass Jerusalem with such a wall, which, had it been brought to perfection, had made it impracticable for the Romans to take it by fiege; but his death, which happened at Cesarea, before he had raised the walls to their due height, prevented him. He had then reigned three years, as he had governed his tetrarchies three other years, He lelt behind him three daughters, born to him by Cypros, Bernice, Mariamne, and Drufilla, and a fun born of the same mother, whole name was Agrippa : He was lett a very young child, so that Claudius made the country a Roman province, and sent Cuspius Fadus to be its procurator, and after him Tiberias Alexander, who making no alterations of the ancient laws, kept the nation in tranquility. Now after this Herod the king of Chalcis died, and left behind him two sons, born to him of his brother's daughter Bernice; their names were Bernicanus, and Hyrcanus. (He also let behind him) Arif .cobulus, whom he had by his former wife, Mariamne. "There was belides another brother of his chat died a private person, bis name was also Ariftobulus, who left behind him a daugh ter, whose name was Jotape: And thele, as I have formerly said, were the children of Ariftobulus the son of Herod which Ariitobulus and Alexander were born to Herod by Mariamne, and were Nain by him. But as for Alexander's posterity they reigned in Armenia.


Many Tumults under Cumanus, which were composed by Quad

ratus. Felix is Procurator of Judea. Agrippa is advanced from Chalcis to a greater Kingdom. $1. of ,

TOW after the death of Herod, king of Chalcis, uncle's kingdom, while Cumanus took upon him ihe office of procurator of the rest, which was a Roman province, and therein he fucceeded Alexander, under which Cumanus began the troubles, and the Jews ruin came on; tor wlien the multitude were come together to Jerusalem, to the feast of unleavened bread, and a Roman cohort ftood over the cloisters of the temple, (for they always were armed, and kept guard at the festivals, to prevent any innovation, which the multitude thus gathered together might make), one of the soldiers pulled back his garinent, and couring down after an indecent manner, and turned his breech to the Jews, and spake such words as you may expect upon such a posture. At this the whole multitude had indignation, and made a clamour to Cu. manus, that he would punish the foldier; while the ralher part of the youth, and such as were naturally the most tumulia úous, fell to fighting, and caught up stones, and threw them at the soldiers. Upon which Cumapus was afraid left all the people Thould make an assault upon him, and sent to call for more armed men, who, when they came in great numbers into the cloilers, the Jews were in a very great consternation, and being, beaten out of the temple, they ran into the city, and the violence with which they crowded to get out was so great that they trode upon each other, and squeezed one another, till ten thousand of them were killed, inlomuch that this teaf hecame the cause of mourning to the whole nation, and every family lamented [their own relations.]

2. Now there followed after this another calamity, which arose from a tumult made by robbers; for at the public road of Beth-horon, one Stephen, a servant of Cæsar, carried some furniture, which the robbers tell upon, and seized; upon this Cumanus fent men to go round about to the neighbouring yillages, and to bring their inhabitants to him bound, as laying it to their charge that they had not pursued after the thieves, and caught them. Now here it was that a certain sols dier, finding the lacred book of the law, tore it to pieces, and *threw it into the fire. Hereupon the Jews were in great disorder as if their whole country were in a flame, and assembled themselves so many of them by their zeal for their religion, as by an engine, and ran together with united clamour to Cesarea, to Cumanus, and inade supplication to him, that he would not overlook this man, who had offered such an affront to God, and to his law, but punish him for what he had done. Accordingly he perceiving that the multitude wuld not be quiet unless they had a comfortable answer irom him, gave order that the soldier should he brought, and drawn through those that required to have him punished to execution, which being done, the Jews went their ways.

3. After this there happened a fight between the Galileans and the Samaritans ; it happened at a village called Geman, which is situate in the great plain of Samaria, where, as a great number of Jews were going up to Jerufalem to the teast (of tabernacles]," a certain Galilean was llain; and besides a valt number of people ran together out of Galilee, in order to fight with the Samaritan; but the principal men among them came to Cumanus, and befought him, that before the evil became incurable, he would come into Galilee, and bring the authors of this murder to punishment, for that there was no other way to make the multitude separate without

• Reland notes here, that the Talmud, in recounting ten fad accidents for which the Jews ought to rend their garments, reckons this for one, “When they hear that the law of God is burut,".

coming to blows. However Cumanus postponed their supplications to the other affairs he was then about, and sent the petitioners away without fuccels.

4. But when the affair of this murder came to be told at Jerusalem, it put the multitude in disorder, and they left the teaft, and without any generals to conduct them, they march. ed with great violence io Samaria ; nor would they be ruled by any of the magistrates that were set over them, but they were managed by one Eleazer, the son of Dineus, and by Alexander, in these their thievish and feditious attempts. These men fell upon those that were in the neighbourhood of the Acrabatene toparchy, and New them, without sparing any age, and set the villages on fire.

5. But Cumanus took one troop of horsemen, called the troop of Sebafte, out of Celarea, and came to the assistance of thofe that were spoiled; he also seized upon a great number of those that followed Eleazer, and flew more of them. And as for the reft of the multitude of those that went so zeal. ously to fight with the Samaritans, the rulers of Jerusalem ran out clothed with sack-cloth aud having ashes on their head, and begged of them to go their ways, left by their attempt to revenge themselves upon the Saiparitans they should provoke the Romans to come against Jerusalem ; to have compassion upon their country, and temple, their children and their wives, and not bring the utmost dangers of destruction upon them, in order to avenge themselves upon one Galilean only. The Jews complied with these persuasions of theirs, and diíperled themselves; but still there were a great number who betook themselves to robbing in hopes of impunity, and rapines and insurrections of the bolder fort happened over the whole country; and the men of power among the Samaritans came to Tyre, to * Ummidius Quadratus, the president of Syria, and desired that they that had laid waste ihe country might be punilhed: The great men also of the Jews and Jon. athan the son of Ananus, the high-priest, came thither and said, that the Samaritans were the beginners of the disturbance, on account of that murder they had committed, and that Cuma. nus had given occasion to what had happened, by his unwil. lingness to punish the original authors of that murder. •

6. But Quadratus put both parties off for that time, and told them, that when he should come to those places he would make a diligent enquiry after every circumstance. After which he went to Celarea, and crucified all those whom Cu. manus had taken alive, and when from thence he was come to the city Lydda, he heard the affair of the Samaritans, and fent for eighteen of the Jews whom he had learned to have

* This Ummidius, or Numidius, or, as Tacitus calls him, Vinidius Quadratues, is mentioned in an ancient infcription, ftill preserved, as Spanheim here inforins us, which calls him Ummidius Quadralus.

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