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in the east ; nor indeed is it easy for them there, even to hear what is done in those part8. Now it is absurd to make war with a great many, for the sake of one; to do so with such mighty people, for a small cause; and this when these people are not able to know of what you complain , nay, such crimes as we complain of may soon be corrected, for the same procu. rator will not continue for ever ; and probable it is, that the successors will come with more moderate inclinations. But as for war if it be once begun, it is not easily laid down again, nor borne without calamities coming therewith. However, as to the desire of recovering your liberiy, it is unseasonable to indulge it so late ; whereas you ought to have laboured earneftly in old time that you might never have lost it ; for the first experience of slavery was hard to be endured, and the struggle that you might never have been subject to it would have been just ; but that slave who hath been once brought inio subjection, and then runs away is rather a refractory Dave, than a lover of liberty, for it was then the proper time for doing all that was possible, that you might never have adınitted the Romans (into your city), when Pompey came first into the country. But so it was, that so our ancestors and their kings, who were in much better circumstances than we are, both as to money and strong bodies, and (valiant souls, did not bear the onset of a small body of the Roman army. And yet you who have not accustoined yourlelves to obedience from one generation to another, and who are so much interior to those who first submitted, in your circumstances will venture to oppose the entire empire of the Romans; while those Athenians, who, in order to preserve the liberty of Greece, did once let fire to their own city ; who purlued Xerxes, that proud prince, when he sailed upon the land, and walked upon che sea, and could not be contained by the seas, but conducted such an army as was too broad for Europe, and made him run away like a fugitive in a single ship, and brake so great a part of Alia at the Lefler Salamis, are yet at this time lervants to the Romans; and those injun&tions which are sent from Italy, become laws to the principal governing city of Greece. Those Lacedemonians also who got the great victories at Thermopyla and Platea, and had Agesilaus for their king), and learched eyery corner of Asia, are contented to admit the same lords. These Macedonians also, who still tancy what great men their Philip and Alexander were, and see that the latter had promised them the empire over the world, these bear so great a change, and pay their ubedience to those whom foriune hath advanced in their stead. Moreover, ten thousand other nations there are, who had greater reason than we to claim their entire liberty, and yet do submit. You are the only people who think it a disgrace to be seryants to those to whom all the world hath submitted. What sort of an army do you rely on? What are the arms you depend on? Where is your fleet, that may seize upon the Roman seas; and where are those treasures which may be sufficient for your undertakings? Do you suppose, 1 pray you, that you are to make war with the Egyptians, and with the Arabians ? Will you not carefully reflect upon the Roman empire ? Will you not estimate your own weakness ? Hath not your army been often beaten even by your neighbouring nations? While the pow. er of the Romans is invincible in all parts of the habitable earth ; nay rather, they seek for somewhat still beyond that ; for all Euphrates is not a lufficient boundary for them on the east fide, nor the Danube on the north, and for their southern limit, Libya hath been searched over by them, as far as coun. tries uninhabited, as is Cadiz their limit on the west ; nay in. deed, they have sought for another habitable earth, beyond the occan, and have carried their arms as far as such British islands as were never known before. What therefore do you pretend to ? Are you richer than the Galls, stronger than the Germans, wiser than the Greeks, more numerous than all men upon the habitable earth ? What confidence is it that elevates you to oppose the Romans ? Perhaps it will be laid, it is hard to endure slavery. Yes, but how much harder is this to the Greeks, who were esteemed the noblest of all people under the sun. These though they inhabit in a large country, are in subjection to fix bundles of Roman rods. It is the same case with the Macedonians, who have juster reason to claim their liberty than you have. What is the case of five hundred cit. ies of Asia ? do they not fubinit to a Gngle governor, and to the consular bundle of rods ? What need 11peak of the Heniochi, and Cholchi. and the nation of Tauri, those that inhab., it the Bosphoris and the nations about Pontus, and Meotis, who formerly knew not so much as a lord of their own, but are now subject to three thousand armed men, and where forty long ships keep the lea in peace, which before was not navigable, and very tempestuous ? How strong a plea may Bithinia, and Cappadocia, and the people of Pamphilia, the Lycians, and Cilicians, put in for liberty ? But they are made tributary without an army. What are the circumstances of the Thracians ? whose country extends in breadth five days journey, and in lengih seven, and is of a much more harsh constitution, and much more defensible than yours, and by the ri. gour of its cold sufficient to keep off armies from attacking them ; do not they submit to two thousand inen of the Ro. man garrisons ? Are not the Illyrians, who inhabit the country adjoining, as far as Dalmatia and the Danube, governed by barcly two legions ? by which also they put a stop to the incursions of the Dacians. And for the Dalmatians, who have made luch irequent insurrections in order to regain their liberty, and who could never before be so thoroughly subdued, but that they always gathered their forces together again,
and revolted, yet are they now very quiet ander one Roman legion. Moreover, it great advantages might provoke any people to revolt, the Galls might do it best of all, as being jo thoroughly walled round by nature. On the east side by the Alps, on the north by the river Rhine, on she south by the Pyrenean mountains, and on the west by the ocean. Now al. though these Galls have such obstacles before them to prevent any attack upon them, and have no fewer than three hundred and five nations among them, nay have, as one may say, the foundation of domestic happiness within themselves, and send out plentiful streams of happiness over almost the whole world, these bear to be 'tributary to the Romans, and derive their prosperous condition from them; and they undergo this, not because they are of effemipate minds. or because they are of an ignoble stock, as having borne a war of eighty years, in order to preserve their liberty : But by reason of the great regard they have to the power of the Romans, and their good fortune, which is of greater efficacy than their arms. These Galls, therefore,are kept in servitude by twelve hundredsoldiers, which are hardly so many as are their cities; nor hath the gold dug out of the mines of Spain been sufficient for the support of a war to preserve their liberty, nor could their vast distance from the Romans by land and by sea do it ; nor could the martial tribes of the Lusitanians and Spaniards escape; no more could the ocean, with its tide, which yet was terrible to the ancient inhabitants. Nay, the Romans have extended their arms beyond the pillars of Hercules, and have walked among the clouds, upon the Pyrenean mountains, and have subdued these nations. And one legion is a sufficient guard for these people, although they were so hard to be conquered, and at a dil. tance so remote from Rome. Who is there among you who hath not heard of the great number of the Germans? You have, to be sure, yourselves seen them to be strong and tall, and that frequently, since the Romans have them among their captives every where ; yet thele Germans, who dwell in an immense country, who have minds greater than their bodies, and a soul that despises death, and who are in rage more fierce than wild beasts, have the Rhine for the boundary of their enterprises, and are tamed by eight Roman legions. Such of them as were taken captive became their servants; and the rest of the entire nation were obliged to save themselves by flight. Do you also, who depend on the walls of Jerusalem, consider what a wall the Britons had; for the Romans failed away to them, and subdued them while they were encompassed by the ocean, and inhabited an illand that is not less than the [continent of ] this habitable earth; and tour legions are a futficient guard to fo large an island. And why should I speak much more about this matter ? while the Parthians, that most warlike body of men, and lords of so many nations, and encompafled with such mighty forces, send hostages to the Ro. mans ; whereby you may see if you please, even in Italy the noblelt nation of the east, under the notion of peace submitting to serve them. Now when almoft all people under the sun submit to the Roman arms, will you be the only people that make war against them and this without regarding the fate of the Carthaginians, who, in the midit of the brags of the great Hannibal, and the nobility of their Phenician original, fell by the hand of Scipio. Nor indeed have the Cyrenians, derived from the Lacedemonians, nor the Marmaridæ, a nation extended as far as the regions unhabitable for want of water, nor have the Syrtes, a place terrible to such as barely hear it described, the Nafamons and Moors, and the immense multi. ende of the Numidians, been able to put a stop to the Roman valour. And as for the third part of the habitable earth, SAf. rica, whole nations are so many that it is not easy to number them, and which is bounded by the Atlantic sea, and the pila lars of Hercules, and feeds an innumerable multitude of Ethi. opians, as far as the Red fea, these have the Romans subdued entirely. And besides the annual fruits of the earth, which maintain the multitude of the Romans for eight months in the year, this, over and above, pays all sorts of tribute, and affords revenues suitable to the necessities of the government ? Nor do they, like you, esteem such injunctions a disgrace to them, although they have but one Roman legion that abides among them. And indeed what occasion is there for shewing you the power of the Romans over remote countries, when it is so easy to learn it froin Egypt, in your neighbourhood ? This country is extended as far as the Ethiopians, and Arabia the Happy, and borders upon India ; it hath seven millions five hundred thousand men, besides the inhabitants of Alexandria, as may be learned from the revenue of the pole tax ; yet it is not ashamed to submit to the Roman government, although it hath Alexandria as a grand temptation to a revolt, by reason it is so full of people and ot riches, and is besides exceeding large, its length being thirty furlongs, and it breadth no less than ten ; and it pays more tribute tothe Romans in one month than you do in a year ; nay, besides what it pays in money, it sends corn to Rome that supports it for four months in the year : It is also walled round on all sides, either by almost impallible deserts, or seas that have no havens, or by rivers, or by lakes; yet have none of these things been found too Itrong for the Roman good fortune; however, two legions that lie in that city are a bridle both for the remoter parts of Egypt, and for the parts inhabited by the more noble Macedonians. Where then are those people whom you are to have for your auxiliaries ? Muft they come from the parts of the world that are uninhabited ? for all that are in the habitable earth are under the Romans. Unless any of you extend his hopes as far as beyond the Euphrates, and suppose that those of your own nation that dwell in Adiabene will come to your aslistance ; bùt certainly these will not embarrass themselves with an unjuftifiable war, nor if they should follow such ill advice, will the Parthians permit them so to do; for it is their concern to maintain the truce that is between them and the Ro. mans, and they will be suppoled to break the covenants between them, if any under their government march against the Ro. mans. What remains, therefore is this, that you have re. course to divine assistance ; but this is already on the side of the Romans ; for it is impossible that so vast an empire should be settled without God's providence. Reflect upon it how impossible it is for your zealous observations of your religious cuftoms to be here preserved, which are hard to be ob. served even when you fight with those whom you are able to conquer ; and how can you then most of all hope for God's affiftance, when, by being forced to transgress his law, you will make him turn his face from you ? and if you do observe the custom of the Sabbath days, and will not be prevailed on to do any thing thereon, you will easily be taken as were your forefathers by Pompey, who was the busiest in his fiege on those days on which the befieged rested. But if in time of war you transgress the law of your country, I cannot tell on whose account you will afterward go to war ; for your concern is but one, that you do nothing against any of your forefathers; and how will you call upon God to assist you, when you are voluntarily transgreffing against his religion ? Now all men that go to war do it either as depending on divine, or on human aslistance; but fince your going to war will cut off both thofe assistances, those that are for going to war choose evident destruction. What hinders you from slaying your children and wives with your own hands, and burning this most excellent native city of yours ? tor by this mad prank you will however escape the reproach of being beaten. But it were beft, O my friends, it were beft, while the vessel is still in the haven, to foresee the impending storm, and not to fet sail out of the port into the middle of the hurricanes ; for we juftly pity those who fall into great misfortunes without foreseeing them ; but for him who rushes into manifeft ruin, he gains reproaches (instead of commiseration. But certainly no one can imagine that you can enter into a war as by agreement, or that when the Romans have got you under their power, they will are you with moderation, or will not rather, for an example to other nations, burn your holy city, and ut. terly destroy your whole nation ; for those of you, who shall survive the war will not be able to find a place whither to flee, lince all men have the Romans for their lords already, or are afraid they shall have hereafter. Nay indeed, the danger concerns not those Jews that dwell here only, but thole of them which dwell in other cities also ; for there is no people upon the habitable earth which have not some portion of you among them, whom their enemies will say, in case you go to VOL. III.