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Florús, and diverted him from that his attempt ; and that was the occasion that this war lafted so very long, and thereby the Jews were involved in such incurable calamities.
Š. In the mean time many of the principal men of the city were persuaded by Ananus, the son of Jonathan, and invited Cestius into the city, and were about to open the gates for him ; but he overlooked this ffer, partly out of his anger at the Jews, and partly because he did not thoroughly believe they were in earneft ; whence it was that he delayed the matter so long, that the seditious perceived the treachery, and threw Ananus and those of his party down from the wall, and pelting them with ftones, drove them into their houses, but they food them. selves at proper distances in the towers, and threw their darts at those that were getting over the wall. Thus did the Ro. mans make their attack against the wall for five days, but to no purpose : But on the next day. Cestius took a great many of his choicest men, and with them the archers, and attempted to break into the temple at the northern quarter of it ; but the Jews beat them off from the cloisters and repulsed them fever. al times when they were gotten near to the wall, till at length the multitude of the darts cut them off, and made them retire: But the first rank of the Romans rested their fhields upon the wall, and lo did those that were behind them, and the like did. those tbat were still more backward, and guarded theníelves with what they call Testudo [the back of a tortoise, upon which the darts that were thrown fell, and slided off without doing them any harm ; so the soldiers undermined the wall.. without being themselves hurt, and got all things ready for, setting fire to the gate of the temple.
6. And now it was chat a horrible fear seized upon the sedia tious, insomuch, that many of them ran out of the city, as though it were to be taken immediately; but the people upon this took courage, and where the wicked part of the city gave ground, thither did they come, in order to let open the gates, and to admit Cestius as their benefactor, who, had he buc con. tinued the liege a little lénger, had certainly taken the city ; but it was, I suppose, owing to the * averfion God had alrea dy at the city and the fanctuary, that he was hindered from putting an end to the war that very day:
There may another very important and very providential reason be here al figned, for this strange and foolish retreat of Certius ; which, if Josephus had been now a Christian, he might probably have taken 110tice of alfo ; and that is, the affording the Jewith Chrillians in the city an opportunity of calling to mind the prediction and caution given thein by Christ about thirty-three and an half years before, that " when they should lee the abomination of 'defolation (the idolatrous Roman armies, with the images of their idols in their enligns, ready to lay Jerusatem delolate] Itand where it ought not ;" or, in the boly place," or, " when th y should see Jerusalem compassed with armies," they should ther. " flee to the mauntains.". By complying with which those jewish Christians fled to the mountains of Perea, and escaped this destruction. See Lit. Accompl. of Proph.
Nor was there, perhaps, any one instance of a more unpolitic, but: VÜL. III.
pag. 69, 70
7. It then happened that Cestius was not conscious either how the besieged despaired of su cess, nor how courageous the people were for him ; and so he recalled his soldiers from the place, and by despairing of any expectation of taking it, without having received any disgrace, he retired from the city, without any reason in the world. But when the robbers perceived this unexpected retreat of his, they resumed their courage, and ran after the hinder parts of his army and defroyed a considerable number of both their horfemen and footmen ; and now Cestius lay all night at the camp which was at Scopus, and as he went off farther next day, he thereby invited the enemy to follow him, who still fell upon the hind moft, and destroyed them; they also fell upon the flank on each side of the army, and threw darts upon them obliquely, nor durft those that were hindmost turn back upon those who wounded them behind, as imagining that the multitude of those that pursued them was immense ; nor did they venture to drive away those that prefled upon them on each side, because they were heavy with their arms, and were afraid of breaking their ranks to pieces, and because they saw the Jews were light, and ready for making incurfions upon them. And this was the reason why the Romans fuffered greatly, without being able to revenge themlelves upon their enemies ; so they were galled all the way, and their ranks were put into disorder, and those that were thus put out of their ranks were slain, among whom were Priscus, the commander of the fixth legion, and Longinus the tribune, and Emilius Secundus, the commander of a troop of horsemen. So it was not without difficulty that they got to Gabao, their former camp, and that not without the loss of a great part of their baggage. There it was that Cestius staid two days, and was in great distress to know what he frould do in these circumstances; but when, on the third day, he saw a still much greater number of enemies, and all the parts round about him !ull of Jews, he understood that his delay was to his own detriment, and that if he stayed any longer there, he should have ftill more enemies upon him.
8. That therefore he might fly the faster, he gave orders to caft away what might hinder his army's march, so they killed the mules, and other creatures, excepting those that carried their darts, and machines, which they retained for their ow use, and this principally because they were afraid left the Jews should seize upon them. He then made his army march on as far as Bethoron. Now the Jews did not so much press upon them when they were in large open places, but when they were penned up in their descent through narrow paslages, then more providential condu&t than this retreat of Cestius visible during this whole Inze of Jerusalem ; which yet was providentially such a "great tribulation, as had not been from the beginning of the world to that time ; no, nor ever should be." Ibid. pag. 70, 71.
did some of them get before, and hindered them from getting out of them, and others of them thrust the hindermoft down into the lower places, and the whole multitude extended themielves over against the neck of the passage, and covered the Roman army with their darts. In which circumstances, as the footmen knew not how to defend themselves, so the danger preffed the horsemen till more, for they were lo pelted, that they could not march along the road in their ranks, and the ascents were so high, that the cavalry were not able to march against the enemy; the precipices also, and valleys in. to which
they frequently fell and tumbled down, were such on each side of them, that there were neither place for their flight, nor any contrivance could be thought of for their de fence ; till the diftrels they were at laft in was fo-great, that they betook themselves to lamentations, and to such mournful cries as men use in the utmost despair ; the joyful acclamations of the Jews also, as they encouraged one another, echoed the sounds back again, there last composing a noise of those that at once rejoiced, and were in a rage. Indeed things were come to such a pass, that the Jews had almost taken Cestius's entire army prisoners, had not the night come on, when the Romans fled to Bethoron, and the Jews leized upon all the places round about them, and watched for their coming out [in the morning.)
9. And then it was that Cestius, despairing of obtaining room for a public march, contrived how he might beft run away ; and when he had selected four hundred of the most courageous of his soldiers, he placed them at the strongest of their fortifications, and gave order, that when they went up to the morning guard, they should erect their enfigns, that the Jews might be made to believe that the entire army was there Atill, while he himself took the rest of his forces with him, and marched without any noise, thirty furlongs. But when the Jews perceived, in the morning, that the camp was empty, they ran upon those four hundred who had deluded them, and immediately threw their darts at them, and flew them, and they pursued after Cestius. But he had already made use of a great part of the night in his flight, and fill' marched quicker when it was day. Insomuch that the soldiers, through the astonishment and fear they were in, left behind them their engines for fieges, and for throwing of stones, and a great part of the instruments of war. So the Jews went on pursuing the Romans as far as Antipatris, after which, feeing they could not overtake them, they came back, and took the engines, and spoiled the dead bodies, and gathering their prey together which the Romans had left behind them, and came back run. ning and Ginging to their metropolis. While they had themselves loft a few only, but had llain of the Romans five thousand and three hundred footmen, and three hundred and eigh. ty horsemen. This defeat happened on the eighth day of the month Dius, [Marhesyan), in the twelfth year of the reign of Nero.
CHA P. XX.
Cestius sends Ambassadors to Nero. The people of Damascus
say those Fews that lived with them. The people of Jerusalem, after they had [left off pursuing Cestius, return to the City, and get things ready for its defence, and make a great, many Generals for their Armies, and particularly 'Josephus, the Writer of these Books. Some Account of his Adminis. tration.
FTER this calamity had befallen Cestius, many of
the most eminent of the Jews swam away from the city, as from a ship when it was going to sink, Costobarus, therefore, and Saul, who were brethren, together with Philip, the son of Jacimus, who was the commander of King Agrippa's torces, ran away from the city, and went to Cestius. But then how Antipas, who had been belieged with them in the king's palace, he would not fly away with them, was afterward flain by the feditious, we shall relate hereafter. However, Ceftius fent Saul and his friends, at their own desire to Achaia, to Nero, to inform bim of the great distress they were in, and to lay the blame of their kindling the war upon Florus, as hoping to alleviate his own danger, by provoking his indignation against Florus.
2. In the mean time, the people of Damascus, when they were informed of the destruction of the Romans, set about the daughter of those Jews that were among them; and as they had them already cooped up together in the place of public exercises, which they had done out of the suspicion they had of them, they thought they should meet with no difficuliy in the attempt ; yet did they, distrust their own wives, which were almost all of them addicted to the Jewilh religion ; on which account it was that their greatest concern was, how they might conceal these things from them ; so they came upon the Jews, and cut their throats, as being in a narrow place, in number ten thousand, and all of them unarmed, and this in one hour's time, without any body to disturb them.
3. But as to those who had pursued after Cestius, when they were returned back to Jerusalem, they overbore some of thole that favoured the Romans hy violence, and some they persuaded (by entreaties] to join with them, and got together in great numbers in the temple, and appointed a great many generals for the war. * Joseph also the son of Gorion, and Anan
From this name of Jofeph the son of Gorion, or Gorion the son of Joseph, as B. IV. ch. iii. 9. Vol. III. one of the governors of Jerufalem, who was slain at the beginning of the tumults by the zealots, B IV. ch. vi. 1. the much later Jewish author of an history of ihat nation takes his title, and yet personates our true Josephus, the son of Matthias : But the cheat is too gross to be put upon the learn ed world.
us, the high-priest, were chosen as governors of all affairs within the city, and with a particular charge to repair the walls of the city ; for they did not ordain Eleazar the son of Simon to that office, although he had gotten into his poffeffion the prey they had taken from the Romans, and the money they had taken from Cestius, together with a great part of the pub. lic treasures, because they Taw he was of a tyrannical temper, and that his followers were, in their behaviour, like guards about him.' However, the want they were in of Eleazar's mon. ey, and the subtile tricks used by him, brought all so about, that the people were circumvented, and submitted themselves to his authority in all public affairs.
4. They allo chose other generals for Idumea, Jesus the son of Sapphias, one of the high-priests, and Eleazar the son of Ande nias, the high priest; they also enjoined Niger, the then gov. ernor of * Idumea, who was of a family that belonged to Perea, beyond Jordan, and was thence called the Perarte, that he should be obedient to those forenamed commanders. Nor did they neglect the care of other parts of the country, but Joseph the son of Simon, was sent as a general to Jericho, as was Ma. nasseh to Perea, and John, the Eflene, io the toparchy of Thamana ; Lydda was also added to his portion, and Joppa, and Emmaus. But John, the son of Matthias, was made governor of the toparchies of Gophnitica, and Acrabattene, as was Jolephus, the son of Matthias of both the Galilees. Ga. mala also, which was the strongest city in those parts, was put under his command.
5. So every one of the other commanders administered the affairs of his portion with that alacrity and prudence they were masters of ; but as to Josephus, when he came into Galilee, his first care was to gain the good-will of the people of that country, as sensible that he should thereby have in general good succefs, although he shonld fail in other points. And being conscious to himself that it he communicaied part of his power to the great men, he should make them bis taft friends; and that he should gain the same fayour from the multitude, if he executed his commands by persons of their own country, and with whom they were well acquainted; he choseout + seventy of the moft prudent men, and those elders in age, and ap
* We may observe here, that the Idumeans, as having been proselytes of justice since the days of john Hyrcanus, during about 195 years, were row esteemed as part of a Jewish nation, and here provided of a Jewish commander accordingly. See the note upon Antiq. B. XIII. ch. ix. 5 1. Vol II.
+ We lee here, and in Jolephus's account of his own lik 14. Vol. II. how exactly be imitated his legislator Moles, or perhaps only obeyed what he took to be his perpetual law, in appointing feven lesser judges, for smaller causes, in partícular cities, and perhaps for the first hearing of greater causes, with the liberty of an appeal to seventy-one fupreme judges, especially in those causes where life and death were concerned ; as Antiq. B IV. ch. viii. § 14 Vol. I and of his life, \ 14. See also of the War, B. IV. ch. v. 9 4 Vol. III. Moreover we find, feet 7. that be itnitated' Moles, as well as the Romans, in the number and distribution of the