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out and threatened him. On which occasion Jofephus again used a fecond stratagem to escape them; for he got upon the top of his house, and with his right hand desired them to be filent, and said to them, “I cannot tell what you would have, nor can hear what you say, for the confused noise you make: But he said that he would comply with all their demands, in case they would but send some of their number in to him that might talk with him about it.". And when the principal of them, with their leaders, heard this, they came into the house. He then drew them to the most retired part of the house, and thut the door of that hall where he put them, and then had them whipped till every one of their inward parts appeared naked. In the mean time the multitude stood 'round the house, and lupposed that he had a long discourse with those that were gone in, about what they claimed of him. He had then the doors set open immediately, and sent the men out all bloody, which so terribly affrighted thofe that had before threatened him, that they threw away their arms and ran away.,

6. But as for John, his envy grew greater Cupon this elcape of Josephus), and he framed a new plot against him; he pretended to be fick, and by a letter desired that Josephus would give him leave to use the hot baths that were at Tibę. rias, for the recovery of his health. Hereupon Josephus, who hitherto suspected nothing of John's plots against him, wrote to the governors of the city, that they would provide a lodg, ing and necessaries for John; which favours when he had made use of, in two days time he did what he came about; fome he corrupted with delusive frauds, and others with money, and so persuaded them to revalt from Josephus. This Silas who was appointed guardian of the city by Josephus, wrote to him immediately, and informed him of the plot against him; which epiltle when Josephus had received, he marched with great diligence all night, and camè early in the morning to Tiberias; at which time the rest of the multitude met him. But John, who suspected that coming was not for his advan. tage, fent however one of his friends, and pretended that he was sick, and that being confined to his bed he could not come to pay him his respects. But as soon as Josephus had got the people of Tiberias together in the Stadium, and tried to difcourle with them about the letters that he had received, John privately sent some armed men, and gave them orders to 'flay him. But when the people faw that the armed men were a bout to draw their swords, they cried out; at which cry Josephus turned himlelt about, and when he saw that the swords were just at his throat, he marched away in great haste to the sea lhore, and left off that speech which he was going to make to the people, upon an elevation of fix cubits high. He then seized on a ship which lay in the haven, and leaped into it, with two of his guards, and fled away into the midlt of the 7. But now the soldiers he had with him took up their arms, immediately, and marched against the plotters ; but Josephus, was afraid left a civil war should be raised by the envy of a few men, and bring the city to ruin; so he sent some of his party to tell them, that they should do. no more than provide for their own safety, that they should not kill any body., nor accuse any for the occasion they had afforded (of a disorder]. Accordingly thele men obeyed his orders, and were quiet; but the people of the neighbouring country, when they were informed of this plot, and of the plotter, they got together in great multitudes to oppose John. " But he prevented their attempt, and fled away to Gilchala, his native city, while the Galileans çame running out of their several cities to Jose. phus; and as they were now become many ten thousands of armed men, they cried out, that they were come against John the common plotter against their interest, and would at the same time burn him, and that city which had received him. Hereupon Josephus told them that he took their good will to, him kindly, but still he restrained their fury and intended to subdue his enemies by prudent conduct, rather than by, flaying them ; so he excepted those of every city which had joined in this revolt with John, by name, who had readily been Thewed him by those that came from every city, and caused, public proclamation to be made, that he would seize upon the effeas of those that did not forsake John within five days. time, and would burn both their houses and their families with fire. Whereupon three thousand of John's party left him immediately, who came to Josephus, and threw their arms, down at his feet. John then betook himlelf, together with his two thousand Syrian runagates, from open attempts, to more secret ways of treachery. Accordingly, he privately sent messengers to Jerusalem to accufe Jofephus, as having too great power, and to let them know that he would soon come, as a tyrant, to their metropolis, unless they prevented him, This accusation the people were aware of berorehand, but had no regard to it. However, some of the grandees, out of envy, and lome of the rulers allo, sent money to John privately, that he might be able to get together mercenary lol, diers in order to fight Jofephus, they also made a decree of themselves, and this for recalling him from his government, yet did they not think that decree sufficient; so they send withal two ihousand five hundred armed men, and four per, sons of the highest rank amongst them ; Joazar, the son of Nomicus, and Ananias, the son of Sadduk, as allo Simon and Judas, the fons of Jonathan, all very able men in speaking, that these persons might withdraw the good will of the people from Josephus. These had it in charge it he would vojuntarily come away, they should permit him to [ come and] give an account of his conduet, but if he obstinately infifted upon his continuing in his government, they should treat him


as an enemy. Now Josephus's friends had lent him word that an army was coming against him, but they gave no notice bea forehand what the realon of their coming was, that being on. ly known among some secret councils of his enemies; and by this means it was that four cities revolted from him immediately, Sepphoris, and Gamala, and Gilchala, and Tiberias. Yet did he recover these cities without war, and when he had routed those tour commanders by stratagems, and had taken the most potent of their warriors, he sent them to Jerulalem ; and the people (of Galilee l had great indignation at them, and were in a zealous disposition to flay, not only these forces, but those that sent them also, had these forces prevented it by running away.

8. Now John was detained afterward within the walls of Gischala, by the fear he was in of Jofephus; but within a few days Tiberias revolted again, the people within it inviting king Agrippa (to rețurn to the exercise of his authority there). And when he did not come at the time appointed, and when a few Roman horiemen appeared that day, they expelled Jofephus out of the city. Now this revolt of theirs was prefently known at Taricheæ; and as Jofephus had sent out all the soldiers that were with him to gather corn, he knew not how either to march out alone against the revolters, or to stay where he was, because he was afraid the king's soldiers might prevent him if he tarried and might get into the city ; for be did not intend to do any thing on the next day, because it was the fabbath day, and would hinder his proceeding. So he contrived to circumvent the revolters by a itratagem ; and in the first place he ordered the gates of Taricheæe to be thut, that nobody might go out and inform (those of Tiberias), for whom it was intended, what stratagem he was about : He then got together all the ships that were upon the lake, which were found to be two hundred and thirty, and in each of them he put no more than four mariners. So he failed to Tiberias with hafte. and kept at such a distance from the city, that it was no easy for the people to see the vessels, and ordered that the empty vessels thould float up and down there, while himfelt, who had but seven of his guards with him, and thole unarmed also, went so near as to be seen ; but when his adverfaries, who were still reproaching him, Taw him from the walls, they were so astonished that they supposed all the ships were full of armed men, and threw down their arms, and by signals of interceffion they besought him to spare the city.

9. Upon this Josephus threatened them terribly, and reproached them, that when they were the first that took up arms against the Romans, they should spend their force before hand in civil dissenlions, and do what their enemies defired above all things; and that besides they should endeavour so haftily to seize upon him, who took care of their fafety, and had not been abamed to shut the gates of their city against him that built their walls; that, however, he would admit of any intercessors from them that might make some excuse for them, and with whom he would make such agree. ments as might be for the city's security. Hereupon ten of the most potent men of Tiberias came down to him presently, and when he had taken them into one of his vessels, he ordered them to be carried a great way off from the city. He then commanded that fifty others of their senate, such as were men of the greatest eminence, should come to him, that they also might give him some security on their behalt. After which, under one new pretence of another, he called forth others, one after another, to make the leagues between them. He then gave order to the masters of those vessels which he had thus filled, to fail away immediately for Taricheæ, and to confine those men in the prison there ; till at length he took all their senare, consisting of fix hundred persons, and about two thousand of the populace, and carried them away to Ta. richez,

10. And when the reft of the people cried out, that it was one Clitus that was the chief author of this revolt, they desired him to spend his anger upon him [only]; but Josephus, whose intention it was to day nobody, commanded one Levius, belonging to his guards, to go out of the vessel in order to cut off both Člitus's hands; yet wa's Levius afraid to go out by himself alone, to such a large body of enemies, and refus. ed to go. Now Clitus saw that Jofephus was in a great pas. fion in the ship, and ready to leap out of it, in order to execute the punishment himself; he begged therefore from the shore, that he would leave him one of his hands, which Jose. phus agreed to, upon condition that he would himfelf cut off the other hand; accordingly he drew his sword, and with his right hand cut off his left, lo great was the fear he was in of Josephus himself. And thus he took the people of Tiberias prilogers, and recovered the city again with empty ships* and leven of his guard. Moreover, a tew days afterward he retook Gischala, which had revolted with the people of Seppho. ris, and gave his soldiers leave to plunder it ; yet did he get all the plunder together, and restored it to the inhabitants, and the like he did to the inhabitants of Sepphoris, and Tiberias, For when he had subdued those cities, he had a mind, by letting them be plundered to give them some good instruction, while at the same time he regained their good will by restoring them their money again.

* i cannot but think this stratagem of Josephus, which is related both here and in his life, 432, 33. Vol. III. to be one of the finest that ever was invented and executed by any warrior whatsoever.


when upon

The Jews make all ready for the War. And Simon the Son of

Gioras falls to the plundering.
ND thus were the disturbances of Galilee quieted,

their cealing to prosecute their civil di sensions, they betook themselves to make preparations for the war with the Romans. Now in Jerusalem the high-priest Ananus, and as many of the men of power as were not in the interest of the Romans, both repaired the walls, and made a great many warlike instruments, insomuch that in all parts of the city darts and all sorts of armour were upon the anvil. Al. though the multitude of the young men were engaged in exercises, without any regularity, and all places were full of tu. multuous doings; but the moderate fort were exceedingly fad, and a great many there were who, out of the prospect they had of the calamities that were coming upon them, made great lamentations. There were allo such omens observed as were understood to be forerunners of evils, by such as loved peace, but were by those that kindled the war interpreted so as to suit their own inclinations; and the very state of the city, even before the Romans came against it, was that of a place deomed to destruction. However, Ananus's concern was this, to lay aside, for a while, the preparations for the war, and to perfuade the feditious to consult their own interest, and to reftrain the madness of those that had the name of zealots, but their violence was too hard for him, and what end he came to we shall relate hereafter.

2. But as for the Acrabbene to parchy, Simon, the son of Gioras got a great number of thole that were fond of innovations together, and betook himself to ravage the country; nor did he only harrass the rich mens houses, but tormented iheir bodies; and appeared openly and beforehand to affe& tyranny in his government. And when an army was sent against him by Ananus, and the other rulers, he and his band retired to the robbers that were at Masada, and staid there, and plundered the country of Idumea with them, till both Ananus, and his other adversaries were slain, and until the rulers of that country were fo afflicted with the multiude of those that were Nain, and with the continual ravage of what they had, that they railed an army, and pui garrisons into the villages, to secure ihem from those insulis ; and in this late were the affairs of Judea at that time,

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