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torrents, which issue out of the mountains, and with springs that never fail to run, even when the torrents fail them, as they do in the dog days. Now the length of Perea is from Mache. rus to Pella, and its breadth fron Philadelphia to Jordan: Its northern parts are bounded by Pella, as we have already said, as well as its western with Jordan ; the land of Moab is its fouthern border, and its eastern limits reach to Arabia, and Silbonitis, and besides to Philadelphene and Gerasa.

4. Now as to the country of Samaria, it lies between Judea and Galilee; it begins at a village that is in the great plain called Ginea, and ends at the Acrabbene toparchy, and is entirely of the same nature with Judea ; for both countries are made up of hills and vallies, and are moist enough for agriculture, and are very fruittul. They have abundance of trees, and are full of autumnal fruit, both that which grows wild, and that which is the effect of cultivation. They are not naturally watered by many rivers, but derive their chiet moisture from rain-water, of which they have no want ; and for those rivers which they have, all their waters are exceeding sweet : by realon allo of the excellent grass they have, their cattle yield more milk than do those in other places; and, what is the greatest sign of excellency, and of abundance, they each of thein are very full of people.

5. In the limits of Samaria and Judea lies the village Anuath, which is also named Borceos. This is the northern boundary of Judea. The southern parts of Judea if they be mea. [ured lengthways, are bounded by a village adjoining to the confines of Arabia ; the Jews that dwell there call it Fardan. However, its breadih is extended from the river Jordan to Joppa. The city Jerusalem is Guated in the very middle ; on which account lome have, with sagacity enough, called that çity the navel of the country. Nor indeed is Judea destitute ot luch delights as come from the sea, fince its maritime places extend as far as Ptolemais ; it was parted in eleven portions, of which the royal city Jerusalem was the supreme, and prefided over all the neighbouring country, as the head does over the body. As to the other cities that were inferior to it, they presided over the several toparchies ; Gophna was the second of those cities and next to that Açrabatta, after them Thamina, and Lydda, and Emmaus, and Pella, and Idumea and Engad. di, and Herodium, and Jericho; and after them came Jamnia and Joppa, as presiding over the neighbouring people : And besides these there was the region of Gamala, and Gaulanitis, and Batanea, and Trachonitis which are also parts of the king. dom of Agrippa. This (last country begins at mount Liba. nus, and the fountains of Jordan, and reaches breadihways to the lake of Tiberias ; and in length is extended from a village called Arpha, as far as Julias. Jis inhabitants are a mixture of Jews and Syrians. And ikus have 1, with all possible brevity, described the country of Judea, and thole that lie round about it.


Josephus makes an attempt upon Sepphoris, but is repelled. Ti.

tus comes with a great Army to Ptolemais. 1. N OW the auxiliaries which were sent to assist the

TV people of Sepphoris, being a thousand horlemen, and six thousand tootmen, under Placidus the tribune, pitched their camp in two bodies in the great plain. The foot were put into the city to be a guard to it, but the horse lodged abroad in the camp. These last, by marching continually one way or other, and over-running the parts of the adjoining country, were very troublesome to Josephus and his men; they also plundered all the places that were out of the city's liberty, and intercepted such as durft go abroad. On this account it was that Josephus marched against the city, as hoping to take what he had lately encompassed with so {trong a wall, before they revolted from the rest of the Galileans, that the Romans would have had much ado to take it: By which means he proved too weak, and failed of his hopes, both as to the forcing the place, and as to his prevailing with the people of Sepphoris to deliver it up to him. By this means he provoked the Romans to treat the country according to the law of war ; nor did the Romans, out of the anger they bore at this attempt, leave off either by nightor by day, burning the places in the plain, and stealing away the cattle that were in the coun. ary, and killing whatsoever appeared capable of fighting pera petually, and leading the weaker people as slaves into captiv. ity ; so that Galilee was all over filled with fire and blood ; nor was it exempted from any kind of misery or calamity, for the only refuge they had was this, that when they were purTued, they could retire to the cities which had walls built them by Josephus.

2. But as to Titus, he failed over from Achaia to Alexandria, and that sooner than the winter sealon did usually permit ; so he took with him those forces he was sent for, and marching with great expedition, he came suddenly to Ptole· mais, and there finding his father, together with the two legions the fifth and the tenth, which were the most eminent legions of all, he joined them to that fitteenth legion which was with his father : Eighteen cohort8 followed these legions : There came also five cohorts from Cesarea, with one troop of horsemen, and five other troops of horsemen from Syria. Now these ten cohorts had severally a thousand footmen, but the other thirteen cohorts had no more than Gx hundred footmen a piece, with a hundred and iwenty horsemen. There were also a considerable number of auxiliaries got together, that came from the Kings Antiochus and Agrippa, and Sohemus,

each of them contributing one thousand footmen that were archers, and a thousand horsemen. Malchus also, the king of Arabia, sent a thousand horsemen, besides five thousand tools men, the greatest part of which were archers : So that the whole army, including the auxiliaries fent by the kings, as well horsemen as footmen, when all were united together, ac mounted to sixty thousand, besides the servants, who, as they followed in vast numbers, so because they had been trained up in war with the rest, ought not to be distinguished from the fighting men ; for as they were in their master's service in times of peace, so did they undergo the like dangers with them in times of war, insomuch that they were inferior to none ei. ther in skill or in strength, only they were subject to their masters


A Description of the Roman Armies, and Roman Camps; and of

other particulars, for which the Romans are commended.

$1. N OW here one cannot but admire at the precaution

IV of the Romans, in providing themselves of such household servants, as might not only serve at other times for the common offices of life, but might also be of advantage to them in their wars. And indeed it any one does but attend to the other parts of their military discipline, he will be forced to contess, that their obtaining fo large a dominion, hath been the acquisition of their valour, and not the bare gift of fortune : For they do not begin to use their weapons first in time of war, nor do they then put their hands first into motion, while they avoided so to do in times of peace ; but, as if their weapons did always cling to them, they have never any truce from warlike exercises ; nor do they stay till times of war admonilh them to use them; for their military exercises differ not at all from the real use of their arms, but every soldier is every day exercised, and that with great diligence, as if it were in time of war, which is the reason why they bear the fatigue of battles so easily ; for neither can any disorder remove them from their ulual regularity, nor can fear affright them out of it, nor can labour tire them : Which firmness of conduct makes them always to overcome those that have not the same firmnels ; nor would he be mistaken that should call thole theil exercises unbloody battles, and their battles bloody exercises. Nor can their enemies easily surprise them with the suddenness of their incursions; for as soon as they have marched into an enemy's land, they do not begin to fight till they have walled their camp about; nor is the fence they raise rashly made, or uneven ; nor do they all abide in it, nor do those that are in it take their places at random; but if it lappens that the ground

is uneven, it is firft levelled : Their camp is also four square by mealure, and carpenters are ready in great numbers, with their tools, to erect their buildings for them *

2. As for what is within the camp, it is set apart for rents, but the outward circumference hath the resemblance to a wall, and is adorned with towers at equal distances, where between the towers stand the engines for throwing arrows, and darts, and tor singing stones, and where they lay all other engines that can annoy the enemy, all ready for their several operations. They also ere&t four gates, one at every side of the circumference, and those large enough for the entrance of the beafts, and wide enough for making excursions, if occasion should require. They divide the camp within into Itreets, very conveniently, and place the tents of the commanders in the middle, but in the very midst of all is the general's own tent, in the nature of a temple, insomuch, that it appears to be a city built on the sudden, with its market place, and place for handicraft trades, and with leats for the officers superior and inferior, where, it any differences arile, their causes are heard and determined The camp, and all that is in it, is encompassed with a wall round about and that sooner than one would imagine, and this by the multitude and the skill of the labourers ; and if occasion require, a trench is drawn round the whole, whose depth is four cubits, and its breadth equal.

3. When they have thus secured themselves, they live together by companies, with quietness and decency, as are all their other affairs managed with good order and security. Each company hath also their wood, and their corn, and their water brought them, when they stand in need of them ; for they nei. ther lup nor dine as they please themselves Gngly, but all to. gether. Their times allo for sleeping, and watching, and ris. ing, are notified beforehand by the found of trumpets, nor is any thing done without such a signal : And in the morning the soldiery go every one to their centurions, and these centurions to their tribunes, to falute them; with whom all the superior officers go to the general of the whole army, who then gives them of course the watch-word, and other orders, to be by them carried to all that are under their command ; which is also observed when they go out to fight, and thereby they turn themselves about on the sudden when there is occa

• This description of the exa& symmetry and regularity of the Roman army and of the Roman encampments, with the founding their trumpets, &c, and order of war, described in this and the next chapter, is so very like to the symmetry and regularity of the people of Israel in the wildernels, (see description of the temples, ch. ix.) that one cannot well avoid the supposal, that the one was the ultimate pattern of the other, and that the tactics of the ancients were taken from the rules given by God to Moles. And it is thought by some skillul in these matters, that thele accounts of Josephus, as to the Roman camp and armour, and conduct in war are preferable to those in the Roman authors themselves.

fion for making fallies, as they come back when they are recalled in crowds also.

4. Now when they are to go out of their camp, the trumpet gives a sound, at which time nobody lies ftill, but at the first intimation they take down their tents, and all is made ready for their going out ; then do the trumpets found again, to order them to get ready for the march; then do they lay their baggage suddenly upon their mules, and other beasts of burthen, and stand, as at the place of starting, ready to march; when also they {et fire to their camp, and this they do because it will be easy for them to erect another camp, and that it may not ever be of use to their enemies. Then do the trumpets give a lound the third time, that they are to go oui, in order to excite those that, on any account, are a little tardy, that so no one may be out of his rank when the army marches. Then does the crier stand at the general's right hand, and asks them thrice in their own tongue, whether they be now ready to go out to war or not ? To which they reply as often, with a loud and cheerful voice, saying, We are ready. And this they do almost before the question is asked them: They do this as fill. ed with a kind of martial fury, and at the same time that they to cry out, they lift up their right hands also.

5. When, after this, they are gone out of their camp, they alt march without noise, and in a decent inanner, and every one keeps his own rank, as if they were going to war. The footmen are armed with breast plates, and head-pieces, and have swords on each side, but the sword which is upon their left side is much longer than the other, for that on the right fide is not longer than a span. Those footmen also that are chosen out from the rest to be about the general himself, have a lance and a buckler, but the rest.of the foot soldiers have a spear and a long buckler, besides a saw and a basket, a pickaxe, and an axe a thong ot leather, and a hook, with provi. fions for three days ; so that a fooiman hath no great need of a mule to carry his burthens. The horsemen have a long sword on their right sides, and a long pole in their hand; a fhield also lies by them obliquely on one side of their horses, with three or more daris that are borne in their quiver, having broad points and not smaller than spears. They have also head-pieces, and breaft-plates, in like manner as have all the footmen. And for those that are chosen to be about the gen. eral, their armour no way differs from that of the hurleinen belonging to other troops; and he always leads the legions forth to whom the lot assigns that employment.

6. This is the manner of the marching and resting of the Romans, as also these are the several lorts of weapons they use. But when they are to fight, they leave nothing without forecast, nor to be done off hand, but counsel is ever first taken before any work is begun, and what hath been there refolved upon is put in execution presently ; for which realon VOL. 111.


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