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the Romans, for to gain their victories as cheap as they could, since they are not forced to fight, but only to enlarge their own dominions. So he repelled the Jews in great measure by the Arabian archers, and the Syrian slingers, and by those that threw stones at them, nor was there any intermission of the great number of their offensive engines. Now the Jews fuffered greatly by these engines, without being able to escape from them, and when these engines threw their stones or jave. lins a great way, and the Jews were within their reach, they pressed hard upon the Romans, and tought desperately, without sparing either soul or body, one part succouring another by turns, when it was tired down.

19. When therefore Vespasian looked upon himself as in a manner besieged by these sallies of the Jews, and when his banks were now not far from the walls, he determined to make use of his battering ram, This battering ram is a vast beam of wood like the mait of a ship, its forepart is armed with a thick piece of iron at the head of it, which is so carved as to be like the head of a ram, whence its name is taken. This ram is Aung in the air by ropes passing over its middle, and is hung like the balance in a pair of scales from another beam, and braced by strong beams that pass on both sides of it in the na. ture of a cross. When this ram is pulled backward by a great number of men with united force, and then thrust forward by the same men, with a mighty noile, it batters the walls with that iron part which is prominent. Nor is there any tower so strong, or walls so broad, that can refift any more than its first batteries, but all are forced to yield to it at last. This was the experiment which the Roman general betook himself to, when he was eagerly bent upon taking the city ; but found lying in the field so long to be to his disadvantage, because the Jews would never let him be quiet. So these Romanis brought the feveral engines for galling an enemy nearer to the walls, that they might reach such as were upon the wall, and endeavoured to frustrate their attempts ; thele threw itones and javelins at them, in the like manner did the archers and singers come both together closer to the wall. This brought matters to such a pass that none of the Jews durft mount the walls, and then it was that the other Romans brought the battering ram which was cased with hurdles all over, and in the upper part was lecured by skins that covered it, and this both for the security of themselves and of the engine. Now at the very first itroke of this engine the wall was Thaken and a terrible clamour was raised by the people within the city, as if they were already taken.

20. And now when Josephus faw this ram ftill battering the same place, and that the wall would quickly be thrown down by it, he resolved to elude for a while the force of the engine : With this design he gave orders to fill facks with chaff, and to hand them down before that place where they saw the ram ale ways battering, that the stroke might be turned afide, or that the place might feel less of the strokes by the yielding nature of the chaff. This contrivance very much delayed the attempts of the Romans, because, let them remove their engine to what part they pleased, those that were above it removed their facks, and placed them over against the strokes it made, insoinuch that the wall was no way hurt, and this by diversion of the strokes, till the Romans made an opposite contrivance of long poles, and by tying hooks at their ends cut off the facks. Now when the battering rain thus recovered its force, and the wall having been but newly built, was giving way, Josephus and those about him had afterward immediate recourse to fare to defend themlelves withal ; whereupon they took what materials foever they had that were but dry, and made a sally three ways, and set fire to the machines, and the hurdles, and the banks of the Romans themselves ; nor did the Romans well know how to come to their aslistance, being at once under a confternation at the Jews boldness, and being prevented by the flames from coming to their assistance; tor the materials being dry with the bitumen and pitch that were among them, as was brimstone also, the fire caught hold of every thing immediately, and what cost the Romans a great deal of pains was in one hour conlumed.

21. And here a certain Jew appeared worthy of our relation and commendation ; he was the son of. Sameas, and was called Eleazar, and was born at Saab in Galilee. This man took up a stone of a vast bigness, and threw it down from the wall up. on the ram, and this with so great a force that it brake off the head of the engine. He also leaped down, and took up the head of the ram from the mide of them, and without any concern, carried it to the top of the wall, and this while he stood as a fit mark to be pelted by all his enemies. Accordingly he Teceived the strokes upon his naked body, and was wounded with five darts ; nor did he mind any of them while he went up to the top of the wall, where he stood in the sight of them all, as an instance of the greatest boldness; after which he drew himself on a heap with his wounds upon him, and fell down together with the head of the ram. Next to him two brothers Thewed their courage, their names were Netir and Philip, both of them of the village Ruma, and both of them Galileans alfo ; these men leaped upon the soldiers of the tenth legion, and tell upon the Romans with such a noise and toice as to disorder their ranks, and to put to flight all upon whomsoever they made their allaults.

22. After these men's performances, Josephus, and the rest of the multitude with him, took a great deal of fire, and burnt both the machines, and their coverings, with the works be. longing to the fifth, and to the tenth legion, which they put to flight ; when others followed them immediately, and buried those instruments, and all their materials under ground. How. ever, about the evening the Romans erected the battering ram again against that part of the wall which had suffered before ; where a certain Jew that defended the city from the Romans, hit Vespasian with a dart in his foot, and wounded him a little, the distance being to great that no mighty impression could be made by the dart ihrown so far off. However this caused the greatest disorder among the Romans; for when those who stood near him saw his

blood, they were disturbed at it, and a seport went abroad through the whole army that the general was wounded, while the greatest part left the fiege, and came running together with surprise and fear to the general; and before them all came Titus, out of the concern he had for his father, insomuch that the multitude were in great confufion, and this out of the regard they had for their general, and by reason of the agony that the son was in. Yet did the enemy foon put an end to the son's fear, and to the disorder the army was under, for being superior to his pains, and endeavouring Toon to be seen by all that had been in a fright about him, he excited them to fight the Jews more briskly ; for now every body was willing to expose himself to danger immediately, in order to avenge their general, and then they encouraged one another with loud voices, and ran hastily to the walls.

23. But still Josephus and those with him, although they tell down dead one upon another by the darts and stones which the engines threw upon them, yet did not they deseri the wall, but tell upon those who managed the ram, under the protect ion of the hurdles, with fire, and iron weapons, and stones ; and these could do little or nothing, but fell perpetually, while they were seen by those whom they could not lee for the light of their own flame thone about them, and made them a most visible mark to the enemy as they were in the day time, while the engines could not be teen at a great diftince, and to what was thrown at them was hard to be avoided, for the force with which these engines threw ftones and daris made them hurt feveral at a time and the violent noise of the stones that were caft by the engines were so great, that they carried away the pinnacles of the wall, and broke off the corners of the towers ; for no body of men could be so strong as not to be overthrown, to the last rank by the largeness of the stones. And any one may learn the force of the engines by what happened this very night ; for as one of thole ibat ftood round about Josephus was near the wall, his head was carried away by such a Ione, and his scull was flung as far as three furlongs. In the day time, also, a woman with child had her belly lo violently Aruck, as she was just come out of her houle, that the infant was carried to the distance of halt a turlong, so great was the force of that engine. The noise ot the instruments themselves was very terrible, the sound of the darts and stones that were thrown by them, was so allo ; of the same fort was that noise the dead bodies made, when they were dashed against the wall; and indeed dreadful was the clamour which these things raised in the women within the city, which was echoed back at the same time by the cries of such as were Nain ; while the whole space of ground whereon they fought ran with blood, and the wall might have been ascended over by bodies of the dead carcasses ; the mountains also contributed to increase the noise by their echoes, nor was there on that night any thing of terror wanting, that could either affe&t the heating, or the fight; yet did a great part of those that fought so hard for Jotapata fall manfully, as were a great part of ihem wounded. However, the morning watch was come ere the wall yielded to the machines employed against it, though it had been battered without intermiffion. However, thofe within covered their bodies with their armour, and raised works over against that part which was thrown down, before those machines were laid, by which the Romans were to ascend into the city.

24. In the morning Vespasian got his army together, in order to take the city by storm], after a little recreation upon the hard pains they had been at the night before ; and, as he was desirous to draw off those that opposed him from the plac'es where the wall had been thrown down, he made the most courageous of the horsemen get off their horses, and placed them in three ranks over against thole ruins of the wall, but covered with their armour on every side, and with poles in their hands, that so these might begin their ascent as soon as the instruments for such ascent were laid ; behind them he placed the flower of the footmen ; but for the rest of the horse, he ordered them to extend themselves over against the wall, upon the whole hilly country, in order to prevent any from escaping out of the city when it should be taken ; and behind these he placed the archers round about, and commanded them to have their darts ready to shoot. The same com. mands he gave to the slingers, and to thole that managed the engines, and bid them to take up other ladders, and have ready to lay upon those parts of the wall which were yet untouched, that the besieged might be engaged in trying to hinder their ascent by them, and leave the guard of the parts that were thrown down, while the rest of them should be over-borne by the darts cast at them, and might afford his men an entrance into the city.

25. But Jofephus, understanding the meaning of Vespafian's contrivance, fet the old men, together with those that were tired out, at the sound parts of the wall, as expecting no liarm from those quarters, but set the strongest of his men at the place where the wall was broken down, and betore them all six men by themselves, among whom he took his share of the first and greatest danger. He also gave orders, That" when the legions made a shout they ihould stop their ears, that they might not be affrighted at it, and that, to avoid the multitude of the enemies darts, they should bend down on their knees, and cover themselves with their fhields, and that they should retreat a little backward for a while, till the archers should have empried their quivers ; but that, when the Romans should lay their instruments for afcending the walls, they should leap out on the sudden, and with their own instruments should meet the enemy, and that every one should itrive to do his best, in order, not to defend his own city, as if it were possible to be preserved, but in order to revenge it, when it was already deItroyed ; and that they should set before their eyes how their old men were to be flain, and their children and wives were to be killed immediately by the enemy; and that they would beforehand spend all their fury on account of the calamities just coming upon them, and pour it out on the actors.”

26. And thus did Josephus dispose of both his bodies of men : But then for the uleless part of the citizens, the women and children, when they saw their city encompassed by a threefold army, (for none of the usual guards that had been fighting before were removed), when they also faw not only the walls thrown down, but their enemies, with swords in their hands, as also the hilly country above them shining with their weapons, and the darts in the hands of the Arabian archers, they made a final and lamentable outcry of the destruction, as if the misery were not only threatened, but actually come upon them already. But Jofephus ordered the women to be shut up in their houses, left they should render the warlike actions of the men too effeminate, by making them commiferate their condition, and commanded them to hold their peace, and threatened them if they did not, while he came himself before i he breach, where his allotment was; for all those who brought ladders to the other places, he took no notice of them, but earnestly waited for the shower of arrows that was coming.

27. And now the trumpeters of the several Roman legions founded together, and the army made a terrible shout, and the darts, as by order, flew fo fast, that they intercepted the light. However, Jofephus's men remembered the charges he had given them, they stopped their ears at the founds, and covered their bodies against the darts ; and as to the engines that were fet ready to go to work, the Jews ran out upon them, before those that thould have used them were gotten upon them. And now, on the ascending of the soldiers, there was a great con. flict, and many actions of the hands, and of the soul, were exhibited, while the Jews did earnestly endeavour, in the extreme danger they were in, not to shew less courage, than those who, without being in danger, fought fo ftoutly against them; nor did they leave Itruggling with the Romans till

they either tell down dead themielves, or killed their antagonists. But the Jews grew weary with defending themselves continually, and had not enow to come in their places, and succour them; while on the side of the Romans fresh men still succeeded those that were tired, and fill new men foon got upon the machines

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