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for ascent, in the room of those that were thrust down, those encouraging one another, and joining fide to side with their shields, which were a protection to them, they became a bo. dy of men not to be broken, and as this band thrust away'the Jews, as though they were themselves but one body, they began already to get upon the wall.

28. Then did Josephus take necessity for his counsellor in this utmost distress, (which necessity is very fagacious in inven. tion, when it is irritated by despair), and gave orders to pour scalding oil upon those whole shields protected them. Where. upon they soon got it ready, being many that brought it, and what they brought being a great quantity also, and poured it on all sides upon the Romans, and threw down upon them their vessels as they were still hissing from the heat of the fire : this lo burnt the Romans, that it dispersed that united band, who now tumbled down from the wall, with horrid pains, for the oil did easily run down the whole body from head to foot, under their entire armour, and fed upon their flesh like flame itself, its fat and unctuous nature rendering it foon heated, and slowly cooled ; and as the men were cooped up in their head-pieces, and breast plates they could no way get free from this burning oil, they could only leap and, roll about in their pains, as they fell down from the bridges they had laid. And as they thus were beaten back, and retired to their own party, who fill pressed them forward, they were easily wounded by those that were behind them.

29. However, in this ill success of the Romans, their cour. age did not tail them, nor did the Jews want prudence to op. pole them; for the Romans, although they saw their own men thrown down, and in a miserable condition, yet were they vehemently bent against those that poured the oil upon them, while every one reproached the man before him as a coward, and one that hindered him from exerting himself; and while the Jews made use of another stratagem to prevent their ascent, and poured boiling senegreek upon the boards in or. der to make them lip and fall down; by which means neither could those that were coming up, nor those that were going down, stand on their feet ; but some of them fell backward, upon the machines on which they ascended, and were trodden upon; many of them fell down on the bank they had raised, and when they were fallen upon it were flain by the Jews ; for when the Romans could not keep their feet, the Jews being freed from fighting hand to hand, had leisure to throw their darts at them. So the general called off those soldiers in the evening that had suffered lo sorely, of whom the number of the lain was not a few while that of the wounded was still greater ; but of the people of Jotapata no more than six men were killed. although more than three hundred were carried off wounded. This fight happened on the twentieth day of the month Defius, [Sivan). VOL. III.


30. Hereupon Vespasian comforted his army on occasion of what happened, and as he found them angry indeed, but rather wanting somewhat to do than any farther exhortations, he gave orders to raise the banks still higher, and to erect three towers, each fitiy feet high, and that they should cover them with plates of iron, on every side, that they might be both firm by their weight, and not easily liable to be fet on fire. These towers he let upon the banks, and placed upon them such as could shoot darts and arrows, with the lighter engines for throwing stones and darts also ; and besides these, he set upon them the stouteft men among the fingers, who not being to be seen by reason of the height they stood upon, and the battlements that protected them, might throw their weapons at those that were upon the wall, and were easily seen by them. Hereupon the Jews, not heing easily able to escape those darts that were thrown down upon their heads, nor to avenge themselves on thole whom they could not see, and perceiving that the height of the towers was so great, that a dart which they threw with their hand could hardly reach it, and that the iron plates about them made it very hard to come at them by fire, they ran away from the walls, and fled hastily out of the city, and tell upon those that thot at them. And thus did the people of Jotapata relift the Romans, while a great number of them were every day killed without their be. ing able to retort the evil upon their enemies, nor could they keep them out of the city without danger to themselves.

31. About this time it was that Velpafian sent out Trajan againft a city called Japha, that lay near to Jotapata, and that desired innovations, and was puffed up with the unexpected length of the opposition of Jotapata. This Trajan was the commander of the tenth legion, and to him Vespasian coinmitted one thousand horsemen, and two thouland tootmen. When Trajan came to the city, he found it hard to be taken, for belides the natural strengih of its situation, it was also fecured by a double wall; but when he saw the people of this city coming out of it, and ready to fight him, he joined battle with them, and after a fort resistance which they made, he pursued after them ; and as they fled to their first wall, the Romans followed them so closely, that they tell in together with them : But when the Jews were endeavouring to get again within their second wall, sheir fellow citizens Thut them out, as being afraid that the Romans would force themselves in with them. It was certainly God, therefore, who brought the Romans to punish the Galileans, and did then expose the people of the city every one of them manifeftly to be destroyed by their bloody enemies ; for they !ell upon the gates in great crowds, aud earnestly calling to those that kept them, and that by their names allo, yet had they their throats cut in the very midst of their supplications ; for the enemy shut the gates of the first wall, and their own citizens shut the gates of the second, so they were enclosed between two walls, and were flain in great numbers together ; many of them were run through by swords of their own men, and many by their own fwords, besides an immense number that were slain by the Romans. Nor had they any courage to revenge themselves ; for there was added to the consternation they were in from the enemy, their being betrayed by their own friends, which quite broke their spiriis ; and at last they died, cursing, not the Romans, but their own citizens, till they were all destroyed, being in number twelve thouland. So Trajan gathered that the city was empty of people that could fight, and al. though there thould a few of them be therein, he fupposed that ihey would be tou timorous to venture upon any oppo. Sition ; so he reserved the taking of the city to the general. Accordingly he sent messengers to Vespasian, and desired him to lend his son Tirus to finish the victory he had gained. Ver. pasian hereupon imagining ihere might be some pains still ne. cessary, sent his son with an army of five hundred horiemen, and one thousand fooimen. So he came quickly to the city. and put his army in order, and set Trajan over the left wing, while he had the right himlelt, and led them to the fiege ; and when the soldiers brought ladders to be laid against the wall on every side, the Galileans opposed them from above for a while, but soon afterward they left the walls. Then did Ti. tus's men leap into the city, and seized upon it presently ; but when those that were in it were gotten together, there was a fierce battle between them ; for the men of power tell upon the Romans in the narrow Atreets, and the women threw what. foever came next to hand at them, and sustained a fight with them for fix hours time; but when the fighting nien were Ipent, the reft of the multitude had their throats cut, partly in the open air, and partly in their own houses, both young and old together. So there were nu males now remaining belides infants, which, with the women, were carried as Naves into captivity ; so that the number of the flain both now in the city and at the former fight, was fifteen thousand, and the captives were two thouland one hundred and thirty. This calamity betel the Gauileans on the twenty-fifth day of the month De. fjus (Sivanj.

32. Nor did the Samaritans escape their fhare of misfortunes at this time ; for they assembled theinselves together upon the mountain called Gerizzim, which is with them an holy mountain, and there they remained : Which collection of theirs, as well as the courageous minds they shewed, could not but threaten somewhat of war ; nor were they rendered wiler by the mileries that had come upon their neighbouring cities, They also, notwithstanding the great success the Romans had, marched on in an unreasonable manner, depending on their own weakness, and were disposed for any tumult upon its first appearance. Vespasian theretore thought it best to prevent their motions, and to cut off the foundation of their attempts, For although all Samaria had ever garrilons settled among them, yet did the number of those that were come to mount Geriz. zim, and their conspiracy together, give ground for tear what they would be at ; He therefore sent thither Cerealis, trie commander of the filth legion, with six hundred horsemen, and three thousand tootmen, who did not think it late to go up the mountain, and give them battle, because many of the enemy were on the higher part of the ground : So he encompassed all the lower part of the mountain with his army, and watched them all that day. Now it happened that the Sama. ritans, who were now deftitute of water, were inflamed with a violent heat (for it was fummer time, and the multitude had not provided themselves with necessaries), infomuch that lone of them died that very day with heat, while others of them preferred slavery before such a death as that was, and fled to the Romans ; by whom Cerealis understood that thole which fill stayed there were very much broken by their misfortunes. So he went up the mountain, and having placed his forces round about the enemy, he, in the first place, exhorted them to take the security of his right hand, and come to terms with him, and thereby save themselves ; and assured them that if they would lay down their arms, he would secure them from any harm ; but when he could not prevail with them, he tell upon them, and slew them all, being in number eleven thoufand and lix hundred. This was done on the twenty-seventh day of the month Defiu. (Sivanj. And there were the calamities that betel the Samaritans at this time. .

33. But as the people ot Jotapata still held out manfully, and bore up under their mileries beyond all that could be hoped for, on the forty-seventh day of the fiege the banks caft up by the Romans were become higher than the wall; on which day a certain deferter went to Vespasian, and told him how tew were left in the city, and how weak they were, and that they had been so worn out with perpetual watching and as perpetual fighting, that they could not now oppose any force that came against them, and that they might be taken by stratagem, it any one would attack them ; for that about the last waich of the night, when they thought they might have lome rest from the hardships they were under, and when a morning sleep used to come upon them, as they were thoroughly wea.. ry, he laid the watch wled to fall asleep ; accordingly his advice was, that they should make their attack at that hour. But Vefpafian had a luspicion about this deferter, as knowing how faithlul the Jews were to one another, and how much they despised any punishments that could be inflicted on them ; this Jaft, hecaule one of the people of Jotapata had undergone all soris of torments, and though they made him pass through a fiery trial of his enemies in his examination, yet would he inform them nothing of the affairs witbin the city, and as he was

crucified. smiled at them. However, the probability there was in the relation itself, did partly confirm the truth of what the delerter told them, and they thought he might probably speak truth. However, Vespasian thought they should be no great sufferers if the report was a lham ; lo he commanded them to keep the man in custody, and prepared the army for taking the city,

34. According to which resolution they marched without noile, at the hour that had been told them to the wall; and it was Titus himself that first got upon it, with one of his tri. bunes, Domitius Sabinus, and had a few of the fifteenth le. gion along with him. So they cut the throats of the watch, and entered the city very quietly. After these came werealis the tribune, and Placidus, and led on those that were urder them. Now when the citadel was taken, and the enemy were in the very midst of the city, and when it was already day. yet was not the taking of the city known by those that held it; for a great many of them were fast asleep, and a great mist. which then by chance fell upon the city, hindered those that got up from diftinctly feeing the cale they were in, till the whole Roman army was gotien in, and they were raised up only to find the miseries they were under; and as they were flaying, they perceived the city was taken. And for the Romans. they lo well remembered what they had suffered during the siege, that they Ipared none, nor pitied any but drove the people down the precipice from the citadel, and flew them as they drove them down; at which time the difficulties of the place hinder. ed those that were still able to fight from defending them. selves ; for as they were distressed in the narrow streets, and could nou keep their feet sure along the precipice, they were overpowered with the crowd of those that came fighting them down from the citadel. This provoked a great many, even of chose chosen men that were about Jolephus, to kill then. selves with their own hands ; for when they saw that they could kill none of the Romans, they resolved to prevent being killed by the Romans, and got together in great numbers in the utmost parts of the city and killed themselves,

35. However, such of the watch as at the first perceived they were taken, and ran away as fast as they could, went up into one of the towers on the north side of the city, and for a while defended themselves there : But as they were encompassed with a multitude of enemies, they tried to use their right hands when it was too late, and at length they cheerful. ly offered their necks to be cut off by those that stood over them. And the Romans might have boasted that the conclufion of that fiege was without bloud son their fidej, if there had not been a centurion, Antonius, who was slain at the tak. ing of the city. His death was occafioned by the following treachery : For there was one of those that were fled into the caverns, which were a great number, who delired that this An. tonius would reach him his right hand for his security, and

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