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would assure him that he would preserve him, and give him his aslistance in getting up out of the cavern ;'accordingly he incautiously reached him his right hand, when the other man prevented him, and stabbed him under his loins with a spear, and killed him immediately.

36. And on this day it was that the Romans slew all the mul. titude that appeared openly : But on the following days they searched the hiding places, and tell upon those that were under ground, and in the caverns, and went thus through every age, excepting the intants and the women, and of these there were gathered together as captives twelve hundred ; and as for those that were slain at the taking of the city, and in the former fights, they were numbered to be forty thousand. So Vespalian gave order that the city should be entirely demolilhed, and all the fortifications burnt down. And thus was Jotapata taken, on the thirteenth year of the reign of Nero, on the first day of the month Panemus [Tamuz].

CHAP. VIII.

How Josephus was Discovered by a Woman, and was willing

to deliver himself up to the Romans; and wbat Discourse he had with his own Men when they endeavoured to hinder him; and what he said to Vespafan, when he was brought to him ;

and after what manner Vespahan used him afterward. $1. ND now the Romans searched for Jofephus, both out

of the hatred they bore him, and because their gen. eral was very desirous to have him taken ; for he reckoned that it he were once taken, the greatest part of the war would be over. They then searched among the dead, and looked into the most concealed recefles of the city ; bet as the ciiy was firft taken, he was aflisted by a certain fupernatural providelice ; tor he withdrew himself from the enemy when he was in the midst of them, and Icaped into a certain deep pit, whereto there adjoined a large den at one lide of it, which den could not be seen by those that were above ground : and here he met with forty persons of eminency that had concealed themselves, and with provisions enough to satisly them for not a few days. So in the day time he hid himselt from the enemy, who had seized upon all places, and in the night time he got up out of the den, and looked about for fome way of escaping, and took exaćt notice of the watch : But as all places were guarded every where on his account, that there was no way of getting off unseen, he went down again into the den. Thus be concealed himself two days; but on the third day, when they had taken a woman who had been with them, he was discovered. Whereupon Vespasian sent immediately and zealoully two tribunes, Paulinus and Gallicanus, and ordered them to give

Josephus their right hands as a security for his life, and to exhort him to come up. 2. So they came and invited the man to come up, and

gave him assurances that his lite should be preserved: But they did not prevail with him ; for he gathered suspicions from the probability there was that one who had done so many things against the Romans, muft luffer for it, though not from the mild tem. per of those that invited him. However, he was afraid that he was invited to come up in order to be punished, until Vel. pasian sent belides thefe a third tribune, Nicanor, to him ; he was one that was well known to Josephus, and had been his familiar acquaintance in old time. When he was come, he enlarged upon the natural mildnels of the Romans towards those they have once conquered, and told him, that he had be. haved himself so valiantly, that the commanders rather admir. ed than hated him ; that the general was very desirous to have him brought to him, not in order to punish him, for that he could do though he should not come voluntarily, but that he was determined to preserve a man of his courage. He moreover added this, that Vespasian, had he been resolved to im. pose upon him, would not have sent to him a friend of his own, nor put the fairest colour upon the vileft action, by pre. tending friendship, and meaning perfidiousness; nor would he have himself acquiesced, or come to him, had it been to deceive him.

3. Now as Jofephus began to hesitate with himself about Ni. canor's proposal, the soldiery were so angry, that they ran hastily to set fire to the den; but the tribune would not permit them lo to do, as being very defirous to take the man alive. And now, as Nicanor lay hard at Jolephus to comply, and he understood how the multitude of the enemies threatened him, be called to mind the dreams which he had dreamed in the night time, whereby God had signified to him before hand both the future calamities of the Jews, and the events that concerned the Roman emperors. Now Josephus was able to give shrewd conjectures about the interpretation of such dreams as have been ambiguously delivered by God. Moreover, he was not unacquainted with the prophecies contained in the facred books, as being a priest himself, and of the posterity of priests; and just then was he in an ecstacy, and letting before him the tremendous images of the dreams he had lately had, he put up a secret prayer to God, and said, "Since it pleaseth thee, who hast created the Jewilh nation, to depress the same, and since all their good fortune is gone over to the Romans, and Gince thou hast made choice of this soul of mine to foretel what is to come to pass hereafter, I willingly give them my hands, and am content to live And I protest openly, that I do not go over to the Romans as a deserter of the Jews, but as a minister from thee.”

* When he had said this, he complied with Nicanor's invitation. But when those Jews wo tat filed with him, understood that be yielded to thote te bes to come up, they came about him in a body, 28 cze out. Nay, indeed, now may the laws of our foreizthers which God ordained himsell, well groan to purpose; tha God we mean who hath created the souls of the Jews of such a temper, that they del. pile death. O iofephus ! art thou still fond of lite ; and canft thou hear to see the light in a state of flavery? How loon halt thou forgoften thyself ? How many haft thou perluaded to lose their iives for liberty ? Thou hast therefore had a falle reputation for manhood, and a like falle reputation for wif. dom, it thou canst hope for preservation from those against whom thou hail fought so zealously, and art however willing to be preserved by them, if they be in earnest. But although the good tortune of the Romans hath made thee torget thy felt, we ougha to take care that the glory of our forefathers may But be tarnitbed. We will lend thee our right hand and a word, and it thou wilt die willingly, thou shalt die as gene. rake?! the Jews, but if unwillingly, thou wilt die as a traitor to them. As loon as they faid this, they began to thrust their twords b. and threatened they would kill him, if he thought of welding bimself to the Romans.

wahrs Jelephus was afraid of their attacking him, i vibught he teuld be a betrayer of the commands of Gore they were delivered. So he began to Roer to them, in the distress he was then in,

hea: “O my friends, why are we só sires and why do we set our soul and bo

ne devr companions, at such variance ? Can

Ilam not the man I was formerly ? Nay, Hun er en de box that matter stands well enough. 1 ** Argeschinge in war; but so that it be according to the fout war, or the hand of conquerors. II, therefore, I and was trwaihe ford of the Romans, I am truly worthy

by my own (word, and my own hand : But if ther simt et mercr, and woult (pare their enemy, how much Wave ought we to have mercy upon ourselves, andsto spare out les p For it is certainly a toolish thing to do that to eurteres which we quarrel with them for doing to us. I contets freely, that it is a brave thing to die for liberty ; but ftill fo that it be in war, and done by those who take that liberty from us; but in the present cale our enemies do neither meet us in batile, nor do they kill us. Now, he is equally a coward who will not die when he is obliged to die, and he who will die when he is not obliged so to do. What are we afraid when we will not go up to the Romans? Is it death ? If

at we are afraid of when we but suspect our enemies lict it on us, shall we inflict it on ourselves for certain ? Bay be said, we must be slaves. And are we then in a aic of liberty at present ? It may also be faid, that it is a

manly act for one to kill himself. No, certainly, but â most anmanly one; as I should esteem that pilot to be an arrant coward, who out of fear of a storm, should sink his ship of his own accord. Now, self-murder is a crime most remote from the common nature of all animals, and an instance of impiety against God our Creator : Nor indeed is there any animal that dies by its own contrivance, or by its own means, for the defire of life is a law engraven in them all; on which account we deem those that openly take it away from us to be our enemies, and thole that do it by treachery are punished for so doing. And do not you think that God is very angry when a man does injury to what he hath bestowed on him for from him it is that we have received our being, and we ought to leave it to his disposal to take that being away from us. The bodies of all men are indeed mortal, and are created out of corruptible matter; but the soul is ever immortal, and is a portion of the divinity that inhabits our bodies. Besides, it any one destroys or abuses a depofitum he hath received from a mere man, he is esteemed a wicked and perfidious person; but then if any one cast out of his body this divine depositum, can we imagine that he who is thereby affronted does not know of it ! Moreover, our law juftly ordains that flaves which run away from their master thall be punished though the mafters they run away from may have been wicked matters to them. And Ihall we endeavour to run away from God, who is the best of all masters, and not think ourselves guilty of impiety ? Do not you know that those who depart out of this lite, according to the law of natùre, and pay ihat debt which was ceived from God, when he that lent it us is pleased to require it back again, enjoy eternal fame; that their houses and their pofterity are sure, that their souls are pure and obedient, and obtain a most holy place in heaven, from whence, in the revolutions of ages, they are again fet into pure bodies ; while the fouls of thole whole hands have acted madly against themselves, are received by the darkest place in Hades, and while God, who is their faiher, punishes those that offend against either of them in their posterity; for which reason God hates such doings, and the crime is punished by our most wife legislator. Accordingly our laws determine, that the bodies of such as kill themselves should be exposed till the sun be let, without burial, although at the same time it be allowed by them to be lawfufto bury our enemies (sooner). The laws of other nations also enjoin such mens hands to be cut off when they are dead, which had been made use of in destroying themselves when alive, while they reckoned that as the body is alien from the soul, so is the hand alien from the body. It is therefore, my friends, a right thing to reason juftly, and not add to the calamities which men bring upon us, impiety towards our Creator. If we have a mind to preserve ourlelves, let us do it ; for to be preserved by those our enemies, to whom we have

VOL. III.

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vitation. But when those Jews who had fled with him, understood that he yielded to those that invited him to come up, they came about him in a body, and cried out, "Nay, indeed, now may the laws of our forefathers, which God ordained himself, well groan to purpose; that God we mean who hath created the souls of the Jews of such a temper, that they delpise death. O josephus ! art thou still fond of life ; and canft thou bear to see the light in a state of slavery ? How loon haft thou forgo'ten thy self ? How many haft thou perluaded to lose their lives for liberty ? Thou hast therefore had a falle reputation for manhood, and a like falle reputation for wif. dom, if thou canst hope for preservation from those against whom thou hast fought so zealousy, and art however willing to be preserved by them, if they be in earnest. But although the good fortune of the Romans hath made thee forget thy selt, we ought to take care that the glory of our forefathers may not be tarnished. We will lend thee our right hand and a fword ; and if thou wilt die willingly, thou shalt die as gene. ral of the Jews ; but if unwillingly, thou wilt die as a traitor to them." As soon as they said this, they began to thrust their swords at him, and threatened they would kill him, if he thought of yielding himself to the Romans.

5. Upon this Josephus was afraid of their attacking him, and yet thought he should be a betrayer of the commands of God, if he died before they were delivered. So he began to talk like a philosopher to them, in the distress he was then in, when he said thus to them: “O my friends, why are we so earneft to kill ourselves ? and why do we set our soul and body, which are such dear companions, at such variance ? Can any one pretend that I am not the man I was formerly? Nay, the Romans are sensible how that matter stands well enough. It is a brave thing to die in war ; but so that it be according to the law of war, by the hand of conquerors. If, therefore, I avoid death from the sword of the Romans, I am truly worthy to be killed by my own sword, and my own hand : But if they adinit of mercy, and would spare their enemy, how much more ought we to have mercy upon ourselves, andsto spare ourselves ? For it is certainly a toolish thing to do that to ourselves which we quarrel with them for doing to us. I con. fefs freely, that it is a brave thing to die for liberty ; but ftill so that it be in war, and done by those who take that liberty from us; but in the present cale our enemies do neither meet us in battle, nor do they kill us. Now, he is equally a cow. ard who will not die when he is obliged to die, and he who will die when he is not obliged so to do. What are we asraid of, when we will not go up to the Romans? Is it death ? If fo, what we are afraid of when we but suspect our enemies will inflict it on us, shall we inflict it on ourselves for certain ? But it may be said, we must be slaves. And are we then in a clear state of liberty at present? It may also be faid, that it is a

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