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manly act for one to kill himself. No, certainly, but à most unmanly one; as I should esteem that pilot to be an arrant coward, who out of fear of a storm, should sink his ship of his own accord. Now, self-murder is a crime most remote from the common nature of all animals, and an instance of impiety against God our Creator : Nor indeed is there any animal that dies by its own contrivance, or by its own means, for the defire of life is a law engraven in them all ; on which account we deem thole that openly take it away from us to be our enemies, and thole that do it by treachery are punished for so duing. And do not you think that God is very angry when a man does injury to what he hath bestowed on him ? For from him it is that we have received our being, and we ought to leave it to his disposal to take that being away from us. The bodies of all men are indeed mortal, and are created out of corruptible matter ; but the soul is ever immortal, and is a portion of the divinity that inhabits our bodies. Besides, if any one destroys or abuses a depositum he hath received from a mere man, he is esteemed a wicked and perfidious person; but then if any one cast out of his body this divine depositum, can we imagine that he who is thereby affronted does not know of it ! Moreover, our law justly ordains that flaves which run away from their master lhall be punished though the masters they run away from may have been wicked masters to them. And shall we endeavour to run away from God, who is the best of all masters, and not think ourselves guilty of impiety? Do not you know that those who depart out of this lite, according to the law of nature, and pay that debt which was re. ceived from God, when he that lent it us is plealed to require it back again, enjoy eternal fame; that their houses and their pofterity are sure, that their souls are pure and obedient, and obtain a most holy place in heaven, from whence, in the revo. lutions of ages, they are again set into pure bodies ; while the fouls of those whose hands have acted madly against themselves, are received by the darkest place in Hades, and while God, who is their father, punishes those that offence against either of them in their posterity; for which reason God hates such do. ings, and the crime is punished by our most wife legislator. Accordingly our laws determine, that the bodies of such as kill themselves should be exposed till the sun be let, without burial, although at the same time it be allowed by them to be lawful to bury our enemies (sooner). The laws of other na. tions also enjoin such mens hands to be cut off when they are dead, which had been made use of in destroying themselves when alive, while they reckoned that as the hody is alien from the soul, so is the hand alien from the body. It is theretore, my friends, a right thing to reason justly, and not add to the calamities which men bring upon us, impiety towards our Creator. If we have a mind to preserve ourlelves, let us do it ; for to be prelerved by those our enemies, to whom we have



given fo many demonftrations of our courage, is no way in. glorious ; but it we have a mind to die, it is good to die by the hand of those who have conquered us. For my part, I will not run over to our enemies quarters in order to be a traitor to my self; for certainly I should then be much more foolish than those that deserted to the enemy, since they did it in order to fave themselves, and I should do it for deftruction, for my own destruction. However, Iheartily wish the Romans may prove treacherous in this inatler; for if, after their offer of their right hand for security, I be flain by them, I shall die cheerfully, and carry away with me the sense of their perfidiousness, as a consolation greater than victory iclelf."

6 Now these and many the like motives did Josephus use to these men to prevent their murdering themlelves; but defperation had bhut their ears, as having long ago devoted them. felves to die, and they were irritated at Josephus. They then ran upon him with their swords in their hands, one from one quarter, and another from another, and called him a coward, and every one of them appeared openly as if he were ready to Smite him ; but he calling to one of them by name, and looking like a general to another, and taking a third by the hand, and making a fourth ashamed of himself, by praying him to forbear, and being in this condition distracted with various paf. fions, (as he well might in the great distress he was then in), he kept off every one ot their swords from killing him, and was forced to do like fuch wild beasts as are encompafed about on every side, who always turn themselves against those that latt touched them. Nay, some of their right hands were debilitated by the reverence they bare to their general, in thele his fatal calamities, and their swords dropped out of their hands, and not a few of them there were, who, when they aimed to finite him with their swords, they were not thoroughly either willing or able to do it:

7. However, in this extreme distress, he was not deftitute of his usual sagacity ;-but'trusting himself to the providence of God, he put his lite into hazard in the manner following: " And now," faid he,“ since it is resolved among you that you will die, come on, let us commit our mutual deaths to determination by lot. He whom the lot falls to first, let him be killed by him that hath the second lot, and thus fortune shall make its progrels through us all ; nor ihall any of us perich by his own right hand, for it would be unfair if, when the reft are gone, somebody should repent and save himself.” This proposal appeared to them to be very juft ;, and when he had prevailed with them to determine this matter by lots, he drew one of the lots for himself also. He who had the first lot laid his neck bare to him that had the next, as supposing that the general would die among them immediately ; for they thought death. if Josephus might but die with them, was sweeter than lite : Yet was he with another left to the lait, whether we moft fay it happened fo by chance, or whether by the providence of God. And as he was very desirous neither to be condemned by the lot, nor, if he had been left to the last, to imbrue his right hand in the blood of his country man, he persuaded him to trust his fidelity to him, and to live as well as himself. .

.8. Thus Josephus escaped in the war with the Romans, and in this his own war with his friends, and was led by Nicanor to Vefpafian. But now all the Romans ran together to see him ; and as the multitude preffed one upon another about their general, there was a tumult of a various kind; while fome rejoiced that Josephus was taken, and fome threatened him, .and some crowded to see him very near ; but those that were more remote cried out to have this their enemy put to death, while those that were near called to mind the actions he had done, and a deep concern appeared at the change of his fortune. Nor were there any of the Roman commanders, how much foever they had been enraged at him before, but relent. ed when they came to the right of him. Above all the rest, Titus's own valour, and Jolephus's own patience under his afflictions, made him pity him as did allo the commiseration of his age, when he recalled to mind that but a little while ago he was fighting, but lay now in the hands of his enemies, which made him consider the power of fortune, and how quick is the turn of affairs in war, and how no state of men is fure : For which reason he then made a great many more to be of the jame pitiful temper with himself, and induced them to com. milerate Josephus. He was also of great weight in persuad. ing his father to preserve him. However, Vespasian gave strict orders that he thould be kept with great caution, as though he would, in a very little time, send him to Nero.

9. When Jolephus heard him give thołe orders, he said, that he had somewhat in his mind that he would willingly say to himself alone. When therefore they were all ordered to with. draw, excepting Titus and two of their friends, he said, " Thou, O Veipafian thinkelt no more than that thou hatt taken Josephus himself captive.; but come to thee as a mel. fenge of greater tidings ; for had not I been fent by God to thee, I knew what was the * law of the Jews in this case, and how it becomes generals to die. Dost thou send me to Nero? For why ? Are Nero's fucceffors till they come to thee ftill alive? Thou, O Vespasian, art Cæsar, and emperor, thou, and this thy son. Bind me now ftill faster, and keep me tor thy

* I do not know where to find the law of Moses here mentioned by Josephus, and afterward by Eleazar, B. VII. ch. viii. $ , Vol. 111. and alınost implied in B. I. sh. xiii. 1o. Vol. III. by jolephs's commendation of Phalaelus for doing fo ; I mean whereby Jewish generals and people were obliged to kill themielves, Tather than go into flavery under beathens. 'I doubt this would have been no better than felf-murder ; and I believe it was rather some vain doctrine, or interpretation of the rigid pharisees, or Effens, or Herodians, than a just consequence from any w of Cod delivered by Mofes.

felf, for thou, O Cæsar, art not only lord over me, but over the land and the sea, and all mankind; and certainly I deserve to be kept in closer custody then ļ now am in, in order to be punished, if I ralbly affirm any thing of God.” When he had said this, Vespasian at present did not believe him, but supposed that Josephus said this, as a cunning tick, in order to his own preservation ; but in a little time he was convinced, and believed what be said to be true, God himself erecting his expectations, so as to think of obtaining the empire, and by other signs foreshewing his advancement. He also found Jofephus to have spoken truth on other'occasions; tor one of thole friends that were predent at that secret conference, said to Josephus; " I cannot but wonder how thou couldest not foretel to the people ot Jotapata, that they thould be taken, nor couldest foretel this captivity which hath happened to thyself, unless what thou now layeft be a vain thing in order to avoid the rage that is rilen against thyself.” To which Josephus replied, " I did foretel to the people of Jotapata that they would be taken on the forty-seventh day, and that I should be caught alive by the Romans." Now when Vefpafian had inquired of the captives privately about these predictions, he found them to be true, and then he began to believe those that concerned himself. Yet did he not fet Josephus at liberty from his bands, but bestowed on him suits of clothes, and other precious gifts ; he treated him allo in a very obliging manner, and continued so to do, Titus ftill joining his interest in the honours that were done him.


How Joppa was taken, and Tiberias delivered up. 81. N OW Vespasian returned to Ptolemais on the fourth

day of the month Panemus, [Tamuz], and from thence he came to Cesarea, which lay by the lea-fide. This was a very great city of Judea, and for the greatest part inhabited by Greeks: The citizens here received both the Roman army and its general, with all sorts of acclamations and rejoi. cings, and this partly out of the good-will they bore to the Romans. but principally out of the hatred they bore to those thạt were conquered by them; on which account they came clamouring against Josephus in crowds, and desired he might be put to death. But Vefpafian palled over this petition con. cerning him, as offered by the injudicious multitude, with a bare filence. Two of the legions also he placed at Cesarea, that they might there take their winter quarters, as perceiving the city very fit for such a purpose ; but he placed the tenth and the fifth at Scythopolis, that he might not diftress Cesarea with the entire army. This place was warm, even in winter, as it was suffocating hot in the summer time, by realon of its situation in a plain, and near to the sea sof Galilee.]

2. In the mean time there were gathered together as well such as had feditiously got out from among their enemies, as thoie that had escaped out of the demolished cities which were in all a great number, and repaired Joppa, which had been left desolate by Cestius, that it might serve them for a place of refuge ; and because the adjoining region had been laid waste in the war, and was not capable of lupporting them, they determined to go off to sea. They also built themselves a great many piracical ships, and turned pirates upon the seas near to Syria and Phenicia, and Egypt, and made those seas unnavi. gable to all men. Now as soon as Vespasian knew of their conspiracy, he sent both footmen and horsemen to Joppa, which was unguarded in the night time ; however thote that were in it perceived that they ihould be attacked and were afraid of it ; yet did they not endeavour to keep the Romans out, but fled to their ships, and lay at lea all night out o: the reach of their darts...

3. Now Joppa is not naturally an haven, for it ends in a rough shore, where all the rest of it is Itraight, but the two ends bend towards each other, where there are deep precipices, and great stones that jet out into the sea and where the chains wherewith Andromeda was bound have left their footsteps, which attest to that antiquity of the fable. But the north wind oppoles and beats upon the shore, and dashes mighly waves against the rocks which receives them and renders the haven more dangerous than the country they had deserted. Now as those people of Joppa were floating about in this fea, in the morning there tell a violent wind upon them ; it is called by there that sail there the black north wind, and there dalhed their ships one against another, and dalhed some of them against the rocks, and carried many of them by force, while they (trove against the oppolite waves into the main fea; for the thore was so rocky, and had so many of the enemy upon it, that they were afraid to come to land; nay, the waves role so very high, that they drowned them ; nor was there any place whither they could fly, nor any way to save themselves, while they were thrust out of the sea, by the violence of the wind, ifihey faid where they were, and out of the city by the violence of the Romans. And much lamentarion chere was when the thips dashed against one another, and a terrible noile when theywere broken to pieces ; and some of the multitude that were in them covered with waves, and to perished, and a great many were embarrafled with shipwrecks. But some of them thought, that to die by their own swords was lighter than by the sea, and so they killed themselves before they were drowned; although the greatest part of them were carried by the waves, and dashed to pieces against the abrupt parts of the rocks, insomuch that the sea was bloody a long way, and the

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