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maritime parts were full of dead bodies, for the Romans came upon those that were carried to the shore, and destroyed them; and the number of the bodies that were thus thrown out of the sea was four thousand and two hundred. The Romans also took the city without opposition, and utterly demolishod it.

4. And thus was Joppa taken twice by the Romans in a lit. sle time ; but Vefpafian, in order to prevent these pirates from coming thither any more, erected a camp there, where the citadel ot Joppa had been, and left a body of horse in it, with a few tootmen, that these last might stay there and guard the camp, and the horlemen might spoil the country that lay round it, and might destroy the neighbouring villages, and smaller cities. So these troops over-ran the country, as they were ordered to do, and every day cut to pieces, and laid desolate the whole region.

5. But now, when the fate of Jotapata was related at Jeru. {alem, a great many at the firft disbelieved it, on account of the vaftness of the calamity, and because they had no eyewitnets to atteft the truth of what was related about it ; for not one person was saved to be a messenger of that news, but a tame was spread abroad at random that the city was taken, as fuch fame usually Ipread bad news about. However, the truth was known by degrees, from the places near Jotapata, and appeared to all to be too true. Yet were there fiditious stories added to what was really done; for it was reported that Josephus was llain at the taking of the city, which piece of news filled Jerusalem full of sorrow. In every house alfo, and among

all to whom any of the flain were allied, there was a lamentation for them, but the mourning for the commander was a public one, and some mourned for those that had lived with them, others for their kindred, others for their friends, and others for their brethren, but all mourned for Jolephus ; insomuch that the lamentations did not cease in the city before the thirtieth day, and a great many hired * mourners,

with their pipes, who should begin the melancholy ditties for them.

6. But as the truth came out in time, it appeared how the affairs of lotapata really food.; yet was it found that the death et Jofephus was a fiction, and when they understood that he was alive, and was among the Romans, and that the commanders treated him at another rate than they treated captives, they, were as vehemently angry at him now, as they had fewed their good will betore, when he appeared to have been dead. He was also abuled by some as having been a.coward, and by others as a deferter ; and the city was full of indignation at him, and of reproaches calt upon him; their rage was also

* These public mourners, hired upon the supposed death of joleplus, and the Seal death of inany more, illuitra e lome pallages in the Bible, which luppose the fimc culom, as Mat. xi, 17, where the reader may conlult the notes of Crosius.

upon it.

aggravated by their affli&ions, and more inflamed by their ill fuccess; and what usually becomes an occasion of caution to wise men, I mean affli&ion, became a spur to them to venture on farther calamities, and the end of one misery became ftill the beginning of another ;, they therefore resolved to fall on the Romans the more vehemently, as resolving to be revenged on him in revenging themselves on the Romans. And this was the state of Jerusalem as to the troubles which now came

7. But Vefpafian, in order to see the kingdom of Agrippa, while the king persuaded himselt so to do, (partly in order to his treating the general and his army in the best and most splen did manner his private affairs would enable him to do, and partly that he might, by their means correct such things as were amiss in his government), he removed from that Cesarea which was by the sea &de, and went 10 that which is called * Cesarea Philippi; and there he refreshed his army tor twenty days, and was himself feafted by king Agrippa, where he also returned public thanks to God for the good luccels he had had in his undertakings. But as soon as he was informed that Tiberias was fond of innovations, and that Faricheæ had revolted, both which cities were parts of the kingdom of Agrippa, and was satisfied within himselt that the Jews were every where perverted (from their obedience to their governors], he thought it seasonable to make an expedition againt these cities, and that for the sake of Agrippa, and in order to bring his cities to reason. So he sent away his fon Titus to (the other} Cesarea, that he might bring the army that lay there to Scya thopolis, which is the largest city of Decapolis, and in the neighborhood of Tiberias whither he came, and there he waited for his fon. He then came with three legions, and pitched his camp thirty turlongs off Tiberias, at a certain ftation calily feen by the innovators, it is named Sennabris. He also sent Valerian, a decurion, with fifty horfemen, to speak peaceably to thole that were in the city, and to exhort them to give him adlurances of their fidelity ; tor he had heard that the people were desirous of peace, but were obliged by some of the feditious part to join with them, and so were forced to fight for them. When Valerian had marched up to the place, and was near the wall, he alighted off his horfe, and made those that were with him do the fame, that they might not be thought to come to skirmish with them; but before they could come to a discuurle one with another, the most potent men among the seditious made a fally upon them armed, their leader was one whose name was Jesus, the son of Saphat, the principal head of a band of robbers. Now Valerian, neither thinking it safe to fight contrary to the commands of the general, though

* Of this Cesarea Philippi (twice mentioned in our New Tetament, Matt. xvi. 13. Mask viii, 27.) there are coins fill extant, as Spanheim here informs us.


He were secure of a victory, and knowing that it was a very hazardous undertaking for a few to fight with many, for those that were unprovided to fight thole that were ready, and being on other accounts surpriled at this unexpected onset of the Jews, he run away on foot, as did five of the rest in like manner, and left their horles behind them ; which horses Jesus led away into the city, and rejoiced as if they had taken them in battle, and not by treachery.

8. Now the leniors of the people, and such as were of principal authority among them, tearing what would be the iflue of this matter, fled to the camp of the Romans : They then took their king along with them, and fell down before Vespa. fian, to fupplicate his favour, and befought him not to overlook them, nor to impute the madness of a few to the whole city, to spare a people that have been ever civil and obliging to the Romans ; bui to bring the authors of this revolt to due punishment, who had hitherto lo watched them, that thoughi they were zealous to give them the fecurity of their right hands for a long time, yet could they not accomplish the same. With these supplications the general complied, although he were very angry at the whole city about the carrying off his horses, and this because he saw that Agrippa was under a great concern for them. So when Velpafian and Agrippa had ac. cepted of their right hands by way of security, Jesus and his party thought it not safe for them to continue a Tiberias, so they ran away to Taricheæ. The next day Vespasian sent Trajan before with some horsemen to the citadel, to make trial of the multitude, whether they were all disposed for peace; and as soon as he knew that the people were of the same mind with the petitioner he took his army, and went to the city; upon which the citizens opened to him their gates, and met him with acclamations of joy, and called him their saviour and benefactor. But as the army was a great while in getting in at the gates they were so narrow, Vespasian commanded the south wall to be broken down, and fo made a broad passage for their entrance. However, he charged them to abitain from rapine and injustice, in order to gratity the king; and on his account fpared the rest of the wall, while the king undertook for them that they should continue [faithful to the Romans] for the time to come, And thus did he restore this cia ty 10 a quiet itate, after it had been grievoully afflicted by the feditious.

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How Tarichea was taken. A Description of the River Jordan,

and of the Country of Gennefareth. $1.

city and Taricheæ, but fortified his camp more strongly, ás suspecting that he should be forced to stay there, and have a long war; for all the innovators had gotten together at Taricheæ, as relying upon the strength of the city, and on the lake that lay by it. ”This lake is called by the people of the country the lake of Gennefareth. The city itself is situated like Tiberias, at the bottom of a mountain, and on those sides which are not washed by the sea, had been strongly fortified by Josephus, though not so strongly as Tiberias : for the wall of Tiberias had been built at the beginning of the Jews revolt, when he had great plenty of money, and great power, but Tarichex partook only the remains of that liberality. Yet had they a great number of ships gotten ready upon the lake, that, in case they were beaten at land. they might retire to them, and they were so fitted up, that they might undertake a seafight allo. But as the Romans were building a wall about their camp, Jesus and his party were neither affrighted at their number, nor at the good order they were in, but made a fally upon them, and at the very first onset the builders of the wall were dispersed, and these pulled what little they had before built to pieces ; but as soon as they saw the armed men getting together, and before they had suffered any thing them. selves they retired to their own men. But then the Romans pursued them, and drove them into their ships, where they launched out as far as might give them the opportunity of reaching the Romans with what they threw at them, and then call anchor, and brought their ships close, as in a line of battle, and thence fought the enemy from the sea, who were them. selves at land. But Vespasian hearing that a great multitude of them were gotten together in the plain that was before the city, he thereupon sent his lon, with six hundred chosen horse- . men to disperse them.

2. But when Titus perceived that the enemy was very nu. merous, he sent to his father, and informed him, that he should want more forces. But as he law a great many of the horsemen eager to fight, and that before any succours could come to them, and that yet some of them were privately under a sort of consternation at the multitude of the Jews, he stood in a place whence he might be heard, and said to them, “My brave Ro. mans ! for it is right for me to put you in mind ot what nation you are, in the beginning of my speech, that so you may not be ignorant who you are, and who they are against whom VOL. III.

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we are going to fight. For as to us, Romans, no part of the habitable earth hath been able to escape our hands hitherto ; but as for the Jews, that I may speak of them too, though they have been already beaten, yet do they not give up the caule ; and a sad thing it would be for us to grow weary un. uer good success, when they bear up under their misfortunes. As to the alacrity which you shew publicly, I see it, and rejoice at it ; yet am I afraid left the multitude of the enemy should bring a concealed fright upon some of you : Let such an one consider again, who we are that are to fight; and who those are against whom we are to fight. Now these Jews, though they be very bold, and great despisers of death, are · buta disorderly body, and unskilful in war, and may rather be called a rout than an army ; while I need las noching of our skill and our good order; for this is the reason why we Romans alone are exercised for war in cime of peace, that we may not think of number for number, when we come to fight with our enemies : For what advantage should we reap for our continual lort of warfare, if we must fill be equal in number to such as have not been used to war ? Consider farther, that you are to have a conflict with men in effect unarmed, while you are well armed ; with footmen, while you are horsemen; with thote that have no good general, while you have one : And as these advantages make you in effect manifold more than you are, so do their advantages mightily diminish their number. Now it is not the multitude of men, though they be soldiers, that manages wars with success, but it is their bravery that does it, though they be but a few ; for a few are easily set in battle array, and can easily assist one another, while over numerous armies are more hurt by themselves than by their enemies. It is boldnels and rathness, the effects of madness, that conduct the Jews. Those passions indeed make a great figure when they fucceed, but are quite extin. guished upon the least ill success : But we are led on by cour. age, and obedience, and fortitude, which thews itself 'indeed in our good fortune, but still does not for ever desert us in our ill fortune. Nay, indeed, your fighting is to be on greater motives than those of the Jews ; for although they run the hazard of war tor liberty, and for their country, yet what can be a greater motive to us than glory ? and that it may never be laid, that alter we have got dominion of the habit. able earth, the Jews are able to confront us. We must also reflect upon this, that there is no fear of our suffering any incurable disaster in the present case; for those that are ready to aslift us are many, and at hand also : Yet is it in our pow. er to seize upon this victory ourselves, and I think we ought to prevent the coming of those my father is sending to us for our assistance, that our fuccels may be peculiar to our felves, and of greater reputation to us. And I cannot but think this an opportunity wherein my father, and I, and you thall be all

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