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tance; and, * without any bribes, they made the same equita. ble pleas that they had used to Aretas, and besought him to hate the violent behaviour of Ariftobulus, and to bestow the kingdom on him to whom it justly belonged, both on account of his good character, and on account of his superiori. ty in age. However, neither was Ariftobulus wanting to himself in this case, as relying on the bribes that Scaurus had received : He was also there himself, and adorned himself after a manner the most agreeable to royalty that he was able. But he soon thought it beneath him to come in such a servile man. ner, and could not endure to serve his own ends in a way to much more abject than he was used to ; so he departed from Diofpolis.
5. At this his behaviour Pompey had great indignation ; Hyrcanus also and his friends made great intercession to Pom. pey; so he took not only his Roman forces, but many of his Syrian auxiliaries, and marched against Arilobulus. But when he had passed by Pella and Scythopolis, and was come to Corea, where you enter into the country of Judea, when you go up to it through the Mediterranean parts, he heard that Ariftobulus was fled to Alexandrum, which is a strong hold fortified with the utmost magnificence, and situated upon an high mountain, and he sent to him, and commanded him to come down. Now his inclination was to try his fortune in a battle, fince he was called in such an imperious manner, rather than to comply with that call. However, he saw the multitude, were in great tear, and his friends exhorted him to consider what the power of the Romans was, and how it was irresistible ; so he complied with their advice, and came down to Pompey; and when he had made a long apology for himself, and for the justness of his cause in taking the government, he returned to the fortress. And when his brother invited him again to plead his cause, he came down and spake about the justice of it, and then went away without any hindrance from Pompey : So he was between hope and fear. And when he came down, it was to prevail with Pompey to allow him the government entirely ; and when he went up to the citadel, it was that he might not appear to debale himself too low. However, Pompey commanded him to give up his fortified places, and forced him to write to every one of their governors to yield them up; they having had this charge given them, to 0bey no letters but what were of his own hand-writing. ACcordingly he did what he was ordered to do ; but had dill an
* It is somewhat probable, as Havercamp fupposes, and partly Spanheim also, that the Latin copy is here the truest ; that Pompey did take the many presents of fered him by Hyrcanus, as he would have done the others from Ariftobulus, sea. 6. ; although his remarkable abstinence from the 2000 talents that were in the Jews ish temple, when he took it a little afterward, ch. vii. sect. 6, and Antiq. B. XIV. ch. iv. le&t. 4. Vol. 11. will hardly permit us to desert the Greek copies, all which agree that he did not take them.
indignation at what was done, and retired to Jerusalem, and prepared to fight with Pompey.
6. But Pompey did not give him time to make any prepar. ations / for a siegel, but followed him at his heels : He was also obliged to make hatte in his attempt, by the death of Mi. thridates, of which he was informed about Jericho. Now here is the most fruitful country of Judea, which bears a vast number of * palm trees, besides the ballan tree, whose sprouts they cut with sharp stones, and at the incisions they gather the juice, which drops down like tears. So Pompey pitched his camp in that place one night, and then halted away the next morning to Jerusalem ; but Ariftobulus was so affrighted at his approach, that he came and met him by way of supplica. tion. He also promised him money, and that he would de. liver up both himself and tie city into his disposal, and there. by mitigated the anger of Pompey. Yet did not he perform any of the conditions he had agreed to ; for Ariftobulus's par. sy would not so much as admit Gabinius in the city, who was sent to receive the money that he had promiled.
CH A P. VII. How Pompey had the City Jerusalem delivered up to him, but took the Temple [by forces. How he went into the Holy of Holies ; as also what were his other Exploits i. Judei.
61. À Tibis treatment Pompey was very angry, and took
Ariftobulus into custody. And when he was come to the city, he looked about where he inight make his attack; for he faw the walls were so firm that it would be hard to overcome them, and that the valley before the walls was terrible; and that the temple, which was within that valley, was itselt encompassed with a very Atrong wall, insomuch, that if the city were taken that temple would be a locond place of refuge for the enemy 10 retire to.
2. Now as he was long in deliberating about this matter, a sedition arose among the people within the city ; Ariftobulus's party being willing to fight, and to set their king at liberty, while the party of Hyrcanus were for opening the gates to Pompey; and the dread people were in, occafioned these last to be a very numerous party, when they looked upon the excellent order the Roman soldiers were in. So Ariftobulus's party was worsted, and retired into the temple, and cut off the communi. cation between the temple and the city, by breaking down the bridge that joined them together, and prepared to make an opposition to the utmost ; but as the others had received theRo. mansinto the city, and had delivered up the palace to him Pom. pey lent Pilo, one of his great officers, into that palace with an army, who distributed a garrison about the city, because he could not persuade any one of those that had fled to the temple, to come to terms of accommodation; he then disposed all things that were round about them so as might favour their attacks, as having Hyrcanus's party very ready to afford them both counsel and alliitance,
* Of the famous palua-trees and ballam about Jericho and Eugaddi, fie the notes in Havercamp's edition, both here and B. Ii'ch ix. . 1 hry arc 101116what too long to be transcribed in this place.
3. But Pompey himself filled up the ditch that was on the north fide of the temple, and the entire valley also, the army itself being obliged to carry the materials for that purpose. And indeed it was an hard thing to fill up that valley by reafon otiis immense depth, especially as the Jews used all the means possible to repel them from their superior station : Nor had the Romans succeeded in their endeavours, had not Pompey taken notice of the seventh days on which the Jews ab. ftain from all sorts of work on a religious account, and raised his bank, but restrained his soldiers froin fighting on those days; for the Jews only acted defensively on Sabbath days. But as foon as Pompey had filled up the valley, he erceted high towers upon the bank, and brought thole engines which they had fotched from Tyre, near to the wall, and tried to batter it down; and the fingers of stones beat off those that stood above them, and drove them away : But the towers on this Lide of the city made very great resistance, and were indeed extraordinary both for largeness and inagnificence.
4. Now here it was that upon the many hard kips which the Romans underwent, Pompey could not but admire not only at the other instances of the Jews fortitude, but especially that they did not at all intermit their religious services, even when they were encompassed with darts on all sides ; for, as if the city were in full peace, their daily facrifices and purifications, and every branch of their religious worlhip was still performed to God with the utmost exactness. Nor indeed, when the temple was a&tually taken, and they were every day slain a. bout the altar, did they leave off the instances of their divine worship that were appointed by their law ; for it was in the third montb of the siege before the Romans could even with great difficulty overthrow one of the towers, and get into the temple. Now he that first of all ventured to get over the wall, and Fausus Cornelius the son of Sylla ; and next alter him were two centurions, Furius and Fabius ; and every one of these was followed by a cohort of his own, who encompassed the Jews on all sides, and sew them, fome of them as they were running for fhelier to the temple, and others as they, for a while, fought in their own defence.
5. And now did many of the priests, even when they saw their enemies assailing them with swords in their hands, without any disturbance, go on with their divine worship, and were flain while they were offering their drink offerings, and
burning their incense, as preferring the duties about their worship to God, before their own preservation. The greatest part of them were llain by their own countrymen, of the adverse faction, and an innumerable multitude threw themselves down precipices; nay, some there were who were so distracted among the insuperable difficulties they were under, that they set fire to the buildings that were near to the wall, and were burnt together with them. Now of the Jews were slain twelve thousand ; but of the Romans very few were flain, but å greater number was wounded.
6. But there was nothing that affected the nation so much, in the calamities they were then under, as that their holy place, which had been hitherto seen by none, should be laid open to Atrangers ; for * Pompey, and those that were about him, went into the temple itself, whither it was not lawful for any to cn. ter but the high-priest, and saw what was reposited therein, the candle-Stick with its lamps, and the table, and the pouring verfels, and the censers, all made entirely of gold, as also a great quantity of Species heaped together with two thousand talents of lacred money. Yet did not he touch that money, nor any thing else that was there reposited: But he commanded the min. isters about the temple, the very next day after he had taken it, to cleanse it and to perform their accustomed sacrifices. Moreover, he made Hyrcanus high-priest, as one that not only in other respects had shewed great alacrity on his fide, during the siege,but as he had been the means of hindering the multitude that was in the country from fighting for Ariftobulus, which they were otherwise very ready to have done; by which means he acted the part of a good general, and reconciled the people to him more by be. nevolence than by terror Now among the captives Ariftobu. Jus's father-in-law was taken, who was also his uncle : So those that were the most guilty he punished with decollation ; but rewarded Fauftus, and those with him that had fought so bravely, with glorious presents, and laid a tribute upon the country and upon Jerusalem itself.
7. He alio took away from the nation all those cities they had formerly taken, and that belonging to Celesyria, and made them subject to him that was at that time appointed to be the Roman prefident there, and reduced Judea within its proper bounds. He also rebuilt + Gadara, that had been demoliihed by the Jews, in order to gratify one Demetrius, who was of Gadara, and was one of his own freed-mon. He also made other cities free from their dominion, that lay in the midtt of the country, such, I mean, as they had not demolished before
Thus says Tacitus, Cn. Pompeius first of all subdued the Jews, and went in to their temple, by right of conquest, Hist. B. V. ch. ix, nor did he touch any oits riches, as has been observed on the parallel place of the Antiquities, B. XIVÉ ch. iv, icct. 4. Vol. II. out of Cicero himlelf,
+ The cost of this Gadara ftill extant, with its date from this uera, is a certain evidence of this its rebuilding by Pompey, as Spanheim kere allures us.
that time, Hippos, and Scythopolis, as also Pella, and Samaria, and Marissa ; and besides there Alhdod, and. Jamnia, and Are. thusa ; and in like manner dealt' he with the maritime cities, Gaza, and Joppa, and Dora, and that which was anciently called Strato's Tower ; but was alterward rebuilt with the most magnificent edifices, and had its name changed to Cefaria by king Herod. All which he redored to their own citizens, and put them under the province of Syria; which province, to. gether with Judea, and the countries as far as Egypt and Euphrates, he coinmitted to Scaurus as their governor, and gave him tow legions to support him ; while he made all the halte he could himself to go through Celicia, in his way to Rome, having Arifiobulus and his children along with him, as his captives. They were two daughters and two sons ; the one of which lons, Alexander, ran away as lie was going, but the younger Antigonus, with his sisters were carried to Rome.
CHA P. VIII. Alexandır, the Son of Ariflobulus, who ran away from Pom.
pey, makes an Expedition against Ilyrcanus ; but being overcome by Gabinius, he delivers up the Fortrelles to him. After this Ariftobulus Escaped from Rome, and gathers an Army together ; but being beaten by the Romans, he is brought back to Rome : With other things relating to Gabinius, Craljus, and Caffius.
§ 1. IN the mean time Scaurus made an expedition into A
Irabia but was stopped by the difficulty of the places about Petra, However he laid waste the country about the Pel. la, though even there he was under great hardihip; for his ar. my was afilicted with famine. In order to supply which want, Hyrcanus afforded him some affiftauce, and lent him provi. fions by the means of Antipater ; whom also Scaurus lent to Aretas, as one well acquainted with him, to induce him to pay him money to buy his peace. The king of Arabia * compli. ed with the proposal, and gave him three hundred talents ; upon which Scaurus drew his army out of Arabia.
2. But as for Alexander, that fun of Ariftobulus who ran away from Pompey, in some time he got a considerable band of men together, and lay heavy upon Hyrcanus and over-ran Judea, and was likely to overturn him quickly; and indeed
+ Take the like attestation to the truth of this submission of Aretas king of Arabia, to Scaurus the Roman general, in the words of Dean Aldrich : “Hence (lays he is derived that old and famous Denarius belonging to the Emilian iamily [rep relented in Havercamp's edition), wherein Aretas appears in a posture of fupplication, and taking hold of a camel's bridle with his left hand, and with his right hand presenting a branch of the frankincense-tree, with this infcription, M. SČA URUS EX s. Č. and beneath, REX ARETAS."