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not be made consistent. So he gave them an àmbiguous liberty to do as they advised, and permitted the prisoners to go along no other road than that which led to Tiberias only. So they readily believed what they desired to be true, and went along securely, with their effects the way which was allowed them, while the Romans seized upon all the road that led to Tiberias, that none of them might go out of it, and thut them up in the city. Then came Vespasian, and ordered them all to stand in the stadium and commanded them to kill the old men, together with the others that were uleless, which were in number a thousand and two hundred. Out of the young men he chose fix thou!and of the strongest, and sent them to Nero, to dig through the Isthmus, and told the remainder for flaves, being thirty thousand and four hundred, besides such as he made a present of to Agrippa ; for as to those that belonged to his kingdom, hegave him leave to do what he pleas. ed with them : However, the king fold these also for slaves ; but for the rest of the multitude, who were Trachonites, and Gaulanites, and of Hippos, and some of Gadara, the greatest part of them were seditious persons and fugitives, who were of such fhaineful characters, that they preferred war before peace. These prisoners were taken on the eighth day of the month Gorpieus [Elul.]


Containing the Interval of about one year.

[From the Siege of Gamala, to the coming of Titus to Behega



The Siege and taking of Gamala. $1.

. pata had revolted from the Romans, did, upon the conquest of Taricheæ deliver themselves up to them again. And the Romans received all the fortrefles and the cities, excepting Gischala and those that had seized upon mount Tabor; Gamala also, which is a city over against Taricheæ, but on the other side of the lake, conspired with them. This city lay upon the borders of Agrippa's kingdom, as also did Sogana and Seleucia. And thele were both parts of Gaulanitis ; for Sogana was a part of that called the Upper Gaulanitis, as was Ga. mala of the lower ; while Seleucia was situated at the lake Semechonitis, which lake is thirty furlongs in breadth, and fixty in length ; its marshes reach as far as the place Daphne, which in other respects is a delicious place, and hath such fountains as supply water to what is called Little Jordan, under the temple of the * golden calf, where it is sent into great Jordan. Now Agrippa had united Sogana and Seleucia by leagues to himself, at the very beginning of the revolt from the Romans; yet did not Gamala accede to them, but relied upon the difficulty of the place, which was greater than that of Jotapata, for it was situated upon a rough ridge of a high mountain, with a kind of neck in the middle; where it begins to ascend, it lengthens itself, and declines as much downward before as behind, insomuch that it is likea camel in figure, from whence it is so named, although the people of the country do not pronounce it accurately : Both on the side and the face there are abrupt parts divided from the rest, and ending in vaft deep valleys; yet are the parts behind, where they are joined to the

* Here we have the exact situation of one of Jeroboam's golden calves, at the exit of little jordan into great Jordan, near a place called Daphne, but of old Dan, See the note on Antiq B. VIII. sh. viii. $ 2. Vol. I. But Reland suspects, that eyen here we should read Dan instead of Daphne, there being no where alle any mention of a place called Daphne hereabouts.

Vol. III.


mountain, somewhat easier of ascent than the other ; but then the people belonging to the place have cut an oblique ditch here, and made that hard to be ascended also. Onits acclivity, which is strait, houses are built, and those very thick and close to one another. The city also hangs fo ftrangely, that it looks as if it would fall down upon itselt, so sharp is it at the top. It is exposed to the south, and its fouthern mount, which reaches to an immense height, was in the nature of a citadel to the city ; and above that was a precipice, not walled about, but extending itself to an immenle depth. There was also a spring of water within the wall, at the utmost limits of the city.

2. As this city was naturally hard to be taken, so had Jolephus, by building a wall about it, made it still stronger, as also by ditches and mines underground. The people that were in it were made more bold by the nature of the place, than the people of Jota pata had been, but it had much fewer fighting men in it; and they had such a confidence in the situation of the place, ihat they thought the enemy could not be too many for them ; for the city had been filled with those that had fled to it for safety, on account of its strength ; on which account they had been able to resist those whom Agrippa sent to be. fiege it for leven months together.

3. But Vespasian removed from Einmaus, where he had Jait pitched his camp before the city Tiberias (now Emmaus, if it be interpreted, may be rendered a warm bath, for therein is a spring of warm water, uletul for healing), and came to Gamala; yet was its situation such, that he was not able to encompass it all round with soldiers to watch it ; but where the places were practicable, be sent men to watch it, and seized upon that mountain which was over it. And as the legions, according to their usual custom, were fortifying their camp

pon thai mountain, he began to cast up banks at the bottom, at the part towards the east, where the highest tower of the whole city was, and where the fifteenth legion pitched their camp ; while the fifth legion did duty' over against the midst of the city, and whilst the tenth legion filled up the ditches and the valleys. Now at this time it was that as king Agrippa was come nigh the walls, and was endeavouring to speak to those that were on the walls, about a surrender, he was hit with a stone on his right elbow by one of the fingers; he was then immediately surrounded with his own men. But the Romans were excited to set about the siege, by their indigna. tion on the king's account, and by their tear on their own account, as concluding that those men would omit no kinds of barbarity against foreigners and enemies, who were so enraged against one of their own nation, and one that advised them to nothing but what was for their own advantage.

4. Now when the banks were finished, which was done on the sudden, both by the multitude of hands, and by their being accustomed to such work, they brought the machines ;

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but Chares and Joseph, who were the most potent men in the city, set their armed men in order, though already in a fright, because they did not suppose that the city could hold out long, since they had not a sufficient quantity either of water, or of other neceffaries. However these their leaders encouraged them, and brought them out upon the wall, and for a while indeed they drove away. those that were bringing the machines; but when those machines threw darts and stones at them, they retired into the city; then did the Romans bring battering rams to three several places, and made the wall fhake (and tallj. They then poured in over the parts of the wall that were thrown down, with a mighty found of trumpets and noise of armour, and with a fhout of the soldiers, and brake in by force upon those that were in the city ; but these men fell upon the Romans for fome time, at their first entrance, and prevented their going any farther, and with great courage beat them back; and the Romans were fo overpowered by the greater multi tude of the people, who beat them on every fide, that they were obliged to run into the upper parts of the city. Whereupon the people turned about, and tell upon their enemies, who had attacked them, and thrust them down to the lower parts, and as they were distressed by the narrowness and dile ficulty of the place, flew them; and as these Romans could neither beat those back that were above them, nor escape the torce of their own men that were forcing their way forward, they were compelled to fly into their enemies houses, which were low ; but there houles, being thus full of soldiers, whole weight they could not bear, fell down suddenly; and when one houle fell, it shook down a great many of those that were under it, as did those do to such as were under them. By this means a vast number of the Romans perished, for they were so terribly distressed, that although they saw the houses subsiding, they were compelled to leap upon the tops of them ; so that a great many were ground to powder by these ruins, and a great many of those that got from under them, loft some of their limbs, but still a greater number were suffocated by the dust that arose from those ruins. The people of Gamala supposed this to be an assistance afforded them by God, and without regarding what damage they suffered themselves, they prefled forward, and thrust the enemy upon the tops of their houles, and when they stumbled in the sharp and narrow streets, and were perpetually talling down, they threw their stones or darts at them, and slew them. Now the very ruins afforded them stones enow, and for iron weapons the dead men of the enemies side afforded them what they wanted; for, drawing the swords of those that were dead, they made use of them to dispatch such as were only half dead ; nay, there were a great number who, upon their falling down from the tops of the houses, stabbed themselves, and died after that manner; nor indeed was it ealy for those that were beaten back, to fly

away, for they were so unacquainted with the ways, and the duit was so thick, that they wandered about without knowing one another, and fell down dead among the crowd.

5. Those therefore that were able to find the ways out of the city retired. But now Vespasian always staid among those that were hard set ; for he was deeply affected with see. ing the ruins of the city falling upon his army, and forgot to. take care of his own preservation. He went up gradually towards the highest parts of the city before he was aware, and was left in the midst of dangers, having only a very few with him ; for even his son Titus was not with him at that time, having been then fent into Syria, to Mucianus. However, he thought it not safe to fly, nor did he esteem it a fit thing for him to do ; but calling to mind the actions he had done from his youth, and recollecting his courage, as if he had been excited by a divine tury, he covered himself and those that were with him with their thields, and formed a testudo over both their bodies and their armour, and bore up against the enemy's attacks, who came running down from the top of the city; and without showing any dread to the multitude of the men or of their darts, he endured all, until the enemy took notice of that divine courage that was within him, and remitted of their attacks; and when they preffed less zealouly upon him, he retired, though without showing his back to them till he was gotten out ot the walls of the city. Now a great number of the Romans fell in this battle, among whom was Ebutius, the decurion, a man who appeared not only in this engagement, wherein he fell, but every where, and in former engagements to be of the trueft courage, and one that had done very great mischief co the Jews. But there was a centurion whose name was Gallus, who during this disorder being en. compassed about, he and ten other foldiers privately crepeinto the houle of a certain person, where he heard them talking at supper what the people intended to do against the Romans, or about themselves (for both the man himself and those with him were Syrians). So he got up in the night time, and cut all their throats, and escaped, together with his soldiers to the Romans.

6. And now Vefpafian comforted his army, which was much dejected by reflecting on their ill success, and because they had never before fallen into such a calamily, and besi des this, because they were greatly ashamed that they had left their general alone in great dangers. As to what concerned himself, he avoided to say any thing, that he might by no means seem to complain of it; but he said, That we ought to bear manfully what usually falls out in war, and this by considering what the nature of war is, and how it can never be that we must conquer without bloodshed on our own lide; for there stands about us that fortune which is of its own na. ture m utable ; that while they had killed so many ten thou.

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