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by several sorts of contrivance and tricks, and gained the opportunity of doing what they pleased, by the mutual quarrels of those who might have obstructed their measures ; till at length, when they were satiated with the unjust actions they had done towards men, they transferred their contumelious behaviour to God himself, and came into the sanctuary with polluted feet:

7. And now the multitude were going to rise against them already ; for Ananus, the ancientest of the high-priests, persuaded them to it. He was a very prudent man, and had perhaps laved the city if he could but have escaped the hands of those that plotted against him. Those men made the temple ol God a strong hold for them, and a place whither they might resort, in order to avoid the troubles they feared from the people; the sanctuary was now become a refuge, and a shop of tyranny. They also mixed jefting among the miseries they introduced, which was more intolerable than what they did; for in order to try what surprise the people would be under, and how far their own power extended, they undertook to disa pose of the high-priesthood by casting lots for it. whereas, as we have said already, it was to descend by succession in a family. The pretence they made for this strange attempt was an ancient practice, while they said that of old it was determined by lot; but in truth, it was no better than a dissolution of an undeniable law, and a cunning contrivance to seize upon the government, derived from those that presumed to appoint governors as they themselves pleased.

8. Hereupon they sent for one of the pontifical tribes, which is called * Eniachim, and cast lots which of it should be the high-priest. By fortune the lot so fell as to demonstrate their iniquity after the plainest manner, for it fell upon one whose name was Phannias, the son of Samuel, of the village Aptha. He was a man not only unworthy of the high-priesthood, but that did not well know what the high-priesthood was, such a mere rustic was he ; yet did they hale this man, without his own consent, out of the country, as if they were acting a play upon the stage, and adorned him with a counterfeit face : They also put upon him the sacred garments, and upon every occa. fion instructed him what he was to do. This horrid piece of wickedness was sport and pastime with them, but occasioned the other priests, who, at a distance saw their law made a jeft of, to shed tears, and forely to lament the dissolution of such a facred dignity.

9. And now the people could no longer bear the insolence of this procedure, but did all together run zealously, in order to overthrow that tyranny : And indeed they were Gorion the

This tribe or course of the high-priests or priests here called Eniakim seems to the learned Mr. Lowth, one well versed in Josephus, to be that i Chron. xxiv, 12. " the course of Jakim," where some copies have “ the course of Eliakim ;" and I think this to be by no means an improbable conjecture.

son of Josephus, and Symeon * the son of Gamaliel, who en. couraged them, by going up and down when they were als sembled together in crowds, and as they saw them alone to bear no longer, but to infliet punishment upon these pests and plagues of their freedom, and to purge the temple of these bloody polluters of it. The beft esteemed alfo of the highpriests, Jesus the son of Gamalas, and Ananus the son of A. nanus, when they were at their assemblies, bitterly reproach. ed ihe people for their floth, and excited them against the zeal. ots; tor that was the name they went by, as if they were zeal. ous in good undertakings, and were not rather zealous in the worft actions, and extravagant in them beyond the example of others.

10. And now, when the multitude were gotten together to an assembly, and every one was in indignation at these mens seizing upon the fanctuary, at their rapine and murders, but had not yet begun their attacks upon them, (the realon ót which was this, that they imagined it to be a difficult thing to fup. press these zealots, as indeed the case was). Ananus stood in the midst of them, and casting his eyes frequently at the tem. ple, and having a flood of tears in his eyes, he said, “ Certainly it had been good for me to die before I had seen the house of God full of so many abominations, or these facred places that ought not to be trodden upon at random, filled with the feet of these blood shedding villains ; yet do I, who am clothed with the veftments of the high priesthood, and am called by that most venerable name (of high priest), still live, and am but too fond of living, and cannot endure to undergo a death which would be the glory of my old age; and if I were the only person concerned, and as it were in a desert, I would give up my life, and that alone for God's sake ; for to what purpose is it to live among a people insensible of their calamities, and where there is no notion remaining of any re. medy for the miscries that are upon them ? for when you are seized upon you bear it, and when you are beaten you are silent, and when people are murdered, no body dare so much as send out a groan openly. O bitter tyranny that we are under! but why do I complain of the tyrants? Was it not you, and your fufferance of them that have nourished them? Was it not you that overlooked those that first of all got together, for they were then but a few, and by your filence made them grow to be many, and by conniving at them when they took arms, in' effect armed them against yourselves? You ought to have

* This Symeon, the son of Garpaliel, is mentioned as the president of the Jewifir fan bedrim, and one that perished in the destruction of Jerusalem, by the Jewish rabbius, as Reland observes on this place He also tells us, that those rabbins mention one Jelus, the son of Gamala, as once an high-priest, but this long before the deltruction of Jerusalem ; so that if he were the same person with this Jesus the son of Gamala, in Jolephus, he must have lived to be very old, or they have been very bad chronologers.

then prevented their first attempts, when they fell a reproaching your relations ; but by negle&ing that care in time, you have encouraged these wretches to plunder men. When houses were pillaged, no body said a word, 'which was the occa. fion why they carried off the owners of those houses, and when they were drawn through the midst of the city, nobody came to their aslistance. They then proceeded to put those whom you have betrayed into their hands into bonds; I do not say how many, and of what characters those men were whom they thu's served, but certainly they were such as were accused by none, and condemned by none; and since nobody luccoured them when they were put into bonds, the confe. quence was, that you saw the same persons flain. We have seen this allo; so that still the best of the herd of brute ani. mals as it were have been still led to be sacrificed, when yet no body said one word. or moved his right hand for their preservation. Will you bear therefore, will you bear to see your fan&uary trampled on? and will you lay steps for these profane wretches, upon which they may mount to higher de. grees of insolence ? Will you not pluck them down from their exaltation ? for even by this time they had proceeded to higher enormities, if they had been able to overthrow any thing greater than the sanctuary. They have seized upon the Itrongest place of the whole city ; . you may call it the tem. ple, if you please, though it be like a citadel or fortress. Now while you have tyranny in so great a degree walled in, and see your enemies over your heads, to what purpose is it to take counsel ? and what have you to support your minds withal ? Perhaps you may wait for the Romans, that they may protect our holy places : Are our matters then brought to that país ? and are we come to that degree of misery, that our enemies themselves are expected to pity us? O wretched creatures ? will not you rise up, and turn upon those that Arike you ? which you may observe in wild beasts them. selves, that they will avenge themselves on those that strike them. Will you not call to mind, every one of you, the ca. lamities you yourselves have suffered ? nor lay before your eyes what afflictions you yourselves have undergone ? and will not such things sharpen your souls to revenge? Is there. fore that most honourable, and most natural of our passions utterly lost. I mean the desire of liberty ! Truly we are in love with flavery, and in love with those that lord it over us, as it we had received that principle of subjection from our ancestors ; yet did they undergo many and great wars for the fake of liberty, nor were they so far overcome by the power of the Egyptians, or the Medes, but that still they did what they thought fit, notwithstanding their commands to the con. trary. And what occasion is there now for a war with the Romans ? (I meddle not with determining whether it be an advantageous and profitable war or not) : What pretence is VOL. III.


there for it? Is it not that we may enjoy our liberty ? Be.fides, shall we not bear the lords of the habitable earth to be lords over us, and yet bear tyrants of our own country ? Al. though I must say that submission to foreigners may be borne, because fortune hath already doomed us to it, whilelubmission to wicked people of our own nation is too unmanly, and brought upon us by our own consent. However, since I have had occasion to mention the Romans, I will not conceal a thing that, as I am fpeaking, comes into my mind, and affects me considerably ; it is this, that though we should be taken by them (God forbid the event should be fo), yet can we undergo nothing that will be harder to be borne than what these men have already brought upon us. How then can we avoid sedding of tears, when we see the Roman donations in our temple, while we withal see those of our own nation taking our fpoils, and plundering our glorious metropolis, and slaughtering our men, from which enormities those Romans themselves would have abstained. To see those Romans never going beyond the bounds allotted to profàne persons, nor venturing to break in upon any of our facred customs, nay; having a hor. ror on their minds when they view at a distance those lacred walls, while some that have been born in this very country, and brought up in our customs, and called Jews, do walk a. bout the midst of the holy places, at the very time when their hands are fill warm with the slaughter of their own country men. Besides, can any one be afraid of a war abroad, and that with such as will have comparatively much greater moderation than our own people have ? For truly, it we may suit our words to the things they represent, it is probable one may hereafter find the Romans to be the supporters of our laws, and those within ourselves the fubverters of them. And now I am perfuaded that every one of you here come satisfied before I speak, that these overthrowers of our liberties des serve to be destroyed, and that nobody can so much as devise a punishment that they have not delerved by what they have done, and that you are all provoked against them by those their: wicked actions, whence you have suffered so greatly. But perhaps many of you are affrighted at the multitude of those zealots, and at their audaciousness, as well as at the advan. tage they have over us in their being higher in place than we are ; for ihese circumstances, as they have been occasioned by your negligence, so will they become still greater by being Hill longer neglected; for their multitude is every day augpiented, by every ill man's running away to those that are like to themselves, and their audaciousness is therefore inflamed, becaule they meet with no obstruction to their de. signs. And for their higher place, they will make use of it for engines also, if we give them time to do so ; but be assured of this, that if we go up to fight them, they will be made tamer by their own confciences, and what advantages they

shave in the height of their situation, they will lole by the op. position of their reason; perhaps also God himself, who hath been affronted by them, will make what they throw at us return against themselves, and these impious wretches will be killed by their own darts : Let us but make our appearance before them, and they will come to nothing. However, it is a right thing, if there should be any danger in the attempt, todie before these holy gates, and to spend our very lives, if not for the sake of our children and wives, yet for God's lake, and for the sake of his fan&tuary. I will allift you both with my counsel, and with my hand; nor shall any lagacity of ours be wanting for your support, nor shall you see that I will be sparing of my body neither."

11. By these motives Ananus encouraged the multitude to go against the zealots, although he knew how difficult it would be to disperle them, because of their multitude and their youth, and the courage of their souls, but chiefly because of their consciousness of what they had done, since they would not yield, as not so much as hoping for pardon at the last !or thole their enormities. However, Ananus resolved to under, go whatever sufferings might come upon him, rather than overlook things now they were in luch great confusion. So the multitude cried out to him, to lead them on against those whom he had described in his exhortation to them, and every one of them was most readily disposed to run any hazard whatsoever on that account.

12. Now while Ananus was choosing out his men, and putting those that were proper for his purpose in array for fightving, the zealots got information of his undertaking (for there were some who went to them, and told them all that the people were doing), and were irritated at it, and leaping out of the temple in crowds, and by parties, Spared none whom they met with. Upon this Ananus got the populace together on the sudden, who were more numerous indeed than the zealots, but inferior to them in arms, because they had not been regularly put into array for fighing: But the alacrity that every body shewed, supplied all their defects on both sides, the citizens taking up so great a passion as was stronger than arms, and deriving a degree of courage from the temple, more forcible than any multitude whatsoever ; and indeed these citizens thought it was not possible for them to dwell in the city, unless they could cut off the robbers that were in it. The zealots also thought that unless they prevailed, there would be no punishment fo bad, but it would be inflicted on them. So their conflicts were conducted by their passions, and at the first they only cast stones at each other in the city, and before the temple, and threw their javelins at a distance; but when either of them were too hard for the other, they made use of their swords; and great slaugh. ator was made on both sides, and a great number were wounded.

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