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it been done by the common suffrages of the people ? If it be ourselves only that have done it, let them name those friends of ours that have been sent as our servants, to manage this treachery. Hath any one been caught as he went out on this errand, or seized upon as he came back ? Are they in pofler. sion of our letters ? How could he be concealed from such a vast number of our fellow citizens, among whom we are con. verlant every hour, while what is done privately in the coun. try is, it seems, known by the zealots, who are but few in number, and under confinement also, and are not able to come out of the temple into the city. Is this the first time that they are become sensible how they ought to be punished for their insolent a&tions? For while these men were free from the fear they are now under, there was no suspicion raised that any of us were traitors. But if they lay this charge against the people, this must have been done at a public consultation, and not one of the people must have difsented from the rest of the as. sembly ; in which case the public fame of this matter would have come to you sooner than any particular indication. But how could that be? Must there not then have been amballa. dors sent to confirm the agreements ? And let them tell us who this ambassador was, that was ordained for that purpose. But this is no other than a pretence of such men as are loath to die, and are labouring to escape those punishments that hang over them : For if fate had determined that this city was to be betrayed into its enemies hands, no other than these men that accuse us falsely could have the impudence to do it, there being no wickedness wanting to complete their impudent practices but this only, that they became traitors. And now you Idumeans are come hither already with your arms; it is your duty, in the first place to be aslifting to your metropolis, and to join with us in cutting off those tyrants that have infringed the rules of our regular tribunals, that have trampled upon our laws, and made their swords the arbitrators of right and wrong; for they have leized upon men of great emi. nence, and under no accusation, as they stood in the midst of the market-place, and tortured them with putting them into bonds, and without bearing to hear what they had to lay, or what lupplications they made, they destroyed them. You may. if you please, come into the city, though not in the way of war, and take a view of the marks still remaining of what I now !ay, and may see the boules that have been depopulated by their rapacious hands, with those wives and families that are in black mourning for their slaughtered relations; as also you may hear their groans and lamentations all the city over; for there is nobody but hath tasted of the incursions of these profane wretches, who have proceeded to that degree of madness, as not only to have transferred their impudent robberies out of the country, and the remote cities, into this city, the very face and head of the whole nation, but out of the city VOL. III.



into the temple also; for that is now made their receptacle and refuge, and the fountain head whence their preparations are made against us. And this place, which is adored by the habitable world, and honoured by such as only know it by report, as far as the ends of the earth, is trampled upon by these wild beasts born among ourselves. They now triumph in the desperate condition they are already in when they hear that one people are going to fight against another people, and one city against another city, and that your nation hath gotten an army together against its own bowels. Instead of which procedure it were highly fit and reasonable, as I said before, for you to join with us in cutting off these wretches, and in particular to be revenged on them for putting this very cheat upon you; I mean, for having the impudence to invite you to afiift them, of whom they ought to have stood in fear, as ready to punish them. But if you have some regard to these men's invitation of you, yet may you lay aside your arms, and come into the city under the notion of our kindred, and take upon you a middle name hetween that of auxiliaries and of enemies, and so become judges in this case. However, confider what these men will gain by being called into judgment before you, for such undeniable and such flagrant crimes, who would not vouchsale to hear such as had no accusations laid against them to speak a word for themselves. However, let them gain this advantage by your coming. But Still, if you will neither take our part in that indignation we have at these men, nor judge between us, the third thing I have to propose is this, that you let us both alone, and neither insult upon our calamities, nor abide with thefe plotters against their metropolis: For though you should have ever so great a fufpicion that some of us have discoursed with the Romans, it is in your power to watch the passages into the city ; and in case any thing that we have been accused of is brought to light, then to come, and defend your metropolis, and to infliet punishment on thofe that are found guilty ; for the enemy cannot prevent you, who are so near to the city. But it, after all, none of thele proposals seem acceptable and moderate, do not you wonder that the gates are shut against you, while you bear your arms about you."

4. Thus (pake Jesus ; yet did not the multitude of the Idumeans give any attention to what he said, but were in a rage ; because they did not meet with a ready entrance into the city. The generals also had indignation at the offer of laying down their arms, and looked upon it as equal to a captivity, to throw them away at any man's injunction whomloever. But Simon the son of Caihias, one of their commanders, with much ado quieted the tumult of his own 'men, and stood so that the high-priests might hear him, and laid as follows: "I can no longer wonder that the patrons of liberty are under custody in the temple, since there are those that shut the gates of our common city.* to their own nation, and at the same time are prepared to adinit the Romans into it ; nay perhaps are disposed to crown the gates with garlands at their coming, while they speak to the Idumeans from their own towers, and enjoin them to throw down their arms which they have taken up for the preservation of its liberty. And while they will not intrust the guard of our metropolis to their kindred, protess to make them judges of the differences that are among them ! nay, while they accuse some men of having flain others without a legal trial, they do themselves condemn a whole nation after an ignominious manner; and have now walled up that city from their own nation, which used to be open to even all foreigners that came to worship there. We have indeed come in great haste to you, and to a war against our owrz countrymen : And the reason why we have made such haste is this, that we may preserve that freedom which you are lo unhappy as to betray. You have probably been guilty of the like crimes against those whom you keep in custody, and have, I suppose, collected together the like plausible pretences against them also, that you make use of against us : After which you have gotten the mastery of those within the temple and keep them in cultody, while they are only taking care of the public affairs. Yon have also ihut the gates of the city in general againit nations that are the most nearly related to you: And while you give such injurious commands to others, you complain that you have been tyrannized over by them; and fix the name of unjust governors upon such as are tyrannized over by yourtelves. Who can bear this abuse of your words, while they have a regard to the contrarieiy of your actions ? Unless you mean this, that those Idumeans do now exclude you out of your metropolis, whom you exclude from the sacred offices of your own country. One may indeed juftly complain of those that are besieged in the temple, that when they had cour. age enough to punish those týrants, which you call eminent men, and free from any accusations, because of their being wur companions in wickedness, they did not begin with you, and thereby cut off beforehand the most dangerous parts of this treason. But if these men have been more mercilul than the public necessity required, we that are Idumeans will preserve this house of God, and will fight for our common country, and will oppose by war as well those that attack them from abroad, as thole that betray them from within. Here will we abide before the walls in our armour, until either the Romans grow weary in waiting for you, or you become friends to liberty, and repent ot what you have done against ; it."

* This appellation of jerusalem given it here by Simon, the general of the Idumeans, " The common city" of the Idumeans, who were profelytes of justice, as well as of the original Dative Jews, greatly confirms that maxim of the Rabbins, here let down by Reland, that “Jerusalem was not afligned, or approprited to the tribe of Benjamin or Judah, but every tribe had equal right to it, (at their coming to worthịp there at the several leftiyals See a little before, chap. iii. 9.3

5. And now did the Idumeans make an acclamation to what Simon had laid ; but Jesus went away forrowlul, as seeing that the Idumeans were against all moderate counsels, and that the city was besieged on both sides. Nor indeed were the minds of the Idumeans at rest ; for they were in a rage at the injury that had been offered them, by their exclusion out of the city ; and when they thought the Zelotes had been strong, but saw nothing of theirs to support them, they were in doubt about the matter, and many of them repented that they had come thither. But the shame that would attend them in case they returned without doing any thing at all, so far o. vercame that their repentance, that they lay all night before the wall, though in a very bad encampment ; for there broke out a prodigious storm in the night, with the utmost violence, and very ftrong winds, with the largeit showers of rain, with continued lightnings, terrible thunderings, and amazing concussions and bellowigs of the earth that was in an earthquake. Thele things were a manitest indication that some deftruétion was coming upon men, when the system of the world was put into this disorder, and any one would guess that there wonders forelhewed some grand calamities that were coming.

6. Now the opinion of the Idumeans and of the citizens was one and the fame. The Idumeans thought that God was angry at their taking arms, and that they would not escape pun. ilkinent for their making war upon their metropolis Ananus and his party thought that they bad conquered without fighting, and that God acted as a general for ihein ; but truly they proved both il conje&ureis at what was to come, and made thole events to be ominous to their enemies, while they were themielves to undergo the ill effects of them ; for the Idumc. ans lenced one another by uniting their bodies into one band, and thereby kept themselves warm, and connecting their shields over their heads, were not so much hurt by the rain. But the Zelotes were more deeply concerned for the danger these man were in than they were for themselves, and got together, and looked about them to see whether they could devise any means of aslifting them. The hotter fort of the thought it belt to force their guards with their arms, and alter that to fall into the midit of the city, and publicly open the gales to thole that came to their allittance; as supposing the guards would be in dilorder, and give way at such an unexpected attempt of theirs especially as the greater part of them were unarmed, and unikilled in affairs wil war ; and that besides the multitude of the citizens would not be easily gathered together, but confined to their houses by the storm ; and that it there were any hazard in their undertaking, it became them to suffer any thing wlia loeves themselves rather than to overlook so great a mululude as were milerably perishing on their account. But

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the more prudent part of them disapproved of this forcible method, because they saw not only the guards about them very numerous, but the walls of the city itselt carefully watched, by reason of the Idumeans. They aiso supposed that A. nanus would be every where, and vilit the guards every hour; which indeed was done upon other nights, but was omitted that night, not by reason of any lochtulness of Ananus, but by the overbearing appointment of fate, that so both he might himself perish, and the multitude of the guards might perih with him ; for truly as the night was far gone, and the Itorin very terrible, Ananus gave the guards in the cloisters leave to go to sleep ; while it came into the heads of the zealots to make use of the laws belonging to the temple, and to cut the bars of the gates to pieces. The noise of the wind, and that not inferior sound of the thunder, did here also conspire with their designs, that the noise of the laws was not heard by the others.

7. So they secretly went out of the temple to the wall of the city, and made ule of their laws, and opened that gate which was over against the Idumeans, Now at first there came a fear upon the Idumeans themselves, which disturbed them, as imagining that Ananus and his party were coming to attack them, So that every one of them had his right hand upon his sword, in order to delend himselt ; but they soon came to know who they were that came to them, and were entered the city. And had the Idumeans then fallen upon the city, nothing could have hindered them from destroying the people every man of them, such was the rage they were in at that time : But as they first of all made haste to get the Zelotes out of custody, which thole that brought them in earnestly desired thein to do. and not to overlook those for whole sake they were come, ili the midst of their distresses, nor to bring them into a still greater danger ; for that when they had once seized on the guards, it would be easy for them to tall upon the city ; but that if the city were once alarmed, they would not then be able to overcome chose guards, because as soon as they thouid perceive they were there, they would put themselves in order to fight them, and would hinder their coming into the temple.

CHA P. V. The cruelty of the Idumeans, when they were golten into the

Temple, during the Storm : And of the Zelvtes. Concerning the Slaughter of Arianus, and Jejus, and Zacharias. And how the Idumeans retired home.

1. THIS advice pleased the Idumeans, and they ascended

1 through the city to the temple. The Zelotes were also in great expectation of their cuining, and caruestly waited for them. When therefore theie were entering, they allo came

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