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he died immediately : But the Idumeans who were already much afraid of Simon's power, thought fit to take a view of the enemy's army before they hazarded a battle with them.

6. Now there was one of their commanders named Jacob, who offered to serve them readily upon that occasion but had it in his mind to betray. them. He went therefore from the village Alurus, wherein the army of the Idumeans were gotten together, and came to Simon, and at the very first he agreed to betray his country to him, and took assurances upon oath from him, that he should always have him in esteem, and then promiled him that he would aslift him in subduing all Idumea' under him; upon which account he was teasted after an obliging manner by Simon, and elevated by his mighty promises; and when he was returned to his own men, he at firft belied the army of Simon, and said it was manifold more in number than what it was; after which he dexterously persuad. ed the commanders, and by degrees the whole multitude, to' receive Simon, and to surrender the whole government up to him, without fighting. And as he was doing this, he invited Simon by his meslengers, and promised him to disperse the Idumeans, which he performed also, for as soon as their army was nigh them he first of all got upon his horse, and fled, , together with those whom he had corrupied ; hereupon a ter. ror sell upon the whole multitude, and before it came to a clole fight, they broke their ranks, and every one retired to his own home.

7. Thus did Simon unexpe&edly march into Idumea, with out bloodshed, and made a sudden attack upon the city Heb. ron and took it; wherein he got possession of a great deal of prey, and plundered it of a vast quantity of fruit. Now the people of the country say, that it is an ancienter city, not only than any in that country, but than Memphis in Egypt, and accordingly its age is reckoned at two thousand and three hun. dred years. They also relate, that it had been the habitation of Abram, the progenitor of the Jews, after he had removed out of Mesopotamia ; and they say, that bis pofterity descended from thence into Egypt, whose monuments are to this very time ihewed in that small city ; the fabric of which monu. ments are of the most excellent marble, and wrought after the most elegant manner. There is also there shewed, at the dis. tance of six furlongs from the city, a very large *turpentine tree ; and the report goes, that this tree has continued ever since the creation of the world. Thence did Simon make his progrels over all Idumea, and did not only ravage the citiesand villages, but lay waste the whole country; for, besides those that were completely armed, he had forty thouland men

* Some of the ancients call this famous tree, or grove, oak, others a turpentine tree, or grove. It has been very famous in all the past ages, and is so, I suppose, at this day, and that particularly for an eminent mari or inecting of merchants there every year, as the travellers inform us.

that followed him, insomuch that he had not provisions en nough to suffice such a multitude. Now, besides this want of provisions that he was in, he was ot a barbarous disposition, and bore great anger at this nation, by which means it came 10 pass that Idumea was greatly depopulated; and as one may see all the woods behind despoiled of their leaves by locuits, after they have been there, To was there nothing left behind Simon's army but a desert. Some places they burnt down, fome they utterly demolished, and whatsoever grew in the country they either trod it down or fed upon it, and by their marches they made the ground that was cultivated harder and more untractable than that which was barren. In short, there was no sign remaining of shofe places that had been laid waste, that ever ihey had a being.

8. This success of Simon excited the Zelotes afresh ; and though they were afraid to fight him openly in a fair battle, yet did they lay ambushes in the passes, and seized upon his wife, with a considerable number of her attendants ; whereupon they came back to the city rejoicing, as it they had taken Simon himself captive, and were in present expectation that he would lay down his arins, and make fupplication to them for his wite; but instead of indulging any mercitui ai. fection, he grew very angry at them for seizing his beloved wife ; so he came to the wall of Jerulalem, and, like wild beasts when they are wounded, and cannot overtake those that wounded thein, he vented his fpleen upon all persons that he met with. Accordingly he caught all those that were come out of the city gates, either to gather herbs or sticks, who were unarmed, and in years ; he then tormented them and destroyed themi, out of the immense rage he was in, and was almost ready to taste the very fleth of their dead bodies. He also cut off the hands of a great many, and sent them into the city to astonish his enemies, and in order to make the peo. ple fall into a ledition, and desert those who had been the au. thors of his wite's seizure. He also enjoined them to tell the people, that Simon swore by the God of the universe, who fees all things, that unless they will restore him his wife, he will break down their wall, and inflict the like punilhment upon all the citizens, without sparing any age, and without making any diftinction between the guilty and the innocent. These threatenings fo greatly affrighted not the people only, but the Zelotes themselves also, that they sent his wife back to him, when he became a little milder, and left off his perpetual blood shedding.

9. But now sedition and civil war prevailed, not only over Judea, but in Italy also ; for now Galba was slain in the midst of the Roman market place; then was Otho made emperor, and fought against Vitellius, who set up lor emperor allo, for the legions in Germany had chosen him. But when he gave battle to Valens and Cecinna, who were Vitellius's generals at Betriacum in Gaul, Otho gained the advantage on the first day, but on the second day Vitellius's soldiers had the victory; and after much slaughter Otho slew himlelf, when he had heard of this defeat at Brixia, and after he had managed the public affairs * three months and two days. Otho's army also came over to Vitellius's generals, and he came himself down to Rome with his army. But in the mean time Vespasian removed from Cesarea, on the fifth day of the month Delius, (Sivan], and marched against those places of Judea which were not yet overthrown. So he went up to the mountainous country, and took those two toparchies that were called the Gophnitick and Acrabattene toparchies. After which he took Bethel and Ephraim, two small cities, and when he had put garrisons into them, he rode as far as Jerusalem, in which march he took many prisoners, and many captives; but CeTealis, one of his commanders, took a body of horsemen and footmen, and laid waste that part of Idumea which was called the Upper Idumea, and attacked Caphethra, which pretended to be a Imall city, and took it at the first onset, and burnt it down. He also attacked Capharabim, and laid siege to it, for it had a very strong wall, and when he expected to spend a long time in that liege, those that were within opened their gates on the sudden, and came to beg pardon, and surrender. ed themselves up to him. When Cerealis had conquered them he went to Hebron, another very ancient city. I have told you already, that this city is situated in a mountainous country not far off Jerusalem ; and when he had broken into the city by force, what multitude and young men were left therein he flew, and burnt down the city ; so that as now all the places were taken, excepting Herodium, and Malada, Macherus, which were in the poflession of the robbers, lo Jerusalem was what the Romans at prelent aimed at.

10. And now, as soon as Simon had set his wife free, and recovered her from the Zelotes, he returned back to the remainders of Idumea, and driving the nation all before him, from all quarters, he compelled a great number of them to retire to Jerusalem; he followed them himselt allo to the city, and encompassed the wall all round again ; and when be lighted upon any labourers that were coming thither out of the country he flew them. Now this Simon who was without the wall, was a greater terror to the people than the Romans themselves, as were the Zelotes who were within it more heavy upon them than both of the other; and during this time did the mischievous contrivances and courage of John] corrupt the body of the Galileans ; for these Galileans had advanced this John, and made him very potent, who made them suita- . ble requital from the authority he had obtained by their means;

, Suetonius differs hardly three days from Josephus, and says Otho perihed on the 95th day of his reign,' In Othon. Se the note on ohap. xi. 6

for he permitted them to do all things that any of them desire ed to do, while their inclination to plunder was insatiable, as was their zeal in searching the houses of the rich ; and for the murdering of the men, and abusing of the women, it was sport to them. They also devoured what spoils they had taken, together with their blood, and indulged themselves in teminine wantonness, without any disturbance, till they were satiated therewith : While they decked their hair and put on women's garments, and were besmeared over with ointments; and that they might appear very comely, they had paints under their eyes, and imitated, not only the ornaments but also the lusts of women, and were guilty of such intolerable uncleanness, that they invented unlawful pleasures of that fort ; and thus did they roll themselves up and down the city, as in a brothel houle, and defiled it entirely with their impure actions; nay, while their faces looked like the faces of women, they killed with their right hands, and when their gait was effeminate, they presently attacked inen, and became warriors, and drew their Twords from under their finely dyed cloaks and ran every body through whom they alighted upon. However, Simon waited for such as ran away from John, and was the more bloody of the two ; and he who had eicaped the tyrant within the wall was destroyed by the other that lay before the gates, so that all attempts of flying and deserting to the Romans were cut off, as to those that had a mind fo to do.

11. Yet did the army that was under John raise a fedition against him, and all the Idumeans separated themselves from i the tyrant, and attempted to destroy him, and this out of their

envy at his power and hatred of his cruelty ; so they got to. gether, and Ilew many of the Zelotes, and drove the rest betore them into that royal palace that was built by Grapte, who was a relation of Izates, the king of Adiabene; the Idumeans fell in with them, and drove the Zelotes out thence into the temple, and betook themselves to plunder John's effects ; tor both he himielf was in that palace, and therein had he laid up the spoils he had acquired by his tyrants. In the mean time the multitude of those Zelotes that were dispersed over the city ran together to the temple, unto those that had fled thither, and John prepared to bring them down against the people, and the Idumeans, who were not so much atraid of being attacked by them, because they were themselves better soldiers than they, as at their madness, left they should privately (ally out of the temple and get among them, and not only destroy them, but let the city on fire also. So they assembled them. selves together, and the high-priests with them, and took counsel atter what manner they thould avoid their assault. Now it was God who turned their opinions to the worst advice, and thence they deviled such a remedy to get thenselves free as was worse than the disease itselt. Accordingly, in order to overthrow John, they determined to admit Simon, and earnestly to defire the introduction of a second tyrant into the city ; which resolution they brought to perfection, and sent Matthias the high priest, to beseech this Simon to come in to them, of whom they had so often been afraid. Those also that had fled from the Zelotes in Jerusalem, joined in this request to him, out of the desire they had of preserving their houses and their effects. Accordingly he, in an arrogant manner, granted them his lordly protection, and came into the city, in order to deliver it from the Zelotes. The people also made joyful acclamations to him, as their saviour, and their prelerver : But when he was come in, with his army, he took care to secure his own authority, and looked upon those that had invited him in to be no lels his enemies, than those against whom ihe invitation was intended.

12. And thus did Simon get poffeffion of Jerusalem, in the third year of the war, in the month Xanthicus, Nifan], where. upon John, with his multitude of Zelotes, as being both prohibited from coming out of the temple and having lost their power in the city, (tor Simon and his party had plundered them of what they had), were in defpair of deliverance. Si. mon also made an aflault upon the temple, with the afliltance of the people, while the others ftood upon the cloisters and the battleinents, and detended themselves from their allaulis. How. ever, a conGderable number ot Simon's party tell, and many were carried off wounded; for the zealots ihrew their darts eally from a luperior place, and seldom failed of hitting their enemies; but having the advantage of fluation, and having withal erected four very large towers aforehand, that their darts might come from higher places, one at the north east corner of the court, one above the Xyllus, the third at another corner, over against the lower city, and the last was erected above the top of the Paftophoria, where one of the priests stood of course, and gave * a signal beforehand, with a trum. pet, at the beginning of every seventh day, in the evening twilight, as allo at the evening when that day was finished, as giving notice to the people when they were to leave off work, and when they were to go to work again. These men also fet their engines to caft darts and stones withal, upon those towers, with their archers and flingers, And now Simon made his assault upon the temple inore faintly, by realon that the greatel part of his men grew weary of that work; yet did he not leave of his opposition, becaule his army was superior to

* This beginning and ending the observation of the Jewish feventh day, or Sabbath, with a prielt's blowing of a trumpet, is remarkable, and no where elle mentioned, that I know of. Nor is Reland's conjecture here improbable, that this was the very place that has puzzled our commentators fo long, called - Mufach Sabbati," the Covert of the Sabbath," if that be the true reading, . Kings xvi. 38. because here the propes priett itood dry, under a " govering," to proclaim the beginning and ending of every Jewilh Sabbath

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