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leave of them, how cruel soever they were, to come into that court, were yet often deftroyed by this fedition ; for those darts that were thrown by the engines, came with that force that they went over all the buildings, and reached as far as the altar, and the temple itself, and fell upon the priests, and those * that were about the sacred offices; insomuch, that many persons who came thither with great zeal from the ends of the earth, to offer sacrifices at this celebrated place, which was esteemed holy by all mankind, fell down before their own facrifices themselves, and sprinkled that altar which was venerable among all men, bosh Greeks and Barbarians, with their own blood ; till the dead bodies of strangers were mingled to. gether with those of their own country, and those of profane persons with those of the priests, and the blood of all sorts of dead carcasses stood in lakes in the holy courts themselves. And now, “O most wretched city, what misery so great as this didit thou suffer from the Romans, when they came to, purify thee from thy intestine hatred ? For thou could it be no longer a place fit for God, nor couldst thou long continue in. being, after thou hadft been a fepulchre for the bodies of thy own people, and hadit made the holy house itself a buryingplace in this civil war of thine. Yet t may ft thou again grow better, it perchance thou wilt hereafter appease the anger ot that God who is the author of thy destruction." But į must restrain myself from these passions by the rules of history, fince this is not a proper time for domestical lamentations, but for historical narrations; I therefore return to the operations that follow in this ledition.
4. And now there were three treacherous factions in the city, the one parted from the other. Eleazar and his party, that kept the facred first-fruits, came against John in their cups. Thole that were with John plundered the populace, and went out with zeal against Simon. This Simon had his supply of proviGons from the city in opposition to the seditious. therefore, John was assaulted on both sides, he made his men turn about, throwing his darts upon those citizens that came up against him, froń the cloisters he had in his possession, while he opposed thole that attacked him from the temple by his en. gines of war. And it at any time he was freed from those that were above him, which happened frequently, from their being drunk and tired, he iallied out with a great number upon Simon and his party; and this he did always in such parts of the city as he could come at, till he set on fire those houses
+ This is an excellent refle&tion of Josephus, including his hopes of the restoration of the Jews upon their repentance. See Antiq. B. IV. ch. viii. 6 46, Vol. I. which is the grand Hope of Israel, as Manulleh-ben-Israel, the famous jewish rabe bi, llyies it, in his small bat remarkable treatile on that fubject, of which the jewe ish prophets are every whese full. See the principal those prophecies collected cogether, at the end of the Ellay on the Revelation, page 22, &c, VoL, III.
that were full of corn * and of all other provisions. The fame thing was done by Simon, when upon the other's retreat, he attacked the city allo; as if they had on purpose done it to serve the Romans, by destroying what the city had laid up against the siege, and by thus cutting of the nerves of their own power.
Accordingly it fo came to pass, that all the places that were about the temple were burnt down, and were become an interniediate defert (pace, ready for fighting on both sides of it; and that almost all that corn was burnt, which would have been fufficient for a siege of many years. So they were taken by the means of the famine, which it was impolfible they should have been, unless they had thus prepared the way for it by this procedure.
5. And now as the city was engaged in a war on all sides, from these treacherous crowds of wicked men, the people of ihe city between them were like a great body torn in pieces. The aged men and the women were in such distress by their internal calamities, that they wilhed for the Romans, and earneftly hoped for an external was in order to their delivery from their domeftic miseries. The citizens themselves were under a terrible confternation and fear; nor had they any opportuni. ty of taking counsel, and of changing their conduét; nor were there any hopes of coming to an agreement with their enemies; nor could such as had a niind flee away; for guards were let at all places, and the heads of the robbers, although they were se. ditious one against another in other relpeets, yet did they agree in killing thole that were for peace with the Romans, or were fulpeeled of an inclination to desert to them, as their common enemies. They agreed in nothing but this, to kill those that were innocent. The noile also of those that were fighting was inceflant, both by day and by night; but the lamentation of those that mourned exceeded the other; nor was there ever any occafion for them to leave off their lamentations, because their calamities came perpetually one upon another, although the deep consternation they were in prevented their outward wail. ing; but being constrained by their tear to conceal their inward paflions, they were inwardly tormented, without during to open their lips in groans. Nor was any regard paid to those that were still alive, by their relations; nor was there any cåre taken of burial for those that were dead; the occasion of buth which was this, that every one despaired of himself; for those that were not among the feditious had no great desires of any thing, as expc&ing for certain that they should very soon be destroyed ; but tor the feditious themelves, they fouglit a
* This destruction of such a vait quantity of corn and other provisions, as was h ficknt for many years, was the direct occalion of that terrible famine, which contumed incredible numbers of jeni in jerufalem during its fiere Nor probally could tlx Romarıs heve taken ihis city, after all, had not the feditious Jews bien lo inial Jeted, a; thus madly to dailroy wliat dolphus here jufly flyies, " The Deives of their power."
gainst each other while they trod upon the dead bodies as they lay heaped one upon another, and taking up a mad rage from thole dead bodies that were under their ieci, became the fierc. er thereupon. They, moreover, were still inventing somewhat or other, that was pernicious against themselves, and when they had resolved upon any thing, they executed it without mercy, and omitted no method of torment or of barbariiy. Nay, John abused the sacred materials *, and employed thein in the construction of his engiaes of war; for the people and the prielts had formerley determined to support the temple, and raise the holy house twenty cubits higher; for king Agrippa had at a very great expence, and with very great pains, brought thither iuch materials as were proper for that purpose, being pieces of timber very well worth seeing, both for their Atraightness and their largenels : But the war coming on, and interrupting the work, John had them cut, and prepared for the building him towers, he finding them long enough to oppose from them thole his advertaries that fought from the teinple that was above him. He also had them brought and erected behind the inner court over against the weit end of the cloisters, where alone t he could erect them ; whereas the other sides of that court had so many steps as would not let them come nigh enough to the cloisters.
6. Thus did John hope to be too hard for his enemies by these engines conitructed by his impiety ; but God himself demonstrated, that his pa'ns would prove of no use to him by bringing the Romans upon him before he had reared any of his towers; for Titus, when he had gotten together part of his forces about him, and had ordered ihe rest to meet him at le. rusalem, marched out of Celarea. He had with him those three legions that had accompanied his father when he laid Judea walte, together with that twelfth legion which had been formerly beaten with Celsius ; which legion, as it was otherwile remarkable for its valour, so did it march on now with greater alacrity to avenge themselves on the Jews, as remembering what they had formerly suffered from them. Of these legions he ordered the filth 10 mcet him, by going through Emmaus, and the tenth to go up by Jericho : Healio moved himself, together with the reit. Besides which marched those auxiliaries that came from the kings, being now more in number than before, together with a considerabic number that came to his assistance from Syria. Thole allo that had been selected
This timbir, we fee, was deligned for the rebuiiding those twenty additional 'cubits of the holy houle above the hundred which had tallen down lome years before. See the note on Antig. B. XV.ch. xi 3 Vol II. .
+ There being no gate on the west, and only on the welt side of the court of the priests, and to no steps there, this was the only side that the feditious, under this John of Gischala, could bring their engines close to the cloisters of that court end ways, though upon the floor of the court of Ifrael. See the scheme of that temple in the deicriprion of the temples héreto belonging.
out of these four legions, and sent with Mucianus to Italy, had their places filled up out of these soldiers that came out of Egypt with Titus ; which were two thousand men, chosen out of the armies at Alexandria. There followed him alla three thousand drawn from those that guarded the river Eu. phrates ; as also there came Tiberias Alexander, who was a friend of his, most valuable both for his good will to him, and for his prudence. He had formerly been governor of Alex. andria, but was now thought worthy to be general of the army (under Titus). The realon of this was, that he had been the first who encouraged Vespasian very lately to accept this his new dominion, and joined himself to him with great fidelity, when things were uncertain, and fortune had not yet declared for him. He also followed Tilus as a counsellor, very useful to him in this war, both by his age and skill in such affairs.
Hot Titus marched to Jerusalem, and how he was in Danger,
as he was taking a view of the City. Of the Place also where he pitched his Camp.
as Titus was upon his march into the enemies
country, the auxiliaries that were sent by the kings marched first, having all the other auxiliaries with them, alter whom followed those that were to prepare the roads, and mea. sure out the camp ; then came the commanders baggage, and after that the other foldiers, who were completely armed 10 support them; then came Titus himself, having with him another select body, and then came the pikemen; after whom came the horse belonging to that legion. All these came before the engines came, and after these engines came the tribuses and the leaders of the cohorts, with their select bodies ; after these came the enligns, with the eagle; and before those ensigns came the trumpeters belonging to them ; next these came the main body of the army in their ranks, every legion being fix deep; the servants belonging to every legion came after these;
and before these last their baggage ; the mercenaries came last, and those that guarded them brought up the rear, Now Titus, according to the Roman usage, went in the front of the army after a decent manner, and marched through Samaria to Gophna, a city that had been formerly taken by his father, and was then garrisoned by Roman íoldiers ; And when he had lodged there one night, he marched on in the morning; and when he had gone as far as a days march, he pitched his camp at that valley which the Jews, in their own tongue call The Valley of Thorns, near a certain village called Gabaothfaul, which signifies the Hill of Saul, being distant from
Jerusalem about thirty furlongs. There it was that he chose out six hundred select horfemen, and went to take a view of the city, to observe what strength it was of, and how cour. ageous the Jews were ; whether, when they saw him, and be. fore they came to a direct battle, they would be affrighted and submit; for he had been informed what was really true, that the people who were fallen under the power of the feditious and the robbers were greatly desirous of peace ; but being too weak to rile up against the rest, they lay still.
2. Now, so long as he rode along the strait road which led to the wall of the city, nobody appeared out of the gates ; but when he went out of that road, and declined towards the tow. er Plephinos, and led the band of horsemen obliquely, an immense number of the Jews leaped out suddenly at the towers called the Women's Towers, through that gate which was over against the monuments of queen Helena, and intercepted his horle; and, standiog directly opposite to those that still ran a. long the road, hindered them from joining those that had de. clined out of it. They intercepted Titus also, with a few others. Now it was here imposlible for him to go forward, because all the places had trenches dug in them from the wall, to preserve the gardens round about, and were full of gardens obliquely situated, and of many hedges; and to return back to his own men, he saw it was also impossible, by reason of the multitude of the enemies that lay between them ; many of whom did not so much as know that the king was in any dan, ger *, but supposed him still among them. So he perceived that his preservation must be wholly owing to his own cour, age, and turned his horse about, and cried out aloud to those that were about him, to follow him, and ran with violence into the midst of his enemies, in order to force his way through them to his own men. And hence we may principally learn, that both the success of wars and the dangers that * kings are in, are under the providence of God; for while such a number of darts were thrown at Titus, when he had neither his head-piece on, nor his breast-plate (for, as I told you, he went out not to fight, but to view the city), none of them touched his body, but went aside without hurting him ; as it all of them
* We may here note, that Titus is here called a king and Caesar by Josephus, even while he was no more than the emperor's son and general of the Roman army, and his father Vespasian was fill alive ; just as the New Testament says Archelaus reigned, or was king, Mat. ii. 22. though he was properly no more than cthoarch, as jofephus allures us, Antig. B. XVI. ch. xi. $ 4. vol. II. Of the War, B. Il ch vi $ 3 vol. III. Thus also the Jews called the Roman emperors kings, though they never took that title to thein selves : We have no king but Caefar, John xix. 35. Submit to the king as fupreme, 1 Pet. ii. 13, 17 ; which is also the Janguage of the Apoftolical Constitutions, 11. 11. 34. IV. 13. V. 19. VI. 2, 25. VII. 16 VIII. 2, 13; and els:where in the New Testament, John xix. 15. Mati. *. 18. xvii. 25. 1 Tim. ii. 2 and in Jofephus also ; though I suspect josephus particularly efleemed Titus as joint king with his father, ever since his divine dreams that declared them both such, B. III. ch, viij ý 9. vol. III.