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missed him on purpose, and only made a noile as they passed by him. So he diverted those perpetually with his sword that came on his fide, and overturned many of those that di. really met him, and made his horse ride over those that were overthrown. The enemy indeed made a shout at the boldness of Cælar *, and exhorted one another to rulh upon him. Yet did those against whom he marched fly away, and go off from bim in great numbers; while those that were in the same dan. ger with him kept up close to him, though they were wound. ed both on their backs and on their fides ; for they had each of them but this one hope of elcaping if they could aflı ft Ti. - tus in opening himself a way, that he might not be encom. palled round by his enemies before he got away from them. Now there were two of those that were with him, but at some distance ; the one of which the enemy compafled round, and flew him with their darts, and his horse allo ; but the other they New as he leaped down from his horse, and carried off his horse with them. But Ticus elcaped with the rest, and came fate to the camp. So this fuccels of the Jews first aitack rail. ed their minds, and gave them an ill grounded hope ; and this short inclination of fortune on their fide, made them very courageous for the future.

3. But now, as soon as that legion that had been at Emmaus was joined to Cæfar at aight, he removed thence when it was day, and came to a place called Scopus ; from whence the city began already to be seen, and a plain view might be tak. en of the great temple. Accordingly this place, on the north quarter of the city, and joining thereto, was a plain, and very properly named Scopus (the prospects, and was no more than leven furlongs diftant from it. And here it was that Titus ordered a camp to be fortified for two legions that were to be together ; but ordered another cainp to be fortified, at three furlongs farther distance behind them, for the fifth legion ; for he thought that, by marching in the night, they might be tired, and might deserve to be covered from the enemy, and with less fear might fortify theinlelves : And, as these were now begin. ning to build, the tenth legion, which came through Jericho, was already come to the place, where a certain party of arm. ed men had formerly lain, to guard that pal, into the city, and had been taken before by Velpasian. These legions had orders to encamp at the distance of fix turlongs from Jerula. lem, at the mount called the Mount of Olives, which lies over against the city on the east side, and is parted from it by a deep valley interposed between them, which is named Cedron.

4. Now, when hitherto the several parties in the city had

See the above 'note. + This Situation of the Mount of Olives on the cast of Jerusalem, at about the distance of five or ix furlongs, with the valley of Cedron interpoled between that mountain and the city, and things well known both in the Old and New Teltainent, in Jofephus elsewhere, and in all the descriptions of Palestine.

been dalhing one against another perpetually, this foreign war, now suddenly come upon them after a violent manner, putthe first stop to their contentions one against another; and, as the feditious now law with astonishment the Romans pitching three several camps, they began to think of an aukward sort of concord, and said one to another. " What do we here, and what do we mean, when we suffer three fortified walls to be built, to coop us in that we hall not be able to breathe freely ? while the enemy is securely building a kind of city in opposi. tion to us, and while we sit still within our own walls, and become spectators only of what they are doing, with our hands idle, and our armour laid by, as if they were about somewhat that was for our good and advantage. We are, it seems (lo did they cry out), only courageous against ourselves, while the Romans are likely to gain the city without bloodshed by our sedition." Thus did they encourage one another when they were gotten together, and took their armour immediately, and ran out upon the tenth legion, and tell upon the Romans with great cagerness, and with a prodigious thout, as they were fortifying their camp.” These Romans were caught in different parties, and this in order to perform their several works, and on that account had in great measure laid aside their arms; for they thought the Jews would not have ven. tured to make a sally upon thein ; and had they been disposed so to do, they supposed their sedition would have distracted them. So they were put into disorder unexpectedly ; when some of them left their works they were about, arid immedia ately marched off, while many ran to their arms, but were {mitten and flain betore they could turn back upon the enemy. The Jews became still more and more in number, as encour. aged by the good success of those that first made the attack; and, while they had such good fortune, they seemed both to themselves, and to the enemy, to be many more than they really were. The disorderly way of their fighting at first put the Romans also to a stand, who had been constantly used to fight skiltully in good order, and with keeping their ranks, and obeying the orders that were given them: For which reason the Romans were caught unexpectedly, and were obliged to give way to the assaulis that were made upon them. Now when these Romans were overtaken, and turned back upon the Jews, they put a stop to their career, yet, when they did not take care enough of themselves through the vehemency of their purluit, were wounded by them : But, as still more and more Jews fallied out of the city, the Romans were at length brought into confusion and put to flight, and ran away from their camp. Nay, things looked as though the entire legion would have been in danger, unlels Titus had been informed of the cale they were in, and had sent themi succours immediately. So he reproached them for their cowardice, and brought thole back that were running away, and fell himself upon the Jews on their flank, with those select troops that were with him, and sew a considerable number, and wounded more of them, and put them all to flight, and made them run away hasily down the valley. Now, as these Jews suffered greatly in the declivity of the valley, lo, when they were gotten over it, they turned about, and stood over against the Romans, having the valley between them, and there fought with them. Thus did they continue the fight till noon; but, when it was already a little after noon, Titus fet those that came to the af. sistance of the Romans with him, and those that belonged to the cohorts, to prevent the Jews from making any more sallies and then sent the reft of the legion to the upper part of the mountain, to fortify their camp.

5. This march of the Romans seemed to the Jews to be a flight ; and as the watchman, who was placed upon the wall, gave a signal by shaking his garment, there came out a fresh multitude of Jews, and that with such mighty violence, that one might cornpare it to the ruaning of the most terrible wild beafts. To say the truth, none of those that opposed them could fuftain the fury with which they made their attacks ; but, as if they had been cast out of an engine, they brake che enemies ranks to pieces, who were put to flight, and ran away to the mountain. None but Titus himself, and a few others with him, being left in the midst of the acclivity. Now these others, who were his friends, despised the danger they were in, and were ashamed to leave their general, earnestly exhorting him“ to give way to these Jews that are fond of dying, and not to run into luch dangers belore those that ought to stay before him ; to consider what his fortune was, and not, by supplying the place of a common foldier, to venture to turn back upon the enemy so suddenly ; and ihis because he was general in the war, and lord of the habitable earth, on whose preserva, tion the public affairs do all depend." These persuasions Ti. tus seemed not so much as to hear, but opposed those that ran upon him, and fmute them on the face; and, when he had forced them to go back, he flew them: He also fell upon great numbers as they marched down the hill, and thrust them forward ; while those men were so amazed at his courage and his strength, that they could not fly directly to the city, but declined from him on both sides, and pressed after thole that fled up the hill; yet did he still fall upon their flank, and put a stop to their fury. In the mean time, a disorder and a terror fell again upon thole that were fortifying their camp at the top of the hill, upon their seeing those beneath them running away ; inlomuch that the whole legion was dispersed, while they thought that the fallies of the Jews upon them were plainly insupportable, and that Titus was bimself put to right; becaule they took it for granted, that, if he had faid, the reft would never have fled for it, Thus were they encompailed on every side by a kind of panic fear, and some dispersed themselves one way, and some another, till certain of them saw their general in the very midst of an action, and, being under great concern for him, they loudly proclaimed the danger he was in to the entire legion: And now shame made them turn back, and they reproached one another, that they did worse than run away, by deserting Cælar. So they used their utmost force against the Jews, and declining from the Atrait declivity, they drove them on heaps into the bottom of the valley. Then did the Jews turn about and fight them; but as they were themselves retiring, and now, because the Romans had the advantage of the ground, and were above the Jews, they drove them all into the valley. Titus also pressed upon those that were near him, and sent the legion again to fortify their camp ; while he, and those that were with him before, opposed the enemy, and kept them from doing farther mischief; insomuch, that if I may be allowed neither to add any thing out of flattery, nor to diminish any thing out of envy, but to speak the plain truth, Cælar did twice deliver that entire legion when it was in jeopardy, and gave them a quiet opportunity of fortifying their camp.

CHA P. III. How the Sedition was again revived within Jerusalem, and yet

the Jews contrived Snares for the Romans. How Titus alsa threatened his Soldiers for their ungovernable Rashness.

S now the war abroad cealed for a while, the sedition

A within was revived ; and on the least of unleavened bread, which was now come, it being the fourteenth day of the month Xanthicus (Nisan), when it is believed the Jews were first freed from the Egyptians, Eleazar and his party opened the gates of this sinmolt court of the temple, and admitted such of the people * as were desirous to worship God into it.

* Here we see the true occasion of those valt numbers of Jews that were in Jerusalem during this fiege by Titus, and perished therein ; that the Siege began at the feast of the passover, when such prodigious multitudes of Jews and proielytes of the gate were come from all parts of Judea, and from other countries, in order to celebrate that great festival. See the note, B. VI. ch. ix. 3. Tacitus himself informs us, that the number of men, women, and children in Jerusalem, when it was belieged by the Romans, as he had been informed, was 600,000. This information must have been taken from the Romans ; for Josephus never mentions the numbers of those that were besieged, only he lets us know, that of the vulgar,

carried dead out of the gates, and buried at the public charges, was the like number of 600,000, ch. viii, 57. However, when Gestius Callus came first to the siege, that fum in Tacitus is no way disagreeable to Jolephus's history, though they were become much more numerous when Titus encompassed the city at the pallover. As to the number that perished duriog this Gege, Josephus assures us, as we shall See hereafter, they were 1,100,000, besides 97,000 captives. But Tacitus's history of the last part of this fiege is not now extant; so we cannot compare his parallel numbers with those in Josephus • Vol. III,

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But John made use of this festival as a cloak for his treachers ous designs, and armed the most inconsiderable of his own' party, the greater part of which were not purified, with weapons concealed under their garments, and sent them with great zeal into the terrple, in order to seize upon it; which armed men, when they were gotten in, threw their garments away, and presently appeared in their arinour. Upon which there was a very great disorder and disturbance about the holy house; while the people, who had no concern in the ledition, supposed that this aitault was made against all without distinction; as* the Zelotes thought it was made against themselves only. So these left off guarding the gates any longer, and leaped down from their battlements before they came to an engagement, and fled away into the subterranean caverns of the temple ;, while the people that stood trembling at the altar, and about the holy house, were rolled on heaps together, and trampled upon, and were beaten both with wooden and with iron weapons without mercy. Such also, as had differences with others flew many persons that were quiet, out of their own private enmity and hatred; as if they were opposite to the fe. ditious; and alt ahofe, that had formerly offended any of these plotters, were now known; and were now led away to the slaughter :: And, when they had done abundance of horrid mi chief to the guiltleis, ihey granted a truce to the guilty, and let those go of thai came out of the caverns. Thele fol. lowers of Johnt also did now seize upon this inner temple, and upon all the warlike engines, therein, and then ventured to oppose Simon. And thus that ledition, which had bcea din vided into three tactions; was now reduced to two.

2. But Titus, intending to pitch his camp nearer to the city than Scopus, placed as many of his choice horsemen and foot. men as he thought sufficient, opposite to the Jews, to prevent their sallying out upon them, while he gave orders for the whole army to level the diftance, as far as the wall of the city. So they threw down all the hedges and walls which the inhas bitants had made about their gardens and groves of trees, and cui down all the fruit-trees that lay between them and the wall of the city, and filled up all the hollow places and the chalms, and demolished the rocky precipices with iron in. struments ; and thereby made all the place level, from Scopus to Herod's inonuments, which adjoined to the pool called the Serpent's Pooli

3. Now at this very time, the Jews contrived the following fratagem against the Romans. The bolder fort of the sedi. tious went out at the towers, called the Womens Towers, as if they had been ejceted out of the city by those who were for peace, and rambled about as if they were afraid of being alfaulied by the Romans, and were in fear of one another; while those that stood upon the wall, and seemed to be of the people's side, cried out aloud for peace, and entreated they

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