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might bave security for their lives given them, and called for the Romans, promising to open the gates to them; and as they cried out after that manner, they threw ftones at their own people, as though they would drive them away from the gates. These also pretended that they were excluded by, force, and that they petitioned those that were within to let them in; and rushing upon the Romans perpetually, with violence, they then came back, and seemed to be in great disorder. Now the Roman soldiers thought this cunning stratagem of theirs was to be believed real, and thinking they had the one party under their power, and could punish them as they pleased, and hoping that the other party would open their gates to them, set to che execution of their designs accordingly. But for 'Titus himselt, he had this surprising conduct of the Jews.in suspicion ; for whereas he had invited them to come to terms of accommodation, by Josephus, but one day before, he could then receive no civil answer from them; lo he ordered the foldiers to itay where they were. However, some of them that were set in the front of the works prevented him, and catching up their arms ran to the gates ; whereupon those that seemed to have been ejected at the first retired; but as soon as the soldiers were goiten between the towers on each side of the gate, the Jews ran out and encompassed them round, and tell upon them behind, while that multitude which stood upon the wall, ihrew an heap of stones and daris of all kinds at them, infomuch, that they dew a considerable number, and wounded many more; for it was not ealy for the Romans to escape, by realon those behind them preled, chem forward ; besides which, the shame they were under for being mistaken, and the fear they were in ot their commanders, engaged them to perlevere in their mistake: Wherefore they fought with their spears a great while, and received many blows from the Jews, though indeed they gave them as many blows again, and at last repelled those that had encompassed them about, while the Jews pursued them as they retired, and followed them, and threw darts at, then as far as the monuments of Queen Helen.

4. After this these Jews, without keeping any decorum, igrew insolent upon their good fortune, and jelted upon the

Romans for being deluded by the trick they had put upon them, and making a noise with beating their shields, leaped for gladness, and made joylul exclamations; while these lol. diers were received with threatenings by their officers, and with indignation by Cæsar himself, { who spake to them thus): *** These Jews, which are only conducted by their madnets. do every thing with care and circumspection ; they contrive Stratagems, and lay ambushes, and tortune gives success to their Itratagems, because they are obedient, and preserve their good will and fidelity to one another; while the Romans, to whom fortune uses to be ever lubfervient, by reason of their

good order, and ready submission to their commanders, have now had ill success by their contrary behaviour, and by not being able to restrain their hands from action, they have been caught; and that which is the most to their reproach, they have gone on without their commanders in the very presence of Cæsar. Truly, says Titus, the laws of war cannot but groan heavily, as will my father also himself, when he Diall be informed of this wound that hath been given us, since he, who is grown old in wars, did never make lo great a mistake. Our laws of war do also ever inflict capital punishment on those that in the least break into good order, while at this time they have seen an entire army run into disorder. However, those that have been so insolent shall be made immediately sensible, that even they who conquer among the Romans without orders for fighting, are to be under disgrace.” When Titus had enlarged upon this matter before the commanders, it appeared evident that he would execute the law against all thole that were concerned ; so these foldiers minds sunk down in despair, as expecting to be put to death, and that jusly, and quickly. However, the other legions came round about Titus, and intreated his favour to these their fellow-soldiers, and made supplication to him, that he would pardon the rath. ness of a few, on account of the better obedience of all the reft ; and promised tor them that they should make amends for their present fault, by their more virtuous behaviour for the time to come.

5. So Cælar,complied with their delires, and with what prudence dictated to him also ; tor he esteemed it fit to punish single persons by real executions, but that the punishment of great multitudes should proceed no farther than reproofs : So he was reconciled to the soldiers, but gave them a special charge to act more wisely for the future ; and he considered with himself how he might be even with the Jews for their flratagem. And now, when the space between the Romans and the wall had been levelled, which was done in four days; and as he was desirous to bring the baggage of the army, with the rest of the multitude that followed him, safely to the camp, he set the strongest part of his army over against that wall which lay on the north quarter of the city, and over against the western part of it, and made his army even deep, with the foot. men placed before them, and the horsemen behind them, each of the last in three ranks, while the archers stood in the midst in seven ranks. And now as the Jews were prohibited, by so great a body of men, from making lallies upon the Romans, both the beasts that bear the burdens, and belonged to the three legions, and the rest of the multitude marched on without any fear. But as for Titus himself, he was but about two furlongs distant from the wall, at that part of it where was the corner *, and

• Perhaps, says Dr. Hudson, here was that gate, called the Gate of the Caructa in 2 Chr, xxvi. 9. Sce ch. i. 2.

over against that tower which was called Psephinus, at which tower the compass of the wall belonging to the north bended. and extended itselt over against the weft; but the other part of the army fortified itself at the tower called Hippicus, and was distant, in like manner, but two furlongs from the city. However, the tenth legion continued in its own place, upon the Mount of Olives.

.: CHA P. IV.

The Description of Jerusalem. 91. THE city of Jerusalem was fortified with three walls,

1 on such parts as were not encompassed with unpassable valleys ; for in such places it hath but one wall. The city was built upon two hills, which are opposite to one another, and have a valley to divide them asunder ; at which valley the corresponding rows of houses on both hills end. Of these hills, that which contains the upper city is much higher, and in length more dire&t. Accordingly it was called the Citadel; by king David ; he was the father of that Solomon who built this temple at the first; but it is by us called the Upper Mark. et place. But the other hill, which was called Acra, and sur. tains the lower city, is of the Thape of a moon when she is horned ; over against this there was a third hill, but naturally lower than Acra, and parted formerly from the other by a broad valley. However, in those times, when the Alamone. ans reigned, they filled up that valley with earth, and had a mind to join the city to the temple. They then took off part of the height of Acra, and reduced it to be less elevation than it was before, that the temple might be superior to it. Now the valley of the Cheese-mongers, as it was called, and was that which we told you before distinguished the hill of the up. per city from that of the lower, extended as far as Siloam ; for that is the name of a fountain which hath sweet water in it, and this in great plenty also. But on the out-fides, these hills are surrounded by deep valleys, and by reason of the preci. pices to them belonging on both sides, they are every where unpassable.

2. Now, of these three walls, the old one was hard to be ta. ken, both by reason of the valleys, and of that hill on which it was built, and which was above them. But besides that great advantage, as to the place where they were situated, it was also built very strong ; because David, and Solomon, and the following kings were very zealous about this work. Now that wall began on the north, at the tower called Hippicus, and extended as far as the Xifus, a place so called, and then joining to the council-houle, ended at the west cloister of the tempel. But if we go the other way westward, it began at the same place, and extended through a place called Bethfo, to the gate of the Essens ; and after that ii went fouthward, having its bending above the fountain Siloam, where it also bends a. gain towards the east at Solomon's pool, and reaches as far as a certain place which they called Ophlas, where it was joined to the eastern cloifter of the temple. The second wall took its beginning from that gate which they called Gennath, which belonged to the first wall; it only encompassed the northern quarter of the city, and reached as far as the tower Antonia. The beginning of the third wall was at the tower Hippicus, whence it reached as lar as the north quarter of the city, and the tower Psephinus, and then was so far extended till it came over against the monuments of Helena, which Helena was queen of Adiabene, the daughter of Izates : It then extended farther to a great lengib, and passed by the sepulchral caverns of the kings, and bent again at the tower of the corner, at the monument which is called the Monument of the Fuller, and joined to the old wall at the valley called the Valley of Cedron. It was Agrippa who encompassed the parts added to the old city with this wall, which had been all naked before; for as the city grew more populous, it gradually crept beyond its old limits, and those parts of it that stood northward of the temple, and joined that hill to the city, made it considerably farger, and occasioned that hill, which is in number the fourth, and is called Bezletha, to be inhabited also. It lies over again the tower Antonia, but is divided from it by a deep valley, which was dug on purpose, and that in order to hinder the toundations of the ower of Antonia from joining to this hill, and thereby affording an opportunity for getting to it with ease, and hindering the security that arose from its superior elevation ; for which realon also that depth of the ditch made the elevation of the towers more remarkable. This new built part of the city was called Bezetha, in our language, which, if interpreted in the Grecian language, may be called The New City. Since therefore its inhabitants stood in need of a cov. ering, the father of the present king, and of the saine name with him, Agrippa, began that wall we spoke of; but he left off building it when he had only laid the foundations, out of the fear he was in ot Claudius Cæsar, left he should suspect that so strong a wall was built in order to make some innovation in public affairs; for the city could no way have been taken, if that wall had been finished in the manner it was begun; as its parts were connected together by stones twenty cubits long, and ten cubits broad, which could never have been either easily undermined by any iron tools, or fhaken by any engines. This wall was, bowever, ten cubits wide, and it would probably have had an height greater than that, bad not his zeal who began it been hindered from exerting itself. After this, it was erected with great diligence by the Jews, as high as twenty cubits, above which it had battlements of two

bice :

cubits, and turrets of three cubits altitude, insomuch that the entire altitude extended as far as twenty-five cubits.

3. Now the towers that were upon it were twenty cubits in breadth, and twenty cubits in height; they were square, and folid as was the wall itself, wherein the niceness of the joints. and the beauty of the stones were no way inferior to those of the holy house is self. Above this solid altitude of the towers, which was twenty cubits, there were rooms of great magnifi cence, and over ihem upper rooms, and ciferns to receive rain-water. They were many in number, and the steps by which you ascended up to them were every one broad : Of these towers then the third wall had ninety, and the spaces be. tween them were each two hundred cubits; but in the middle wall were forty towers, and the old wall was parted into fixty, while the whole compals of the city was thirty-three furlongs. Now the third wall was all of it wonderful ; yet was the tower Prephinus elevated above it at the north-west corner, and there Titus pitched his own tent: For being seventy cubits high, it both afforded a profpeat of Arabia, at fun rising, as well as it did of the utmoit limits of the Hebrew pofleffions at the sea weftward. Moreover, it was an octagon, and over against it was the tower Hippicus, and hard by two others were erected by king Herod, in the old wall. These were for largeness, beauty, and strength, beyond all that were in the habitable earth; for besides the magnanimity of his nature, and his magnificence towards the city on other occafions, he built these after such an extraordinary manner, to gratify his own private affections, and dedicated these towers to the memory of those three persons who had been the dearest to him, and from whom be named them. They were his brother, his friend, and his wife. This wife he had slain, out o! his love, and jealousy), as we have already related ; the other two he loft in war, as they were courageously fighting. Hippicus, lo named from his friend, was square, its length and breadth were each twen. ty-five cubits, and its height thirty, and it had no vacuity in it. Over this folid building, which was composed of great ftones united together, there was a reservoir twenty cubits deep ; over which there was an house of two stories, whose height was twenty-five cubits, and divided into several parts; over which were battlements of two cubiis, and turrets all, round of three cubits high, insomuch that the entire height added together amounted to four-score cubits. The second tower, which he named from his brother Phasaelus, had its o breadth and its height equal, each of them forty cubits ; over which a cloister went round about whose height was ten cubits, and it was covered from enemies by breast works and bulwarks. There was also built over ihat cloister another tow. er, parted into magnificent rooms, and a place for bathing ; so that this tower wanted nothing that might make it appear to be a royal palace. It was also adorned with battlements and

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