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turrets, more than was the foregoing, and the entire altitude was about ninety cubits : The appearance of it resembled the tower of Pharus, which exhibited a fire to such as failed to Alexan. dria, but was much larger than it in compass. This was now converted to an house, wherein Simon exercised his tyrannical authority. The third tower was Mariamne, for that was the queen's name : It was solid as high as twenty cubits; its breadth and its length were twenty cubits, and were equal to each other : Its upper buildings were more magnificent, and had greater variety than the other towers had; for the king thought it most proper for him to adorn that which was denom. inated from his wife, better than those denominated from men, as those were built stronger than this that bore his wife's name. The entire height of this tower was fifty cubits.

4. Now as these towers were so very tall, they appeared much taller by the place on which they stood ; for that very old wall wherein they were, was built on an high hill, and was itself a kind of elevation that was still thirty cubiis taller : Over which were the towers situated, and thereby were made much higher to appearance. The largeness also of the itones was wonderful; for they were not made of common small stones, nor of such large ones as men could carry, but they were of .white marble, cut out of the rock; each stone was twenty cu. bits in length, and ten in breadth, and five in depth. They were so exactly united to one another, that each tower looked like one entire rock of stone, so growing naturally, and afterward cut by the hands of the artificers into their present shape and corners ; so little, or not at all, did their joints or connex. ion appear. Now as these towers were themselves on the north side of the wall, the king had a palace inwardly thereto adjoined, which exceeds all my ability to describe it; for it was so very curious as to want no cost nor skill in its construction, but was entirely walled about to the height of thirty cubits, and was adorned with towers at equal distances, and with large bed-chambers, that would contain beds for an hundred guefts a-piece, in which the variety of the stones is not to be expressed : For a large quantity of those that were rare of that kind was collected together. Their roofs were also wonderful, both for the length of the beams, and the splendour of their ornaments. The number of the rooms was also very great, and the variety of the fig. ures that were about them was prodigious; their furniture was complete, and the greatest part of the vessels that were put in them were of silver and gold. There were besides many porti coes, one beyond another, round about, and in each of these porticoes curious pillars ; yet were all the courts that were ex. posed to the air every where green. There were moreover several groves of trees, and long walks through them, with deep canals, and cisterns, that in several parts were filled with brazen ftatues, through which the water ran out. There were withal

WARS OF THE JEWS. many

dove courts * of tame pigeons about the canals. But in. deed it is not possible to give a complete description of these palaces; and the very remembrance of them is a torment to one, as putting one in mind what vastly rich buildings that fire which was kindled by the_robbers hath consumed : For there were not burnt by the Romans, but by these internal plotters, as we have already related, in the beginning of their rebellion. That fire began at the tower of Antonia, and went on to the palaces, and consumed the upper parts of the three towers themselves.

CHA P. V.

A Description of the Temple.

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this temple, as I have already said, was built up.

hardly fufficient for the holy house, and the altar, for the ground about it was very uneven, and like a precipice; but when king Solomon, who was the person that built the temple, and built a wallto it, on its east fide, there was then added one cloister founded on a bank cast up for it, and on the other parts the holy house ftood naked. But in future ages the people + added new banks, and the hill became a larger plain. They then broke down the wall on the north side, and took in as much as sufficed af. terward for the compass of the entire temple. And when they had built walls on three sides of the temple round about, from the bottom of the hill, and had performed a work that was greater than could be hoped for, (in which work long ages were spent by them, as well as all their sacred treasures were exhausted, which were still replenished by those tributes which were sent to God from the whole habitable earth); they then encompassed their upper-courts with cloisters, as well as they [afterward] did the lowest (court of the] temple. The lowed

• Thefe dove-courts in Josephus, built by Herod the Great, are, in the opinion of Reland, the very fame that were mentioned by the Talmudists, and named by them Herod's dove-courts. Nor is there any reason to suppose otherwise, lince in both accounts they were expressly tame pigeons which were kept in them.

+ See the description of the temples hereto belonging, chap. xv. But note, that what Josephus here says, of the original scantiness of this mount Moriah, that it was quite too little for the temple, and that at first it held only one cloister, or court of Solomon's building, and that the foundations were forced to be added long afterwards by degrees, to render it capable of the cloisters for the other sourts, &c is without all foundation in the scriptures, and not at all confirmed by his exacter account in the Antiquities. All that is, or can be true here is this, that when the court of the Gentiles was long afterward to be encompassed with cloisters, the southern foundation for these cloisters was found not to be large or firm enough, and was raised, and that additional foundation supported by great pillars and arche es under ground, which Jolephus speaks of elsewhere, Antiq B. XV. ch. xi. $ 3. Vol. II. and which Mr. Maundrel law, and describes, p. 100, as extant under ground at this day. VOL. III,

R.

part of this was erected to the height of three hundred cubits, and in some places more ; yet did not the entire depth of the foundations appear, for they brought earth, and filled up the valleys, as being desirous to make them on a level with the narrow streets of the city ; wherein they made use of stones of forty cubits in magnitude. For the great plenty of money they then had, and the liberality of the people, made this attempt of theirs to succeed to an incredible degree. And what could not be so much as hoped for as ever to be accomplished, was, hy perseverance and length of time, brought to perfection.

2. Now for the works that were above these foundations, these were not unworthy of luch foundations ; for all the clois. ters were double, and the pillars to them belonging were twenty-five cubits in height, and supported the cloisters. These pillars were of one entire fone each of them, and that tonewas white marble; and the roofs were adorned with cedar,. curiously graven. The natural magnificence, and excellent polith, and the harmony of the joints in thele cloisters, afforded a prospect that was very remarkable ; nor was it on the outside adorned with any work of the painter, or engraver. The cloisters of the outmoft court were in breadth thirty cu. bits, while the entire compass of it was by measure fix turlongs, including the tower of Antonia ; chofe entire courts that were exposed to the air were laid with stones of all sorts. When you go through these [first cloisters, unto the second [court of the temple, there was a partition, made of stone all round, whofe height was three cubits, its construction was very elegant; upon it food pillars, at equal distances from one another, declaring the law of purity, some in Greek, and fome in Roman letters, That no foreigner Mould go within that fanctuary; for that second (court of the temple was called the Sanctuary, and was ascended to by fourteen steps from the first

This court was four square, and had a wall about it peculiar to itself; the height of its buildings, although it were * on the outside forty cubits, was hidden by the fteps, and on the inside that height was but twenty-five cubits; for it being built over against an higher part of the hill with steps, it was no farther to be entirely descerned within, being covered by the hill itself. Beyond these fourteen steps there was the dila tance of ten cubits : This was all plain ; whence there were

What Josephus seems bere to mean is this, that these pillars, fupporting the cloisters in the second court, had their foundations or lowest parts as deep as the floor of the firft or lowest court, but that so far of those lowest parts as were equal to the elevation of the upper floor above the lowest, were, and must be hid. den on the inside by the ground or rock itself on which that upper court was built; so that 40 cubits visible below, were reduced to 25 vifible above, and implies the difference of their heigbts to be 15 cubits. The inain difficulty lies here, low 14 of 15. steps should give an ascent of : 5 cubits, half a cubit seeming fufa fciunt for a single flep. Poftibly there were i 4 or 15 steps at the partition wal! and 14 or 15 more thence into the court itself, which would bring the whole near to etre jus proporcion See f. 3. infra. But I determinc nothing,

court.

other steps, each of five cubits a piece, that led to the gates, which gates on the north and south (ides were eight, on each of those fides four, and of neceflity two on the east. For fince there was a partition built for the women on that side, as the proper place wherein they were to worship, there was a neceflity of a second gate for them.: This gate was cut out of its wall over against the first gate. There was allo on the other sides one southern and one northern.gate, through which was a passage into the court of the women: For as to the other gates, the women were not allowed to pass through them ; nor when they went through their own gate could they go beyond their own wall. This place was allotted to the women of our own country, and of other countries, provided they were of the fame nation, and that equally; the western gate of this court had no gate at all, but the wall was built entire on that side. But then the cloisters which were betwixt the gates, extended from the wall inward, before the chambers.; for they were supported by very fine and large pillars. Thele cloisters were fingle, and, excepting their magnitude, were no way interior to those of the lower court.

3. Now nine of these gates were on every side covered over with gold and Gilver, as were the jambs of their doors and their Jintels : But there was one gate that was without the [inward court ofj the holy house, which was of Corinthian brals, and greatly excelled those that were only covered over with silver and gold. Each gate had two doors, whose height was lever. ally thirty cubits, and their breadth 'hifteen. However, they had large spaces within ot thirty cubits, and had on each Gde. rooms, and those, both in breadth and in length, built like towers, and their height was above forty cubits. Two pillars did also support these rooms, and were in circumference twelve cubits. Now the magnitudes of the other gates were equal one to another ; but that over the Corinthian gate, which opened on the east over against the gate of the holy house itfelt, was much larger ; for its height was filty cubits; and its doors were forty cubits; and it was adorned after a most cost. ly manner, as having much richer and thicker plates of silver and gold upon them than the other. Thele nine gates had that lilver and gold poured upon them by Alexander the father of Tiberias. Now there were fifteen steps, which led away from the wall of the court of the women to this greater gaic; whereas those that led thither from the other gates were five steps shorter,

4. As to the holy house itself, which was placed in the midt [of the inmost court], that most facred part of the temple, it was ascended to by twelve steps; and in front its height and its breadth were equal, and each an hundred cubits, though it was behind forty cubits narrower; tor on its front it had what may be styled thoulders on each side, that passed twenty cubits farther. Its first gate was sevenly cubits high, and twenty-five cubits broad : But this gate had no doors; for it represented the univer!al visibility of heaven, and that it cannot be excluded from any place. Its front was covered with gold all over, and through it the first part of the houle, that was more inward, did all of it appear; which, as it was very large, so did all the parts about the more inward gate appear to shine to those that law them : But then, as the entire house was divided into two parts within, it was only the first part of it that was open to our view. 118 height extended all along to ninety cubits in height, and its length was fifty cubits, and its breadth twenty. But that gate which was at this end of the first part of the houle, was, as we have already observed, all over covered with gold, as was its whole wall about it : It had also golden vines above it, from which clusters of grapes hung as tall as a man's height. But then this house, as it was divided into two parts, the inner part was lower than the appearance of the outer, and had golden doors of fifty-five cubits altitude, and fixteen in breadth; but before these doors there was a veil of equal largeness with the doors. It was a Babylonian curtain, embroidered with blue, and fine linen and scarlet, and purple, and of a contexture that was truly wonderful. Nor was this mixture of col. ours without its myftical interpretation, but was a kind of image of the universe ; tor by the scarlet there seemed to be enigmatically signified fire, by the fine flax the earth, by the blue the air, and by the purple the sea ; two of them having their colours the foundation of this relemblance ; but the fine flax and the purple have their own origin for that foundation, the earth producing the one, and the fea the other. This cur. tain had also embroidered upon it all that was mystical in the heavens, excepting that of the [twelve] signs, representing living creatures.

5. When any persons entered into the temple, its floor received them. This part of the temple therefore was in height fixty cubits, and its length the same; whereas its breadth was but twenty cubits : But fill that fixty cubits in length was divided again, and the first part of it was cut off at forty cu. bits, and had in it threc things that were very, wonderful and famous among all mankind, the candlestick, ihe table [of thew bread, and the altar of incente. Now the seven lamps figni. fied the seven planets ; for so many there were springing out of the candlestick. Now the twelve loaves that were upon the table signified the circle of the zodiac and the year: But the altar of incense, by its thirteen kinds of sweet smelling spices with which the sea replenished it, fignified, that God is the possessor of all things that are both in the uninhabitable aud habitable parts of the earth, and that they are all to be de. cicated to his use. But the inmost part of the temple of all was of twenty cubits. This was also leparated from the outer art by a veil. In this the

was nothing at all. It was inac llible and iviolable, and not to be seen by any ; and was

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