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pelled the excursions of the Jews, but drove those away that were upon the walls allo. Now, the stones that were call were of the weight of a talent, and were carried two furlongs. and farther. The blow they gave was no way to be sustained, not only by those that stood first in the way, but by those that were beyond them for a great space. As for the Jews, they at first watched the coming of the stone, for it was of a white colour, and could therefore not only be perceived by the great noise it made, but could be seen also before it came by his brightness ; accordingly the watchmen that sat upon the tow. ers gave them notice when the engine was letgo, and the stone came from it, and cried out aloud, in their own country language, THE SON COMETH*: So those that were in its way itood off, and threw themselves down upon the ground; by which means, and by their thus guarding themselves, the stone fell down and did them no harm. But The Romans contrivedi how to prevent that by blacking the stone, who then could aim at them with success, when the stone was not discerned beforehand, as it had been tilt then ; and so they destroyed many of them at one blow. Yet did not the Jews under all this distress, permit the Romans to raise their banks in quiet ; but they shrewdly and boldly exerted themselves, and repelled them both by night and by day.

4. And now, upon the finishing the Roman works, the work. men mealured the distance there was from the wall, and this by lead and a line, which they threw to it from their banks ; for they could not measure it any otherwise,' ecause the Jews would shoot at them, if they came to measure it themselves ; and when they found that the engines could reach ihe wall they brought them thither. Then did Titus set his engines at .proper distances, so much nearer to the wall, that the Jews might not be able to repel them, and gave orders they should go to work ; and when thereupon a prodigious noise echoed round about from three places, and that on the sudden, there was a great noise made by the citizens that were within the city, and no less a terror tell upon the seditious themselves; whereupon both forts feeing the common danger they were in, contrived to make a like detence. So thole of different fac

* What should be the' meaning of this signal or watchword, when the watchmen saw a stone coming from the engine, THE SON COMLTH, or what mistake there is in the reading, I cannot tell. The MSS. both Greek and Latin, all agree in this reading : And I cannot approve of any ground less conje&ural alteration of the text from usos to sos, chat not the son or a stone, but that the arrow or dart cometh ; as hath been made by Dr. Hudson, and not corrected by Havercamp. Had Josephus written even his first edition of these books of the war in pure Hebrew, or had the Jews theu used the pure Hebrew at Jerusalém, che Hebrew word for a son is so like that for a lone, Bar and Eben, that such a correction might have been more easily admitted. But Josephus wrote his former edition for the use of the Jews beyond Euphrates, and so in the Chaldee language, as he did this second edition in the Greek language ; and Ben was the Chaldee word for son, instead of the Hebrew Ben, and was used not only in the Chaldea, &c. but in Judea al{, as the New Testament informs us.- Dio also lets us know, that the very Romans at Rome pronounced the name of Simon, the son of Giora, Bar Poras for Bar Gioras, as we learn from Xiphiline, p. 217. Reland takes notice, " That mary will here look for a myflery, as though the meaning were, that the son of God came now to take vengeance on the fins of the Jewish nation ;" which is indeed the truth of the fact, but hardly what the Jews could now mean; uoless poslibly by the way of derifion of Christ's threatening fo often made, that he would come at the head of the Roo man army for their destruction. But even this interpretation has but a very small degree of probability. If I were to make an emendation, by mere conje&urc, I would read metpos instead of vios, though the likeness be not so great as in sos ;because that is the word ufed by Josephus just before, as have already noted, on this very occasion, while 695, an arrow or dart, is only a poetical word, and never used by Jolephus ellewhere, and is indeed no way suitable to the occasion, this one gine Rolihrowing arrows or darts, but great fones, at this time.

tions cried out one to another, that they acted entirely as in concert with their enemies ; whereas they ought however, notwithstanding God did not grant them a lasting concord, in their preient circumstances to lay aside their enmities one against another, and to unite together against the Romans. Accordingly Simon gave those that came from the temple leave, by proclamation, to gy upon the wall; John alio him. felf, ihough he could not believe Simon was in earnest, gave them the lame leave. So on both sides they laid aside their hatred and their peculiar quarrels, and formed themselves into one body; they then ran round the walls, and having a vast number of torches with them, they threw them at the machines, and shot darts perpetually upon those that impelled those engines which battered the wall; nay, the bolder Sort leaped out by troops upon the hurdles that covered the machines, and pulled them to pieces, and fell upon those that belonged to them, and beat them, not so much by any skill they had, as principally by the boldness of their attacks. However, Titus himsell still sent alliftance to those that were the hardeit let, and placed both horsemen and archers on the several sides of the engines, and thereby beat off those that brought the fire to them; he also thereby repelled thote that fhot itones or darts from the towers, and then set the engines to work in good earnest; yet did not the wall yield to thele blows, excepting where the battering ram of the filteenth le. gion moved the corner of a tower, while the wall itselt conii. nued unhurt; for the wall was not presently in the same dan.ger with the tower, which was extant far above it ; nor could the fall of that part of the tower eaGly break down any part of the wall itfelf together with it.

6. And now the Jews intermitted their fallies for a while; but when they observed the Romans difperled all abroad at their works, and in their several camps, (for they thought the Jews had retired out of weariness and fear), they all at once made a fally at the tower Hippicus, through an obscure gate, .and at the same time brought fire to burn the works, and went boldly up to the Romans, and to their very fortifications chemselves, where at the cry they made, those that came near came presently to their aslistance, and those farther off came running after them; and here the boldness of the Jews was too hard for the good order of the Romans ; and as they beat those whom they first fell upon, so they prefied upon thole that were now gotten together. So this fight about the machines was very hot, while the one side tried hard to set them on fire, and the other side to prevent it ; on both sides there was a contuled cry made, and many of those in the forefront of the battle were llain. However, the Jews were now 100 hard for the Romans, by the furious assaults they made like madmen; and the fire caught hold of the works, and both all those works, and the engines themselves had been in danger of being burnt, had not many of these lelect soldiers that came from Alexandria opposed themselves to prevent it ; and had they not behaved themselves with greater courage than they themselves suppored they could have done ; for they outdid those in this fight that had greater reputation than themselves before. This was the state of things till Cæfar took the stoutest of his horlemen, and attacked the enemy, when he himselt flew twelve of those that were in the forelront of the Jews; which death of these men when the rest of the multitude saw they gave way, and he pursued thein, and drove them all into the city, and saved the works from the fire. Now it happened at this fight, that a certain Jew was taken alive, who, by Titus's order, was crucified before the wall, to see whether the rest of them would be affrighted, and abate of their obftinacy. But alter the Jews were retired, Johr., 'who was commander of the Idumeans, and was talking to a certain Soldier of his acquaintance before the wall, was wounded by a dart shot at hini by an Arabian, and died immediately, leaving the greatest lamentation to the Jews, and forrow to the seditious. For he was a man of great eminence, buth for his actions and his conduct also.


How one of the Towers erected by the Romans fell down of its

own accord; and how the Romans, after great Slaughter had been made, got Polefon of the firf Wall. How also Titus made his Alaults upon the Jecond Vall : As alfo Concerning Longinus the Roman, and Casor the Jew. . NUM TOW on the next night, a surprising disturbance fell

upon the Romans ; for whereas Titus had given orders for the erection of three towers, of fitty cubits high, that by setting men upon them at every bank he might from thence drive those away who were upon the wall, it so hap: pened that one of these towers fell down about midnight ; and as its fall made a very great noise, fear fell upon the army, and they, suppofing that she enemy was coming to attack them ran all to their arms. Whereupon a disturbance and a tumult arose among the legions, and as nobody could tell what had happened, they went on after a disconfolate manner; and seeing no enemy appeared, they were afraid one of another, and every one demanded of his neighbour the watchword with great earneltness, as though the Jews had invaded their camp. And now were they like people under a panic fear, till Titus was intormed of what had happened, and gave orders that all should be acquainted with it, and then, though with some difficulty, they got clear of the disturbance they had been under.

2. Now these towers were very troublesome to the Jews, who otherwise opposed the Romans very courageously ; for they shot at them out of their lighter engines from those towers, as they did also by those that threw darts, and the archers, and those that flung stones. For neither could the Jews reach those that were over them, by reason of their height, and it was not practicable to take them, nor to overturn them, they were so heavy, nor to set them on fire, because they were covered with plates of iron. So they retired out of the reach of the darts, and did no longer endeavour to hinder the impresfion of their rams, which, by continually beating upon the wall, did gradually prevail against it ; so that the wall already gave way to the Nico, for by that name did the Jews them. felves call the greatest of their engines, because ii conquered all things. And now they were for a long while grown wea, ry of fighting, and of keeping guards, and were retired to lodge on the night-times at a distance from the wall. It was on other accounts allo thought by them to be superfluous to guard the wall, there being besides that two other fortifications still remaining, and they being slothtul, and their coun. sels having been ill concerted on all occasions ; so a great many grew lazy and retired. Then the Romans mounted the breach, where Nico had made one, and all the Jews left the guarding that wall, and retreated to the second wall; so those that had gotten over that wall opened the gates, and received all the army within it. And thus did the Romans get posses. fion of this first wall, on the 15th day of the siege, which was the seventh day of the month

Artemisius, 5 Jyard, when they demolished a greater part of it, as well as they did of the northern parts of the city ;' which had been demolished also by Ceftius formerly.

3. And now Titus pitched his camp within the city, at that place which was called the Camp of the Alyrians, having seiz. ed upon all that lay as far as Cedron, but took care to be out of the reach of the Jew's darts. He then presently began his attacks, upon which the Jews divided themselves into several bodies, and courageously defended that wall ; while John, and his faction, did it from the tower of Antonia, and from the Northern cloifter of the temple, and fought the Romans beforç the monuments of king Alexander ; and Simon's army also took for their share the spot of ground that was near John's monument, and fortified it as far as to that gate where water was brought into the tower Hippicus. However the Jews made violent sallies, and that frequently also, and in bodies together, out of the gates, and there fought ihe Romans; and when they were pursued all together to the wall, they were beaten in those fights, as wanting the skill of the Romans. But when they fought them from the walls, they were too hard for them; the Romans being encouraged by their power, joined to their skill, as were the Jews by their

boldness, which was nourilled by the fear they were in, and that hardiness which is natural to our nation under calamities; they were also encouraged ftill by the hope of deliverance, as were the Romans by their hopes of subduing them in a little tiine. Nor did either side grow weary; but attacks and fightings upon the wall, and perpetual iallies out in bodies were there all the day long; nor were there any sort of warlike engagements that were not then put in use. And the night itself had much ado to part them, when they began to fight in the morning ; nay, the night itself was pasled without deep on both udes, and was more uneasy than the day to them, while the one was afraid left the wall lhould be taken, and the other left the Jews should make fallies upon

their camps : Both sides also lay in their armour during the night time, and thereby were ready at the first appearance of light to go to the battle. Now among the Jews the ambition was who should undergo the first dangers, and there. by gratily their commanders. Above all, they had a great veneration and dread of Simon; and 10 that degree was he regarded by every one of those that were under him that at his command they were very ready to killthemselves with theirown hands. What made the Romans to courageous was their ulual custom ot conquering and disuse of being deteated, their con. ftant wars, and perpetual warlike exercites, and the grandeur of their dominion. And what was now their chiet encouragement, Titus, who was present every where with them all ; for it appeared a terrible thing to grow weary while cætar was there, and fought bravely as well as they did, and was himself at once an eye-witnels of such as behaved themselves valiantly, and he who was to reward them allo. It was besides er. teemed an advantage at present to have any one's valour known by Cæsar, on which account many of them appeared to have more alacrity than strength to answer it. And now as the Jews were about this time standing in array before the wall and that in a strong body, and while both parties were throw, ing their darts at each other, Longinus, one of the equestrian order, leaped out of the army wtine Romans, and leaped into the very midst of the army of the Jews ; and as they dispersed themselves upon this attack, he flew two o! their men of the greatest courage ; one of them he ftruck ia his mouth, as he

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