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3. So Jofephus went round about the wall, and tried to find a place that was ont of the reach of their darts, and yet within their hearing, and besought them, in many words, “ To spare themselves, to ipare their country, and their temple, and not to be more obdurate in these cases than foreigners themselves : For that the Romans, who had no relation to those things, had a reverence for their facred rites and places, although they be. longed to their enemies, and had till now kept their hands off from meddling with them, while such as were brought up un. der them, and, if they be preserved, will be the only people that will reap the benefit of them, hurry on to have them de. stroyed. That certainly they have seen their strongelt walls demolished, and that the wall still remaining was weaker than those that were already taken. That they must know the Ro. man power was invincible, and that they had been used to Serve them ; for that in case it be allowed a right thing to fight for liberty, that ought to have been done at firk; but ior them that have once fallen under the power of the Romans, and have now submitted to them for to many long years, to pretend to shake off that yoke afterward, was the work of such as had a mind to die miserably, not of such as were lovers of lib. erty. Besides, men may well enough grudge at the dishonour of owning ignoble matters over them, but ought not to do so to those who have all things under their command : For what part of the world is there that hath escaped the Romans, unlels it be such as are ot no use for violent cold ? And evident it is, that fortune is on all hands gone over to them; and that God, when he had gone round the nations with this dominion, is now settled in Italy. That moreover, it is a Atrong and fixed law, even among brute beasts, as well as among men, to yield to those that are too strong for them; and to suffer those to have the dominion, who are too hard for the reit in war. For which reason it was that their forelaihers, who were far fuperior to them both in their souls and bodies, and other advantages, did yet submit to the Romans, which they would not have suffered, had they not known that God was with them. As tor themselves, what can they depend on in this their opposition, when the greatest part of their city is already taken ? and when those that were within ii are under greater mileries than if they were taken, although their walls be still ftanding ? For that the Romans are not unacquainted with that famine which is in the city, whereby the people are already consumed, and the fighting men will in a little time be fo too ; for although the Romans should leave off the siege, and not fall upon the city with their lwords in their hands, yet was there an insuperable war that beset them within, and was augmented every hour ; unlels they were able to wage war with famine, and fight against it, or could alone conquer their natural appetites." He added this tartber, " How right a tlring it was to change their conduct, before their calamities were become incurable, and to have recourse to such advice as might preserve them, while opportunity was offered them for so doing. For that the Romans would not be mindful of their part acțions, to their disadvantage, unless they perlevered in their insolent behaviour to the end ; becaule they were naturally mild in their conquests, and preferred what was profitable, before what their passions dicated to them ; which profit of theirs lay' not in leaving the city empty of inhabi. tants, nor ihe country desert : On which account, Cæsar did now offer them his right hand for their security. Whereas. if he took the city by torce, he would not save any of them. and this especially, if they rejected his offers in thele their ut. most distrelles ; for the walls that were already taken, could not but assure them that the third wall would quickly be taken also. And though their fortifications should prove too strong for the Romans to break through them, yet would the famine fight for the Romans against them."
4. While Josephus was making this exhortation to the Jews, many of them jeited upon him from the wall, and many reproached him ; nay, lome threw their darts at him : But when he could not himleli persuade them by such open good advice, he betook himself to the histories belonging to their own na. tion, and cried oụt aloud,“ O miserable creatures ! are you so unmindful of chole that used to assist you, that you will fight by your weapons and by your hands against the Romans ! When did we ever conquer any other nation by such means ? and when was it that God, who is the Creator of the Jewish people, did not ayenge them when they had been injured ? Will not you turn again, and look back, and consider whence it is that you fight with such violence, and how great a Supporter you have profanely abused ? Will not you .recal to mind the prodigious things done for your forefathers and this holy place, and how great enemies of yours were by hiin subdued under you? I even tremble mylelf in declaring the works of God before your ears that are unworthy to hear them : However, hearken to me, that you may be intormed how you fight not only against the Romans but against God himself. In old time there was one Necao, king of Egypt, who was also called Pharaoh ; he came with a prodigious army, and seized Queen Sarah, the mother of our nation. What did Abrahain our progenitor then do? Did he detend himself from this injurious perion by war, although he had three hundred and eighteen captains under him, and an immende army under each of them ? Indeed he deemed them to be no num. ber at all without God's assistance, and only spread out his hands * towards this holy place, which you have now polluted, and reckoned upon him as upon his invincible supporter, instead of his own army. Was not our queen sent back, with out any defilement, to her husband, the very next evening ? while the king of Egypt fled away, adoring this place, which you have defiled by laedding thereon the blood of your own countrymen ; and he also trembled at those vifions which be saw in the night-leason, and bestowed both silver and gold on the Hebrews, as on a people beloved by God. Shall I say nothing, or shall I mention the removal of our fathers into Egypt who when they were used tyrannically, and were fallen under the power of foreign kings for four hundred years to. gether, and might have defended themselves by war and by fighting, did yet do nothing but commit themselves to God? Who is there that does not know how Egypt was over-run with all sorts of wild beasts, and consumed by all sorts of diftempers ? how their land did bring forth its fruit ? how the Nile Jailed of water ? how the ten plagues of Egypt followed one upon another ? and how by those means our fathers were sent away, under a guard, without any bloodshed, and without running any dangers, because God conducted them as his pecul. iar servants ? Moreover, did not Palestine groan under the ravage the Assyrians * made, when they carried away our sa. .cred ark ? as did their idol Dagon, and as also did that entire mation of thole that carried it away ; how they were smitten with a loathsome distemper in the secret parts of their bodies, when their very bowels came down together with what they had eaten, till those hands that stole it away were obliged to bring it back again, and that with the found of sy mbals and timbrels, and other oblations, in order to appease the anger of God for their violation of his holy ark. It was God who then became our general, and accomplished these great things for our fathers, and this because they did not meddle with war and fighting, but committed it to him to judge about their af. fairs. When Sennacherib, king of Allyria, brought along with him all Asia, and encompafled this city round with his army, did he fall by the hands of men ? were not those hands lified up to God in prayers, without meddling with their arms, when an angel of God destroyed that prodigious army in one night? when the Allyrian king, as he rose the next day, found an hundred fourscore and five thousand dead boa dies, and when he, with the remainder of his army, fled away from the Hebrews, though they were unarmed, and did not pursue them. You are also acquainted with the slavery we were under at Babylon, where the people were captives for feventy years ; yet were they not delivered into freedom a. gain, before God made Cyrus his gracious instrument in bringing it about; accordingly they were let free by him, and did again restore the worship of their deliverer at his temple. And, to speak in general, we can produce no example wherein our fathers got any success by war, or failed of luccess when without war they committed themselves to God. When they staid at home, they conquered, as pleased their judge, but when they went out to fight, they were always disappointed : For example, when the king of Babylon be. sieged this very city, and our king Zedekiah fought against him, contrary to what predictions were made to him by Jeremiah the prophet, he was at once taken prisoner, and saw the city and the temple demolished. Yet how much greater was the moderation of that king, than is that of your present gove ernors, and that of the people then under him, than is that of you at this time ? for when Jeremiah cried out aloud, how very angry God was at them, because of their transgressions, and told them they should be taken prisoners, unless they would surrender up their city, neither did the king nor the people put him to death : But for you, (to pass over what you have done within the city, which I am not able to de· fcribe, as your wickedness deserves), you abuse me, and
* Josephụs supposes, in this his admirable speech to the Jews, that not Abraham only, but Pharaoh king of Egypt, prayed towards a lemple at Jerufalem, or towards Jerufalem itielf, in which were mount Sion and mount Moriah, on which the tabernacle and temple did afterwards Hand; and this long befose either the Jewish tabernacle or temple were built. Nor is the famous coinmand given by God to Abraham, to go iwo or three days journey on purpole to offer up his son I laac there, untavourable to such a notion,
* Note here, that jolepbus, in this his fame admirable speech, calls the Syrians, nay, even the Philistines on the most louth part of Syria, Allyrians; wbich Reland oblerves as what was common among the ancient writers. Note alio, that Josephus mi ht well put the Jews in mind, as he dces here more than once, of their wonderful and truly miraculous deliverance from Senacherib king of Allyre ia, while the Roman army, and himself with tem, were now encamped upon and beyond that very spot of ground where the AfTyrian army lay 780 years before and which retained the very name of the camp of the Allyrians to that very day. See, chap. vii, $ 3. and cheap. xii. 5 2.
throw darts at me, who only exhort you to save yourselves, as being provoked when you are put in mind of your sins, and cannot bear the very mention of those crimes which you every day perpetrate. For another example, when Antio. chus, who was called Epiphanes, lay before this city, and had been guilty of many indignities against God, and our forefathers met him in arms, they then were slain in the battle, this city was plundered, by our enemies, and our fanétuary made delolate for three years and fix months. And what need I bring any more examples ? Indeed what can it be that hath stirred up an army of the Romans against our nation? Is it not the impiety of the inhabitants ? Whence did our servitude commence? Was it noi derived from the seditions that were among our forefathers, when the madness of Ariltobulus and Hyrcanus, and our mutual quarrels, brought Pompey upon this city, and when God reduced those under subjection to the Romans, who were unworthy of the liberty they had enjoyed. Afier a fiege, therefore, of three months they were forced to furrender themselves, although they had not been guilty of such offences with regard to our sanctuary and our laws, as you have ; and this while they had much greater advantage to go to war than you live. Do not we know what end Antigonus, the son of Ariftobulus, came to, under whose reign God provided that this city should be taken again upon account of the people's offences ? When Herod, the son of Antipater, brought upon us Solius, and Solius brought upon us the Roman army, they were then encompassed and belieged for six months, till, as a punilhment for their fins, they were taken, and the city was plundered by the ene. my. Thus it appears, that arms were never given to our nation, but that we are always given up to be fought against, and to be taken ; for I suppose. that such as inhabit this holy place ought to commit the disposal of all things to God, and then only to disregard the aslistance of men, when they relign themselves up to their Arbitrator, who is above. As for you, what have you done of those thiógs that are recominended by our Legislator? and what have you not done of those things that he hath condemned ? How much more impious are you than those which were so quickly taken ? You have not avoided so much as those fins that are usually done in secret; I mean thefts, and treacherous plots against men, and adulterers. You are quarrelling about rapines and murders, and invent strange ways of wickedness. Nay the temple itself is become the receptacle of all, and this divine place is polluted by the hands ot those of our own country ; which place hath yet been reverenced by the Romans, when it was at a distance from them, when they have suffered many ot their own customs to give place to our law. And, after all this, do you expe& him whom you have so impioully abused to be your supporter? To be sure then you have a right to be petitioners, and to call upon him to assist you, lo pure are your hands ! Did your king (Hezekiab) lift up such hands in prayer to God against the king of Assyria. when he destroyed that great army in one night? And do the Romans commit such wickednels, as did the king of Aflyria, that you inay have reason to hope for the like ven. geance upon them ? Did not that king accept of money from our king on this condition, that he thould not destroy the city, and yet, contrary to the oath he had taken, he came down to burn the temple ? while the Romans do demand no more than that accustomed tribute which our fathers paid to their fathers ; and if they may but once obtain that, they nei. ther aim to destroy this city, nor to touch this sanctuary ; nay, they will grant you besides, that your posterity shall be free, and your potellions secured to you, and will prelerve your holy laws inviolate to you. And it is plain madness to expect, that God should appear as well disposed towards the wicked as towards the righteous, since he knows when it is proper to punilh men for their fins immediately: Accordingly he brake the power of the Allyrians the very first night that they pitch. ed their camp. Wherefore, had he judged that our nation was worthy of freedom, or the Roinans of punishment, he had immediately inflicted punilhment upon those Romans, as he