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privy parts of the miserable wretches, and to drive sharp stakes up their fundaments; and a man was forced to bear what is terrible even to hear, in order to make him confess that he had but one loaf of bread, or that he might discover an handlul of barley-meal that was concealed ; and this was done when thele tormentors were not themselves hungry ; for the thing had been lels barbarous had necessity forced them to it; but this was done to keep their madness in exercise, and as making preparation of provisions for themselves tor the following days. Thele men went also to meet those that had crept out of the city by night, as far as the Roman guards, to garber some plants and herbs that grew wild; and when those people thought they had got clear of the enemy, these snatched from them what they had brought with them, even while they had trequently entreated them, and that by calling upon the tremendous name of God, to give them back some part of what they had brought ; though these would not give them the lealt crumb, and they were to be well contented that they were onJy spoiled, and not slain at the same time.

4. Thele were the afflictions which the lower sort of people suffered from these tyrants guards; but for the men that were in dignity, and withal were rich, they were carried before the tyrants themselves ; some of which were falsely accused of laying treacherous plots, and so were destroyed; others of them were charged with designs of betraying the city to the Romans ; but the readiest way of all was this, to 'uborn somebody to affirm that they were resolved to defert to the enemy. And he who was utterly delpoiled of what he had by Simon, was sent back again to John; as of those who had been already plundered by John, Simon got what remained ; infomuch ihat they drank the blood of the populace to one another, and divided the dead bodies of the poor creatures between them : So that although, on account of their ambition after dominion, they contended with each other, yet did they very well agree in their wicked practices; for he ihat did not communicate what he got by the miseries of others to the other tyrant, seemed to be too little guilty, and in one relpect only; and he that did not partake of what was so communicated to him, grieved at this, as at the loss of what was a valuable thing, that he had no share in such barbarity.

5. It is therefore impoflible to go diftin&tly over every inItauce of thele men's iniquiry. I shall therefore ipeak my mind here at once briefly, that neither did any other city ever sulfer such miseries, nor did any age ever breed a generation more fruitful in wickednels than this was, from the beginning of the world. Finally, they brought the Hebrew nation into contempt, that they might themselves appear comparatively lels impious with regard to ftrangers. They conteffed what was true, that they were the slaves, the scum, and the fpurious and aborțive offspring of our nation, whue they overthrew the city themielves, and forced the Romans, whether they would

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or no, to gain a melancholy reputation, by acting gloriously against them, and did almost draw that fire upon the temple, which they seemed to think came too slowly ; and indeed, when they saw that temple burning from tbe upper city, they were neither troubled at it, nor did they shed any tears on that account, while yet thele pallions were discovered among the Romans themlelves. Which circumstances we shall speak of hereafter in the proper place, when we come to treat of luch matters.

| C H A P. XI. How the Jews were Crucified before the Walls of the City. Con.

cerning Antiochus Epiphanes. And how the Jews overthrew the Banks that had been raised by the Romans. $1. CO now Titus's banks were advanced a great way. not.

withstanding his foldiers had been very much diftressed from the wall. He then sent a party of horsemen, and ordered they should lay ambushes for those that went out into the valleys to gather food. Some of these were indeed fighting men, who were not contented with what they got by ra. pine ; but the greater part of them were poor people, who were deterred from deserting by the concern they were under. for their own relations ; for they could not hope to escape away, together with their wives and children, without the knowledge of the seditious ; nor could they think of leaving these relations to be flain by the robbers on their account; nay, the severity of the famine made them bold in thus going out: So nothing remained but that, when they were concealed from the robbers, they should be taken by the enemy, and when they were going to be taken, they were for. ced to detend themselves for fear of being punished; as after they had fought, they thought it too late to make any fuppli. cations for mercy : So they were first whipped and then tor: mented with all sorts of tortures, before they died, and were then crucified * before the wall of the city. This miferable procedure made Titus greatly to pity them, while they caught every day five hundred Jews ; nay, some days they caught more : Yet did it not appear to be fale for him to let thote that were taken by force go their way, and to set a guard over so many he law would be to make such as guarded them uselefs to him. The main reason why he did not forbid that cruelty was this, that he hoped the Jews might perhaps yield at thut fight, out of fear left they might themselves afterwards be liable to the same cruel treatment. So the foldiers, out of the wrath and hatred they bore the Jews, nailed * those they caught,

• Reland very properly takes notice here, how juftly this judgment came upon the Jews, when they were crucified in such multicudes together, that the Romans wanted room for the crosses, and crolles for the bodies of theie Jews, lince they had brought this judgment on themselves by the crocifixion of their Mefliah.

one after one way, and another after another, to the crosses, by way of jeft, when their multitude was so great, that room was wanting for the crofses, and crosses wanting for the bodies.

2. But so far were the feditious from repenting at this sad fight, that, on the contrary, they made the rest of the multitude believe otherwile ; for they brought the relations of those that had deserted upon the wall, with such of the populace as were very eager to go over upon the security offered them, and thew. ed them what miseries those underwent who fled to the Ro. mans; and told them, that those who were caught were fupplicants to them, and not such as were taken prisoners. This fight kept many of those within the city who were so eager to desert, till the truth was known : Yet did some of them runaway immediately as unto certain punishment, esteeming death from their enemies to be a quiet departure, if compared with that by tamine. So Titus commanded that the hands of many of those that were caught should be cut off, that they might not be thought delerters, and might be credited on account of the calamity they were under, and sent them in to John and Simon, with this exhortation, That“ they would now at length leave off [their madness], and not force him to destroy the city, whereby they would have those advantages of repentance, even in their utmost distress, that they would preserve their own lives, and so fine a city of their own, and that temple which was their peculiar." He then went round about the banks that were cast up, and hastened them, in order to thew, that his words should in no long time be followed by his deeds, In answer to which the feditious caft reproaches upon Cælar himself, and upon his father also, and cried out with a loud voice, That “they contemned death, and did well in prefering it before slavery : That they would do all the mischief to the Romans they could, while they had breath in them; and that for their own city, since they were, as he said, to be destroyed, they had no concern about it, and that the world itself was a better temple to God than this. That yet this temple would be preserved by him that inbabited therein, whom they still had for their asliftant in this war, and did therefore laugh at all his threatenings, which would come to nothing ; because the conclusion of the whole depended upon God only." These words were mixed with reproaches, and with them they made a mighty clamour.

3. In the mean time Antiochus Epiphanes came to the city having with him a considerable number of oiber armed men, and a band called the Macedonian band about him, all of the same age, tall, and just past their childhood, armed, and inStructed after the Macedonian manner, whence it was that they took that name. Yet were many of them unworthy of so famous a nation ; for it had so happened, that the king of Com. magene had flourished more than any other kings that were under the power of the Romans, ull a change happened in his condition ; and when he was become an old man, he declared plainly, that we ought not to call any man happy before he is dead. But this son of his, who was then come thither before his father was decaying, said, that " he could not but wonder what made the Romans so tardy in making their ata tacks upon the wall.” Now he was a warlike man, and nat. urally bold in exposing himself to dangers ; he was also fo strong a man, that his boldness seldom failed of having success; upon this Titus smiled and said, “ He would share the pains of an attack with him.” However, Antiochus went as he then was, and with his Macedonians made a sudden assault upon the wall; and, indeed, for his own part, his strength and kkilt were so great, that he guarded himself from the Jewish darts, and yet shot his darts at them, while yet the young men with him were almost all sorely galled; for they had so great a regard to the promises that had been made of their courage, that they would needs persevere in their fighting, and at length many of them retired, but not till they were wounded ; and then they perceived that true Macedonians, it they were to be conquerers, must have Alexander's good fortune allo. in the

4. Now as the Romans began to raise their banks on the twelfth day of the month Artemisius, Jyar], so had they much ado to finish them by the twenty-ninth day of the same month, after they had laboured hard for seventeen days continually. For there were now four great banks railed, one of which was at the tower Antonia ; this was raised by the fifth legion, over against the middle of that pool which was called Struthius. A. nother was cast up by the twelfth legion, at the distance of an bout twenty cubits from the other. But the labours of the tenth legion, which lay a great way off these, was on the north quarter, and at the pool called Amygdalon; as was that of the fifteenth legion about thirty cubits from it, and at the highpriest's monument. And now, when the engines were brought, John had from within undermined the space that was over a gainst the tower of Antonia, as far as the banks themselves, and had supported the ground over the mine with beams laid across one another, whereby the Roman works stood upon an uncertain foundation. Then did he order such materials to be brought in, as were daubed over with pitch and bitumen, and set them on fire ; and as the cross beams that supported the banks were burning, the ditch yielded on the sudden, and the banks were shaken down, and fell into the ditch with a prodigious noise. Now at the first there arose a very thick smoke and dust, as the fire was choaked with the fall of the bank ; but as the suffoca. ted materials were now gradually consumed, a plain flame brake out, on which sudden appearance of the flarne, a confternation fell upon the Romans, and the ihrewdness of the contrivance discouraged them : Andindeed this accident coming upon them at a time when they thought they had already gained their point, cooled their hopes for the time to come. They also thought it would be to no purpose to take the pains to extinguish the fire, fince if it were extinguished, the banks were swallowed up already Cand become useless to them).

5. Two days after this, Simon and his pariy made an attempt to destroy the other banks ; for the Romans had brought their engines to bear there, and began already to make the wall shake. And here one Tephtheus of Grasis, a city of Galilee, and Megassarus, one who was derived from some of queen Mariamne's servants, and with them one from Adiabene, he was the son of Nabateus, and called by the name of Chagiras from the ill fortune he had, the word signifying a lame man, snatched some torches, and ran suddenly upon the engines. Nor were there during this war-any men that ever fallied out of the city who were their superiors, either in their own bold. ness, or in terror they struck into their enemies. For they ran out upon the Romans, not as it they were enemies, but friends, without fear or delay ; nor did they leave their enemies till they had rushed violently through the midst of them, and set their machines on fire. And though they had darts thrown at them on every side, and were on every side assaulted with their enemies swords, yet did they not withdraw themselves out of the dangers they were in, till the fire had caught hold of the instruments ; but when the flame went up, the Romans came running from their camp to save their engines. Then did the Jews hinder their succours from the wall, and fought with those that endeavoured to quench the fire, without any regard to the danger their bodies were in. So the Romans pulled the engines out of the fire, while the hurdles that covered them were on fire; but the Jews caught hold of the battering rams through the flame itselt, and held them fast, although the iron upon them was become red hot; and now the fire spread itlelf from the engines to the banks, and prevented thole that came to defend them ; and all this while the Romans were encompassed round about with the flame, and, despairing of saving their works from it, they retired 10 their camp. Then did the Jews become still more and more in number by the coming of thole that were within the city to their assistance ; and as they were very bold upon the good success they had had, their violent assaults were almoft irresistible ; nay, they proceeded as far as the fortifications of the enemies camp, and fought with their guards. Now there stood a body of soldiers in array before that camp, which succeeded one another by turns in their armour ; and as to those the law of the Romans was terrible, that he who left his post there, let the occasion be whatsoever it might be, he was to die for it ; so that body of soldiers, preferring rather to die in fighting courageously, than as a punishment for their cowardice, stood firin, and at the neceffiy these men were in of standing to it, many of the others that had run away out of fhame turned back again ; and when they had let the engines

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