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against the wall, they put the multitude from coming more of them out of the city (which they could the more easily do], because they had made no provision for preserving or guarding their bodies at this time ; for the Jews fought now hand to hand with all that came in their way, and without any caution fell against the points of their enemies spears, and attacked them bodies against bodies ; for they were now too hard for the Romans, not so much by their other warlike actions, as by thele courageous assaults they made upon them; and the Rómans gave way more to their boldness, than they did to the fenle of the harm they had received from them.

6. And now Titus was come from the tower of Antonia, whither he was gone to look out for a place for raising other banks, and reproached the foldiers greatly for permitting their own walls to be in danger, when they had taken the walls of their enemies, and sustained the fortune of men besieged, while the Jews were allowed to fally out against them, though they were already in a sort of prilon. He then went round about the enemy with some chosen troops, and tell upon either flank himself ; so the Jews, who had been before allaulted in their faces, wheeled about to Titus, and continued the fight. The armies also were now mixed, one among another, and the dust that was raised so far hindered them from seeing one another, and the noise that was made so far hindered them from hearing one another, that neither side could discern an enemy from a friend. However the Jews did not flinch, though not so much írom their real strength, as from their despair of deliv. erance. The Romans also would not yield, by reason of the regard they had to glory, and to their reputation in war, and because Caesar himlelt went into the danger before them ; infomuch that I cannot but think, the Romans would in the conclusion have now taken even the whole multitude of the Jews, lo very angry were they at them, had these not prevented the upshot of the battle, and retired into the city. However, seeing the banks of the Romans were demolished, these Romans were very much caft down upon the loss of what had coft them lo long pains, and this in one hour's time. And many indeed del paired of taking the city with their usual engines of war



Titus thought fit to Encompass the City round with a Wall :

After which the Famine consumed the People by whole Houles

and Families together. ** A Dhanows did Tituse consult with his commanders.

what was to be done. Thole that were of the warm. eft tempers, thought be thould bring the whole army againk.

Vor, ilh


the city, and storm the wall; for that hitherto no more than a part of their army had fought with the Jews, but that in case the entire army was to come at once, they would not be able to sustain their attacks, but would be overwhelmed by their darts. But of those that were for a more cautious management, some were for raising their banks again, and others advised to let the banks alone, but to lie still before the city, to guard against the coming out of the Jews, and fo to leave the enemy to the famine, and this without direct fighting with them; for that despair was not to be conquered, especially as to those who are desirous to die by the sword, while a more terrible misery than that is reserved for them. However, Ti. tus did not think it fit for so great an army to lie entirely idle, and that yet it was in vain to fight with those that would be destroyed one by another : He also shewed them how imprac. ticable it was to cast up any more banks, for want of materi. als, and to guard against the Jews coming out ftill more im. practicable ; as allo, that to encompass the whole city round with his army, was not very easy, by reason of its magnitude, and the difficulty of the situation, and on other accounts dan. gerous, upon the fallies the Jews might make out of the city. For although they might guard the known passages out of the place, yet would they, when they found themselves under the greatest dillress, contrive secret passages out, as being well acquainted with all such places; and if any provisions were carried in by stealth, the siege would thereby be longer delayed. He also owned, that he was alraid that the length of time thus to be spent, would diminish the glory of his success: For though it be true, that length of time will perfect every thing, yet that to do what we do in a little time is still necessary to the gaining reputation. That theretore his opinion was, that it they aimed at quicknels joined with security, they must build a wall round about the whole city, which was, he thought the only way to prevent the Jews from coming out any way, and then they would either entirely despair of faving the city, and so would surrender it up to him, or be still the more easily conquered when the famine had farther weakened them. For that helides this wall, he would not lie entirely at reft af terward, but would take care then to have banks raised again when those that would oppose them were become weaker. But that if any one should think such a work to be too great, and not to be finished without much difficulty, he ought to consider, that it is not fit for Romans to undertake any Imall work; and that none but God himself could with ease accomplish any great thing whatsoever.

2. Thele arguments prevailed with the commanders. So Titus gave orders that the army should be diftributed to their feveral shares of this work; and indeed there now came upon the soldiers a certain divine tury, fo that they did not only part the whole wall that was to be built anong them, nor die

only one legion strive with another, but the lesser divisions of the army did the same ; insomuch, that each soldier was ambi, tious to please his decurion, each decurion his centurion, each centurion his tribune, and the ambition of tbe tribunes was to please their superior commanders, while Cælar himlelt took notice ot, and rewarded the like contention in those comman.

for he went round about the works many times every day, and took a view of what was done. Titus began the wall from the camp of the Assyrians, where his own camp was pitched, and drew it down to the lower parts of Cenopolis ; thence it went along the valley of Cedron, to the mount of Olives; it then bent towards the south, and encompassed the mountain as far as the rock called Peristereon, and that other hill which lies next it, and is over the valley which reaches te Siloam ; whence it bended again to the welt, and went down to the valley of the fountain, beyond which it went up again at the monument of Ananus the high priest, and encompassing that mountain where Pompey had formerly pitched his camp, it returned back to the north side of the city, and was carried on as far as a certain village called The House of the Erebinthi.; after which it encompassed Herod's monument, and there, on the east, was joined to Titus's own camp, where it began. Now the length of this wall was forty furlongs, one only abated. Now at this wall without were erected thirteen places to keep garrisons in, whose circumferences, put together, a. mounted to ten furlongs.; the whole was completed in three days : So that what would naturally have required some months, was done in so short an interval as is incredible, When Titus had thereforeencompafled the city with this wall, and put garrisons into proper places, he went round the wall, at the firlt watch of the night, and observed how the guard was kept ; the second watch he allotted to Alexander; the commanders of legions, took the third watch. They also cart lots among themselves who should be upon the watch in the night-time, and who should go all night long round the spaces that were interposed between the garrisons.

3. So all hope of escaping was now cut off from the Jews, together with their liberiy of going out of the city.. Then did the famine widen its progress, and devoured the people by whole houses and families ; the upper rooms were full of wo. men and children that were dying by tamine, and the lanes of the city were full of the dead bodies of the aged; the children also and the young men wandered about the market places like thadows, all i welled with the famine, and fell down dead, wheresoever their misery seized them. As for burying them, those that were sick theinfelves were not able to do it, and those that were hearly and well, were deterred from doing it by the great multitude of those dead bodies, and by the uncer. tainty there was how soon they should die themselves ; for ma. ny died as they were burying others, and many went to their coffins before that fatal hour was come. Nor was there any lamentations made under these calamities, nor were heard any mournful complaints ; but the famine contounded all natural paflions : For those who were just going to die, looked upon ihole that were gone to their reft before them with dry eyes and open mouths. A deep silence also, and a kind of deadly night had seized upon the city; while yet the robbers were ftill more terrible than these miseries were themselves; for they brake open thole houses which were no other than graves of dead bodies, and p!undered them of what they had, and car: rying off the coverings of their bodies, went out laughing, and tried the points of their swords in their dead bodies; and in order to prove what metal they were made of, they thrust fome of those through that ftill lay alive upon the ground; but for those that entreated them to lend them their right hand, and their sword to dispatch them, they were too proud to grant their requests, and left them to be consumed by the famine. Now every one of these died with their eyes fixed upon the temple, and left the feditious alive behind them, Now the seditious at first gave orders that the dead should be buried out of the public treasury, as not enduring the stench of their dead bodies. But afterwards, when they could not do that, they had them cast down from the walls into the valleys beneath,


4. However, when Titus, in going his rounds along those valleys, saw them full of dead bodies, and the thick putrelac. tion running about them, he gave a groan, and, spreading out his hands to heaven, called God to witness that this was not his doing ; and such was the sad case of the city itself. But the Romans were very joyful, since none of the leditious could now make sallies out of the city, because they were themselves disconfolate and the famine already touched them also. These Romans besides had great plenty of corn and other necefla. ries out of Syria, and out of the neighbouring provinces ; many of which would stand near to .he wall of the city, and Thew the people what great quantities of provisions they had, and so make the enemy more sensible of their famine, by the great plenty, even to fatiety, which they had themfelves. However, when the seditious still shewed no inclinations of yield. ing, Titus, out of his commiseration of the people that remained, and out of his earnest desire of rescuing what was fill left out of these mileries, began to raise his banks again, although materials for them were hard to be come at ; for all the trees that were about the city had been already cut down for the making of the former banks, Yet did the soldiers bring with them other materials from the diftance of ninety furlongs, and thereby raised banks in four parts, much greater than the former, though this was done only at the tower of Antonia. Su Cælar went his rounds through the legions, and haltened on the works, and thewed the robbers that they were now in his hallus. But these men, and these only, were incapable of repenting of the wickednesses they had been guilty of, and separating their louls from their bodies, they used them both as if they belonged to other folks, and not to themselves. For no gentle affection could touch their louls, nor could any pain affect heir bodies, since they could still tear the dead bodies of the people as dogs do, and fill the prisons with those that were lick.


The great Slaughters and Sacrilege that were in Jerusalem. \1. A no

by whose means he got pofleffion of the city, to go off without iorment. This Matthias was the son of Bæthus, and was one of the high-priests, one that had been very faithful to the people, and in great efteem with them; he, when the multitude were distressed by the Zelotes, among whom John was numbered, persuaded the people to admit this Simon to come in to assist them, while he had made no terms with him, nor expected any thing that was evil from him. But when Simon was come in, and had gotten the city under his power, he esteemed him that had adviled them to admit him as his ena emy equally with the rest, as looking upon that advice as a piece of his finplicity only : So he had him then brought before him, and condemned to die for being on the side of the Romans, without giving him leave to make his defence. He condemned also his three fons to die with him ; for as to the fourth, he prevented him by running away to Titus before, And when he begged for this, that he might be slain before his sons, and that as a tavour, on account that he had procured the gates of the city to be opened to him, he gave order that he should be slain the last of them all; so he was not slain till he had seen his sons lain before his eyes, and that by being produced over against the Romans; for such a charge had Si. mon given to Ananus, the lon ot Bamadus, who was the most harbarous of all his guards. He also jefted upon him, and told him that he might now see whether those to whom he intend. ed to go over, would lend him any succours or not, but still he forbade their dead bodies should be buried. After the slaughter of thele, a certain prieit, Ananias, the son of Mafam. balus, a person of eminency, as allo Aristeus, the scribe of the fanhedrim, and born at Emmaus, and with them fitteen men of figure among the people were lain. They also kept Josephus's father in prison, and made public proclamation, that no citizen whosoever should either Ipeak to him himself, or go into his company among others, for fear he should betray them. They also flew such as joined in lamenting these men, without any farther examination,

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