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2. And now the banks were finished, they afforded a found dation for fear both to the Romans and to the Jews; for the Jews expected that the city would be taken, unless they could burn those banks, as did the Romans expect that, if these were once burnt down, they should never be able to take it ; tor there was a mighty scarcity of materials, and the bodies of the soldiers began to fail with such hard labours, as did their souls faint with so many instances of ill success ; nay, the

very caJamities themselves that were in the city proved a greater dil.

couragement to the Romans than to those within the city ; for they found the fighting men of the Jews to be not all mollified among such their sore afflictions, while they had themfelves perpetually lel's and less hopes of success, and their banks were forced to yield to the stratagems of ihe enemy, their engines to the firmness of their wall, and their closelt fights to the boldness of their attack; and, what was their greatest discouragement of all, they found the Jew's courageous louls to be superior to the multitude of the miseries they were under by their fedition, their famine, and the war itsell;. insomuch that they were ready to imagine, that the violence of their attacks was invincible, and that the alacrity they Thewed would not be discouraged by their calamities; for what would not those be able to bear if they thould be fortunate, who turned their very mnistortunes to the improvement of their valour ? These considerations inade the Romans to kcep a stronger guard about their banks than they formerly bad done.

3. But now John and his party took care for securing themselves afterward, even in this case this wall should be thrown down, and tell to their work before the battering rams were brought against them. Yet did they not compals what they endeavoured to do, but as they were gone out with their torches, they came back under great discouragement be. fore they came near to the banks.: And the reatons were there; that, in the first place, their conduct did not seein to be unanimous, but they went out in diftinét parties, and at distinct intervals, and after a flow manner, and timoroully, and, to say all in a word, without a Jewish courage ; for they were now defective in what is peculiar to our nation, that is, in boldness, in violence of aflauit, and in running upon the enemy all together, and in perlevering in what they go about, though they do not at first succeed in it; but they now went out in a more Janguid manner than usual, and at the same time lound the Romans set in array, and more courageous than ordinary, and that they guarded their banks both with their bodies and iheir entire armour, and this to such a degree on all sides, that they left no room for the fire to get among them, and that every one of their souls were in such good courage, that they would fooner die ihan desert their ranks ; lor besides their notion that all their hopes were cut off, in cale thele their works were once burnt, the soldiers were greatly ashamed that subtilty should quite be too hard for courage, madness for armour, multitude for skill, and Jews for Romans. The Romans had now also another advantage, in that their engines for fieges cooperated with them in throwing darts and Itones as tar as the Jews, when they were coming out of the city ; whereby the man that fell became an impediment to him that was next him, as did the danger of going farther make them lels zealous in their attempts; and for thole that had run under the darts, some of them were terrified by the good order and closenels of the enemies ranks before they came to a close fight, and others were pricked with their spears, and turned back again : At length they reproached one another_for their cowardice, and retired without doing any thing. This attack was made upon the first day of the month Panemus, [Tamuz]. So, when the Jews were retreated, the Romans brought their engines, although they had all the while stones thrown at them from the tower of Antonia, and were assaulted by fire and sword, and by all sorts of darts which neceflity afforded the Jews to make use of; for although these had great dependence on their own wall, and a contempt of the Roman engines, y et did they endeavour to hinder the Romans from bringing them. Now thele Romans struggled hard, on the contrary, to bring them, as deeming that this zeal of the Jews was in order to avoid any impression to be made on the tower of Antonia, because its wall was but weak, and its foundations ruiten. However, that tower did not yield to the blows given it from the engines; yet did the Romans bear the impreffions made by the enemies darts which were perpetually cast at them, and did not give way to any of those dangers that came upon them from above, and so they brought their engines to bear. But then, as they were beneath the other, and were sadly wounded by the stones thrown down upon them, some of them threw their shields over their bodies, and parily with their hands, and partly with their bodies, and partly with crows, they undermined its foundations, and with great pains they removed four of its stones. Then night came upon both sides, and put an end to this ftruggle for the present : However, that night the wall was so thaken by the battering rams in that place where John had used his stratagem before, and had undermined their banks, that the ground then gave way, and the wall fell down suddenly.

4. When this accident had unexpectedly happened, the minds of both parties were variously affected: For though one would expect that the Jews would be discouraged, because this fall of their wall was unexpected by them, and they had made no provision in that cafe, yet did they pull up their courage, because the tower of Antonia itself was still flanding; as was the unexpected joy of the Romans at this fall of the wall foon quenched by the light they had of another wall, which John and his party had built within it. However, the attack

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of this second wall appeared to be easier than that of the for. mer, because it seemed a thing of greater facility to get up to it through the parts of the former wall that were now thrown down. This new wall appeared also to be much weaker than the tower of Antonia, and accordingly the Romans imagined that it had been erected so much on the sudden that they should soon overthrow it: Yet did not any body venture now to go up to this wall; for that such as first ventured so to do trust certainly be killed.

5. And now Titus, upon consideration that the alacrity of toldiers in war is chiefly excited by hopes and by good words, and that exhortations and promises do frequently make men to forget the hazards they run, nay, sometimes to despise death itself, got together the most courageous part of his army, and tried what he could do with his men by these methods. “O fellow-soldiers," said he,“ to make an exhortation to men to do what hath no peril in it, is on that very account inglorious to such to whom that exhortation is made ; and indeed so it is, in him that makes the exhortation, an ara gument of his own cowardice allo. I therefore think, that such exhortations ought then only to be made use o!, when affairs are in a dangerous condition, and yet are worthy of being attempted by every one themselves : Accordingly, I am fully of the lame opinion with you, that it is a difficult talk to go up this wall; but that it is proper for those that delire reputation for their valour to struggle with difficulties in such cas. es, will then appear, when I have particularly shewed, that it is a brave thing to die with glory, and that the courage here necessary thall not go unrewarded in those that firit begin the attempt. And let my first argument to move you to it be tak. en from what probably some would think reasonable to dilo suade you, I mean the constancy and patience of these Jews, even under their ill successes ; for it is unbecoming you, who are Romans and my soldiers, who have in peace been taught how to make wars, and who have also been used to conquer in thołe wars, to be inferior to Jews either in action of the hand, or in courage of the soul, and this especially when you are at the conclusion of your victory, and are afliited by God himself ; for as to our misfortunes, they have been owing to the madness of the Jews, while their sufferings have been owing to your valour, and io the aflistance God hath afforded you; for as to the seditinos they have been in, and the famine they are under, and the siege they now endure, and the fall of their walls without our engines, what can they all be but demonftrations of God's anger against them, and of his assistance afforded us! It will not therefore be proper for you either to thew yourselves inferior to those to whom you are really superior, or to betray that divine alliance which is afforded you. And indeed, how can it be esteemed otherwise than a base and un. worthy thing, that while the Jews, who need not be much afhamed if they be deferted, because they have long learned to be flaves to others, do yet despise death, that they may be so no longer ; and do make fallies into the very midit ot us frequenta ly, not in hopes of conquering us, but merely for a demonftration of their courage; we, who have gotten poffefsion of almost all the world that belongs to either land or fea, to whom it will be a great shame if we do not conquer them, do not once undertake any attempt against our enemies wherein there is much danger, but sit still idle, with such brave arms as we have, and only wait till the famine and fortune do our business themfelves, and this when we have it in our power, with some small hazard, to gain all that we desire. For if we go up to this tower ol Antonia, we gain the city; for if there should be any more occasion for fighting against those within the city, which I do not suppose there will, since we shall then be upon the top * of the hill, and be upon our enemies belore they can have taken breath, these advantages promise us no less than a certain and sudden victory. As for myself, I shall at present wave any commendations of those who die in wart, and omit to speak of the immortality of those men who are slain in the inidst of their martial bravery : Yet cannot I forbear to imprecate upon those who are of a contrary difpofition, that they may die in time of peace, by some distemper or other, fince their souls are condenuined to the grave, together with their bo. dies. For what man of virtue is there who does not know, that those fouls which are severed from their fleshly bodies in battles by the sword, are received by the ether, that purest of elements, and joined to that company which are placed among the stars ; that they become good demons, and propitious he. roes, and shew theniselves as such, to their posterity after. wards ? While upon those fouls that wear away in and with their distempered bodies comes a subterranean night, to disfolve them to nothing, and a deep oblivion to take away all the remembrance of them, and this notwithstanding they be clean from all Ipots and defilements of this world; so that, in this case, the soul at the same time comes to the utmost bounds of its lile, and of its body, and ot its memorial also. But {ince fate hath determined that death is to come of necellity upon all men, a Tword is a better inftrument for that purpole

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* Reland notes lere, very pertinentiy, that the tower of Antonis hood higher than the floor of the temple or court adjoining to it; and that accordingly they descended the ice into the teinple, as Josephus citewhere {peaks allo. See Book Vi. chap. ii. lect. 5.

† In this speech of Titus we may clearly see the notions which the Romans then had of death, and of the happy liate otshole who died bravely in war, and the contrary eftate of those who died ignably in their beds by ficknels. Reland here aslo produces two parallel paffages, the one out of Ammianus Marcellinus, concerning the Alani. lib. 31. Thats they judged that man happy who laid down his lile in battle.” I he other of Valerius Maximus, lib.xi. c. 6. who tays, That. " tbe Cimbriand Celtiteri exulted lor joy in the army, as tring to go out of the world giuriqully and happily."

than any disease whatsoever. Why is it not then a very mean thing for us not to yield up that 10 the public benefit, which we muft yield up to fate? And this discourse havel made upon the supposition that thofe who at first attempt to go upor this wall must needs be killed in the attempt, though fill men of true courage have a chance to escape, even in the most hazardous undertakings. For, in the first place, that part of the former wall that is thrown down is easily to be ascended, and for the new built wall, it is eafily destroyed. Do you, therefore, many of you, pull up your courage, and set about this work, and do you mutually encourage and affift one a. nother; and this your bravery will soon break the hearts of your enemies; and perhaps such a glorious undertaking as yours is may be accomplished without bloodthed. For al. though it is juftly to be supposed, that the Jews will try to hinder you at your first beginning to go up to them, yet when you have once concealed yourselves from them, and driver them away by force, they will not be able to fuslain your et. forts against them any longer, though but a tew of you prevent them, and get over the wall. As for that person who first mounts the wall, I should blush for shame if I did not make him to be envied of others, by those rewards I would bestow upon him. It such an one escape with his life, he shall have the command of others that are now but his equals ; although it be true also, that the greatest * rewards will accrue to such as die in the attempt."

6. Upon this speech of Titus, the rest of the mukitude were affrighted at so great a danger. But there was one, whose name was Sabinus, a soldier that served among the cohorts, and a Syrian by birth, who appeared to be of very great fortitude, both in the actions he had done, and the courage of his soul he had shewed ; although any body would have thought, before he came to his work, that he was of such a weak constitution of body, that he was not fit to be a soldier : For his colour was black, his flesh was lean, and thin, and lay close together ; but there was a certain heroic soul that dwelt in this Imall body, which body was indeed much too narrow for that peculiar courage which was in him. Accordingly he was the first that rose up, when he thus spake : “I readily surrender up my self to thee, O Cæfar; I first ascend the wall, and I heartily wish that my fortune may follow my courage, and my resolution. And it some ill fortune grudge me the succes, of my undertaking, take notice that my ill fuccess will not be unexpected, but that I choose death voluntarily for thy lake.” When he had said this, and had spread out his shield over his head, with his left hand, and had, with his right hand, drawn

marched up to the wall, juli about the sixth hour of the day. There followed him eleven others, and no more,

his sword, he ma

* See note, p. 366.

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