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that refolved to imitate his bravery ; but still this was the prins cipal person of them all, and went first, as excited by a divine fury. Now those that guarded the wall shot at them from thence, and cast innumerable darts upon them from every fide ; they also rolled very large stones upon them, which 0 verthrew some of those eleven that were with him. But as for Sabinus himself, he met the darts that were caft at him, and though he were overwhelmed with them, yet did he not leave off the violence of his attack before he had gotten up on the top of the wall, and had put the enemy to flight. For as the Jews were astonished at his great ftrength, and the bravery, of his soul, and as, withal, they imagined more of them had got upon the wall than really had, they were put to flight. And now one cannot but complain here of fortune, as still envious at virtue, and always hindering the performance of glo. rious atchievements : This was the case of the man before us, when he had just obtained his purpose ; for he then stumbled at a certain large stone, and fell down upon it headlong, with a very great noise.. Upon which the Jews turned back, and when they saw him to be alone, and fallen down also, they threw daris at him from every side. However, he got upon his knee, and covered himselt with his shield, and at the first defended himself against them, and wounded many of those that came near him

: But he was soon forced to relax his right hand, by the multitude of the wounds that had been given him, till at length he was quite covered over with darts, before he gave up the ghost." He was one who delerved a better fate, by realon of his bravery : But, as might be expected, he fell under so vast an attempt. As for the rest of his partners, the Jews dashed three of them to pieces with stones, and flew them, as they were gotten up to the top of the wall; the other eight being wounded,, were pulled down, and carried back to the camp. These things were done upon the third day of the month Panemus [Tamuz].

7. Now two days afterward twelve of thole men that were on the forefront, and kept watch upon the banks got together, and called to them the Itandard-bearer of the fifth legion, and two others of a troop of horsemen, and one trumpeter ; thele went without noise, about the ninth hour of the night, through the ruins, to the tower of Antonia ; and when they had cut the throats of the first guards of the place, as they were alleep, they got possession of the wall, and ordered the trumpeter to found his trumpet. Upon which the rest of the guard got up on the sudden, and ran away, before any body could see how inany, they were that were gotten up; for, partly from the fear they were in, and partly from the found of the trumpet which they heard, they imagined a great number of the eneiny were gotten up. But as foon as Cæsar heard the signal, he ordered the army to put on their armour immediately, and caine thither with his commanders, and first of all ascended,

as did the chosen men that were with him. And as the Jews were flying away to the temple, they fell into that mine which John had dug under the Roman banks. Then did the feditious of both the bodies of the Jewish army, as well that belonging to John, as that belonging to Simon, drive them away ; and indeed were no way wanting as to the highest degree of torce and alacrity : For they esteemed themselves entirely ru. ined, if once the Romans got into the temple, as did the Romans look upon the same thing as the beginning of their entire conqueft. So a terrible battle was fought at the entrance of the temple, while the Romans were forcing their way, in order to get poffeffion of that temple, and the Jews were driv. ing chem back to the tower of Antonia ; in which battle the darts were on both sides useless, as well as the spears, and both fides drew their swords, and fought it out hand to hand. Now during this struggle, the positions of the men were undiftin. guished on both sides, "and they fought at random, the men being intermixed one with another, and confounded, by reafor of the narrowness of the place'; while the noise that was made fell on the ear after an indistinê manner, because it was fo very loud. Great flaughter was now made on both sides, and the combatants trod upon the bodies, and the armour of those that were dead, and dashed them to pieces. Accordingly; to which fide foever the battle inclined, those that had the advantage exhorted one another to go on, as did those that were beaten make great lamentation. But ftill there was no room for flight, nor for pursuit, but disorderly revolutions and retreats, while the armies were intermixed one with an.

but those that were in the first ranks were under the necessity of killing or being killed, without any way for el. caping; for those on both sides that came behind, forced those before them to go on, without leaving any space between the armies. At length the Jew's violent zeal was too hard for the Roman skill, and the battle already inclined entirely that way; for the fight had lasted from the ninth hour of the night, till the feventh hour of the day, while the Jews come on in crowds, and had the danger the temple was in for their motive; the Romans having no more here than a part of their army ; for those legions, on which the soldiers on that fide depended, were not come up to them. So it was at present thought fufa ficient by the Romans to take poffession of the tower of Antonia.

8. But there was one Julian, a centurion, that came from Bithynia, a man he was of great reputation whom I had for. merly seen in that war, and one of the highest fame, both for his skill in war, his strength of body, and the courage of his soul. This man seeing the Romans giving ground, and in a sad condition, for he stood by Titus at the tower of Antonia, leaped out, and of himself alone put the Jews to flight, when they were already conquerors, and made them retire as far as the corner of the inner court of the temple : From him the mul. Vol. III,

Y y.

other ;

titude fled away in crowds, as supposing that neither his strength nor his violent attacks could be those of a mere man. Accord. ingly he rushed through the midst of the Jews, as they were dif. persed all abroad, and killed those that he caught. Norindeed was there any sight that appeared more wonderful in the eyes of Cæsar, or more terrible to others than this. However, he was himself pursued by fate, which it was not possible that he, who was but a mortal man, should escape ; for as he had shoes * all full of thick and Charp nails, as had every one of the other soldiers, so when he ran on the pavement of the temple, he slipped, and fell down upon his back with a very great noise, which was made by his armour, This made those that were running away to turn back; whereupon those Romans that were in the tower of Antonia set up a great shout, as they were in fear for the man. But the Jews got about him in crowds, and struck at him with their spears, and with their swords on all sides. Now he received a great many of the strokes of these iron weapons upon his shield, and often at. tenipted to get up again, but was thrown down by thole that ftruck at him; yet did he, as he lay along, ftab many of them with his sword. Nor was he foon killed, as being covered with his helmet and his breaft-place in all those parts of his body, where he might be mortally wounded; he also pulled his neck clole to his body, till all his other limbs were shattered, and no body durft come to defend him, and then he yielded to his fate. Now Cæsar. was deeply affected on ac. count of this man of so great fortitude, and especially as he was killed in the fight of so many people ; he was de Girous himself to come to his assistance, but the place would not give him leave, while such as could have done it, were too much terrified to attempt it. Thus when Julian had ftruggled with death a great while, and had let but few of those that had given him his mortal wound, go off unhurt, he had at last his throat cut, though not without some difficulty, and left behind him a very great fame, not only among the Romans, and with Cæfar himlelf, but among his enemies also : Then did the Jews catch up his dead body, and put the Romans to flight again, and shut them up in the tower of Antonia. Now those that most signalized themselves, and fought most zealously in this battle of the Jewish side, were one Alexas and Gyphtheus of John's party, and of Simon's party were Malachias, and Judas the son of Merto, and James the son of Solas, the com. mander of the Idumeans; and of the Zelotes, two brethren, Simon and Judas, the sons of Jairus.

No wonder that this Julian, who had so many nails in his shoes, Nipped up. on the pavement of the temple, which was smooth, and laid with marble of difo

ftrent colours.

CHAP. II.

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How Titus gave Orders to demolish the Tower of Antonia, and

then persuaded Josephus to Exhort the Jews again [to.a Sur.

Tender]. 41. A

with him to dig up the foundations of the tower of Antonia, and make him a ready passage for his army to come up; while he himself had Josephus brought to him (for he had been informed that on that very day, which was the seventeenth * day of Panemus [Tamuz], the sacrificecalled the daily facri. fice had failed, and had not been offered to God, for want of men to offer it, and that the people were grievously troubled at it), and commanded him to say the lame things to John that he had said before, That" if he had any malicious inclination for fighting, he might come out with as many of his men as he pleased, in order to fight, without the danger of destroying either his city or temple ; but that he desired he would noi defile the temple, nor thereby offend against God. That he might, if he pleased, offer the lacrifices which were now difcontinued by any of the Jews whom he should pitch upon." Upon this Josephus stood in such a place where he might be heard, not by John only, but by many more, and then de clared to them what Cælar had given him in charge, and this in the Hebrew language t. So he earnestly prayed them" spare their own.city, and to prevent that fire which was just ready to seize upon the temple, and to offer their usual lacri. fices to God therein." At ihese words of his a great ladness and Glence were obferved among the people.

But the tyrant himself cast many reproaches upon Josephus, with imprecations besides; and at last added this withal, " That he did never fear the taking of the city, because it was God's own city." In antwer to which Josephus said thus with a loud voice, "To be sure thou haft kept this city wonderful pure for God's fake; the temple allo continues entirely unpolluted! Nor haft thou been guilty of any impiety against him for whose assistance thou hopeft! He still receives his accuftomed sacrifices ! Vile wretch that thou art ! It any one should deprive thee of thy daily food, thou wouldelt esteem

This was a remarkable day indeed, the 17th of Panemus (Tamuz], A. D. 70, when, according to Daniel's prediction, 606 years be tore, the Romans - in half a week caused the facrifice and oblation to cease," Dan. ix. 27. For from the month of February, A. D. 66. about which time Velpa san entered on this war, to this very time, was just three years and a halt. See Bishop Lloyd's Tables of Chren. ology, published by Mr. Marshal, on this year. Nor is it to be omitted what very neariy confirms this duration of the war, that four years before the war begun, was somewhat above seven years five months before the destruction of Jerusalem, chap. 5

+ The fame that in the Now Teftament is always so called, and was then the common language of the Jews in Judes, which was the Syriac dialect.

feat.

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him to be an enemy to thee; but thou hopeft to have that God for thy supporter in this war whom thou hast deprived of his everlasting worship: And thou imputest thole fins to the Romans, who to this very time take care to have our laws observed, and almost compel these facrifices to be still offered to God, which have by thy means been intermitted, Who is there that can avoid groans and lamentations at the ae mazing change that is made in this city ? since very foreign. ers and enemies do now correct that impiety which thou haft occasioned ; while thou who art a Jew, and wast educated in our laws, art become a greater enemy to them than the others. But still, John, it is never dishonourable to repent, and amend what hath been done amiss, even at the last extremity. Thou haft an instance before thee in Jechoniah *, the king of the Jews, if thou hast a mind to save the city, who, whenthe king of Babylon made war against him, did, of his

own accord, go out of this city before it was taken, and did undergo a voluntary cap. tivity with his family, that the fan&uary might not be deliver ed up to the enemy, and that he might not lee the houle of God set on fire: On which account he is celebrated among all the Jews, in their facred memorials, and his memory is become im. mortal, and will be conveyed fresh down to our pofterity through all ages. This John is an excellentexamplein suchatime of dan. ger;

and I dare venture to promise that the Romans Thall still forgive thee. And take notice, that I who make this exhorta. tion to thee, am one of thine own nation; I, who am a Jew, do make this promise to thee. And it will become thee to consider who I am that give thee this counsel, and whence ! am derived : For while I am alive I shall never be in such la. very, as to forego my own kindred, or forget the laws of our forefathers. Thou haft indignation at me again, and makeft a clamour at me, and reproachest me ; indeed I cannot deny but I am worthy of worle treatment than all this amounts to, because, in opposition to fate, I make this kind invitation to thee, and endeavour to force deliverance upon those whom God hath condemned. And who is there that does not know what the writings of the ancient prophets contain in them; and particularly that oracle + which is just now going to be fulfilled upon this miserable city ? For they foretold that this city should be then taken, when somebody shall begin the slaughter of his own countrymen. And are not both the city and the entire temple now full of the dead bodies of your country men ? It is God I therefore, it is God himself who

* Our present copies of the Old Testament want this encomium upon king jechoniah or Jehujachim, which it seems was in Josephus's copy.

+ Of this oracle, see the note on Book IV. chap. vi. feet. I Josephus, both here and in many places elsewhere, 1peaks so, that it is most evident he was fully satisfied that God was on the Roman's fide, and made use of them now for the deftruction of that wicked nation of the Jews, which was for. certain the true ftate of this matter, as the prophet Daniel firit, and our Saviour bimSelf afterwards, had clearly foretold. See Lit. Accompl. of Proph. p. 64, &c.

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