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were refractory with their flaves, and to restrain them: Yet were their passions too hard for the regards they had for Cæsar, and the dread they had of him who forbade them, as was theis hatred of the Jews, and a certain vehement inclination to fight them too hard for them also. Moreover, the hope of plunder induced many to go on, as having this opinion, that all the places within were full of money, and as seeing that all round about it was made of gold. And besides, one of those that went into the place prevented Cæsar, when he ran lo haftily out to restrain the soldiers, and threw the fire upon the hinges of the gate, in the dark; whereby the flame burft out from within the holy house itself immediately, when the comman. ders retired, and Cæsar with them, and when nobody any longer forbade those that were without to set fire to it. And thus was the holy house burnt down, without Cæfar's. approbation.

8. Now, although any one would juftly lament the destruction of such a work as this was, since it was the most admira. ble of all the works that we have seen, or heard, both for its curious ftru&ure, and its magnitude, and also for tbe valt wealth bestowed upon it, as well as for the glorious reputation it had for its holiness ; yet might such an one comfort himfelf with this thought, that it was fate that decreed it lo to be, which is inevitable, both as to living creatures, and as to works and places also. However, one cannot but wonder at the accuracy of this period thereto relating ;, for the same month and day were now obferved, as I said before, wherein the holy house was burnt formerly by the Baby lonians. Now the number of years that passed from its first foundation, which was laid by king Solomon, till this its destruction which happened in the second year of the reign of Vespahan, are collected to be one thousand one hundred and thirty, besides seven months and fitteen days; and from the second building of it, which was done by Haggai, in the second year of Cyrus the king, till its destruction under Vespasian, there were fix hundred thirty-nine years and torty-five days.

CH A P. V. The great Distress the Jews were in upon the Conflagration of the Holy House. Concerning a falje Prophet, and the Signs that preceded this Destruction. 1, W H ILE the house was on fire, every thing was plun.

dered that came to hand, and ten thousand of those that were caught were Nain : Nor was there a commiseration of any age, or any reverence of gravity, but children, and old men, and profane persons, and priests, were all flain in the same manner; so that this war went round all sorts of men, and brought them to destruction, and as well thole that made lupplication for their lives, as those that defended themselves by

fighting. The flame was also carried a long way, and made an echo, together with the groans of those that were slain ; and because this hill was high, and the works at the temple were very great, one would have thought the whole city had been on fire. Nor can one imagine any thing either greater, or more terrible than this noise ; for there was at once a shout of the Roman legions, who were marching all together, and a sad clamour of the feditious, who were now surrounded with fire and sword. The people also that were left above were beaten back upon the enemy, and under a great confternation and made sad moans at the calamity they were under ; the multitude also that was in the city joined in this outcry with those that were upon the hill. And besides, many of those that were worn away by the famine, and their mouths almost closed, when they saw the fire of the holy houle, they exerted their utmuft strength, and brake out into groans and outcries again : Perea* did also return the echo, as well as the mountains round about the city] and augmented the force of the entire noife. Yet was the misery itself more terrible than this disorder ; for one would have thought that the hill itselt, on which the temple stood, was feething hot, as full of fire on ev. ery part of it, that the blood was larger in quantity than the fire, and thole that were slain more in number than those that flew them : For the ground did no where appear visible, for the dead bodies that lay on it, but the soldiers went over heaps of those bodies, as they ran upon such as fled from them. And now it was that the multitude of the robbers were thrust out of the inner court of the temple by the Romans, and had much ado to get into the outward court, and from therce into the city, while the remainder ot the populace fled into the cloister of that outer court. As for the priests, fome of them plucked up from the boly house the spikes + that were upon it, with their bases, which were made of lead, and shot them at the Romans instead of darts. But then, as they gained nothing by so doing, and as the fire burst out upon them, they retired to the wall, that was eight cubits broad, and there they tarried ; yet did two of these ot eminence among them, who might have saved themselves by going over to the Romans, or have borne up with courage, and taken their fortune

! This Perea, if the word be not mistaken in the copies, cannot well be that Perea which was beyond Jordan, whose mountains were at a considerable distance from Jordan, and much too remote from Jerusalem to join this echo at the conflagration of the temple; but rerea must be rather some mountains beyond the brook Cedron, as was the Mount of Olives, or some others about such a distance from Jerusalem ; which observation is so obvious, that it is a wonder our commentators here take no notice of it.

+ Reland I think here judges well, when he interprets these spikes (of thole that ftood on the top of the holy house with Marp points : They were fixed into lead do prevent the birds from Gitting there, and defiling the holy houlc; for such 1pikes there were now upon it, as Jolephus himself bath already assured us, Book V. chapi v. $6. Vol. III.

were refractory with their ftaves, and to restrain them : Yet were their passions too hard for the regards they had for Cæsar, and the dread they had of him who forbade them, as was their hatred of the Jews, and a certain vehement inclination to fighe them too hard for them also. Moreover, the hope of plunder induced many to go on, as having this opinion, that all the places within were full of money, and as seeing that all round about it was made of gold. And besides, one of those that went into the place prevented Cæsar, when he ran lo haftily out to restrain the soldiers, and threw the fire upon the hinges of the gate, in the dark : whereby the flame burft out from within the holy house itself immediately, when the comman. ders retired, and Cæsar with them, and when nobody any longer forbade those that were without to set fire to it. And thus was the holy house burnt down, without Cæfar's. approbation.

8. Now, although any one would juftly lament the destruction of such a work as this was, since it was the most admirable of all the works that we have seen, or heard, both for its curious ftru&ure, and its magnitude, and also for the valt wealth bestowed upon it, as well as for the glorious reputation it had for its holiness; yet might such an one comfort himfelf with this thought, that it was fate that decreed it lo to be, which is inevitable, both as to living creatures, and as to works and places also. However, one cannot but wonder at the accuracy of this period thereto relating ; for the farne month and day were now obferved, as I faid before, wherein the holy house was burnt formerly by the Babylonians. Now the number of years that passed from its firft foundation, which was laid by king Solomon, till this its destrúaion which happened in the second year of the reign of Vefpafian, are collected to be one thousand one hundred and thirty, besides seven months and fifteen days; and from the second building of it, which was done by Haggai, in the second year of CyTus the king, till its destruction under Vespasian, there were six hundred thirty-nine years and torty-five days.

CHAP. V. The great Distress the Jews were in upon the Conflagration of

the Holy House. Concerning a falje Prophet, and the Signs that preceded this Destruction.

$1. W H ILE the house was on fire, every thing was plun

dered that came to hand, and ten thouland of those that were caught were sain : Nor was there a commiferation of any age, or any reverence of gravity, but children, and old men, and profane persons, and priests, were all pain in the same manner ; so that this war went round all sorts of men, and brought them to destruction, and as well thole that made supplication for their lives, as those that detended themselves by

fighting. The flame was also carried a long way, and made an echo, together with the groans of those that were slain ; and because this hill was high, and the works at the temple were very great, one would have thought the whole city had been on fire. Nor can one imagine any thing either greater, or more terrible than this noise ; for there was at once a shout of the Roman legions, who were marching all together, and a sad clamour of the seditious, who were now surrounded with fire and sword. The people also that were left above were beaten back upon the enemy, and under a great confternation and made fad moans at the calamity they were under; the multitude also that was in the city joined in this outcry with those that were upon the hill. And besides, many of those that were worn away by the famine, and their mouths almost closed, when they saw the fire of the holy house, they exerted their utmost strength, and brake out into groans and outcries again : Perea* did also return the echo, as well as the moun. tains round about the city and augmented the force of the entire noise. Yet was the misery itself more terrible than this disorder ; for one would have thought that the hill itselt, on which the temple stood, was feething hot, as full of fire on every part of it, that the blood was larger in quantity than the fire, and thole that were flain more in number than those that flew them : For the ground did no where appear visible, for the dead bodies that lay on it, but the foldiers went over heaps of those bodies, as they ran upon such as fled from them. And now it was that the multitude of the robbers were thrust out of the inner court of the temple by the Romans, and had much ado to get into the outward court, and from thence into the city, while the remainder of the populace fled into the cloister of that outer court. As for the priests, fome of them plucked up from the holy house the spikes + that were upon it, with their bases, which were made of lead, and fhot them at the Romans instead of darts. But then, as they gained nothing by lo doing, and as the fire burst out upon them, they retired to the wall, ibat was eight cubits broad, and there they tarried ; yet did two of these of eminence among them, who might have saved themselves by going over to the Ro. mans, or have borne up with courage, and taken their fortune

• This Perea, if the word be not mistaken in the copies, cannot well be that Perea which was beyond Jordan, whole mountains were at a considerable distance from Jordan, and much too remote from Jerusalem to join this echo at the conflagration of the temple ; but Perea must be rather some mountains beyond the brook Cedron, as was the Mount of Olives, or some others about such a distance from Jerusalem ; which observation is so obvious, that it is a wooder our commentators here take no notice of it,

+ Reland I think here judges well, when he interprets these spikes (of those that ftood on the top of the holy house) with sharp points · They were fixed into lead to prevent the birds from fitting there, and defiling the holy housc; for such fpikes there were now upon it, as Jolephus himself hath already assured us, Book V. chapiv, $ 6. Vol. III.

with the others, threw themselves into the fire, and were burnt, together with the holy house, their names was Meirus the son of Beigas and Joseph the son of Daleus.

2. And now The Romans, judging that it was in vain to fpare what was round about the holy house, burnt all those places, as also the remains of the cloisters and the gates, two excepted ; the one on the east side, and the other on the south: both which, however, they burnt afterward. They allo burat down the treasury.chambers, in which was an immense quancity of money, and an immense number of garments, and other precious goods there reposited; and, to Ipeak all in a dew words, there it was that the entire riches of the Jews were heaped up together, while the rich people had there built themselves chambers [to contain such furniture. The lol. diers also came to the rest of the.cloisters that were in the outer [court of the temple, whither the women, and children, and a great.mixed muliitude of the people fled, in number about fix thouland. But before Cælar had determined any thing about thele people, or given the commanders any orders relat. ing to them, the soldiers were in luch a rage, that they set that cloister on fire ; by which means it came to pass, that some of these were destroyed by throwing themselves down headJong, and some were burnt in the cloisters themselves. Nor did any one of them escape with his lite. A false prophet was the occalion * of these people's destruction, who had made a pubdic proclamation in the city that very day, That"God command ed them to get up upon the temple, and that there they should receive miraculous ligns of their deliverance." Now, there was then a great number of falle prophets suborned by the ty. rants to impose on the people, who denounced this to them, that they thould wait for deliverance from God; and this was in order to keep them from deserting, and that they might be buoyed up above tear and.care by luch hopes. Now, a man that is in adversity, does easily comply with such promiles; tor, when such a seducer, makes him believe that he shall be deliver. ed from thole mileries which opprets him, then it is that the patient is full of hopes of luch his deliverance.

3. Thus were the miserable people persuaded by these de. ceivers, and such as belied God himlelt; while they did not attend nor give credit to the signs that were so evident, and did lo plainly foretel their future desolation, but like men infat. uated, without either eyes to see, or minds to confider, did not regard the denunciations that God made to them. Thus there was a star + refembling a sword, which flood over che.city, and a comet t that continued a whole year. Thus also before the

Reland here juftly takes notice that thele jews who had despised the true Prophet, werc delervedly abused and delusled by these falfe ones.

+ Whether Jolephus means that this far was ditierent from that compet which Jafted a whole year, I cannot certainly determine. His words most favour their being different one from another,

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