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what country they travelled over, and what country they seized una on afterward, and how they were removed out of them, I think this tot to be a fit opportunity, and on other accounts also superfluous ; and this because many Jesus before me have composed the histories of our ancestors very exactly; as have some of the Greeks done it also, and have translated cur histories into their own tongue, and have not much mistaken the truth in their historics. But then, where the writers of these affairs, and our prophets; Teave off, thence shall I take my rise, and begin my history. Now as to what concerns that war which happened in my own time, I will go over it very largely, and with all the diligence I am able ; but for what preceded mine own age, that I shall run over briefly.

7. [For example, I shall relate] how Antiochus, who was named EPIPHANES, 100k Jerusalem by force, and held it three years and three months, and was then ejected out of the country by the sons of Asmoneus ; after that, how their posterity quarrelled about the government, and brought uport their settlement the Romans and Pompey; how Herod also, the son of Antipater, dissolved their government, and brought Sosius upon them; as also how our peopile mode o sedition upon Herod's death, while Augustus was the Roman emperor, and Quintilius Varus was in that country ; and how the war broke out in the twelfth year of Nero, with what happened to Cestius ; and what places the Jews assaulted in an hostile manner in the first sallies of the war.

8. As also, [I shall relate] bow ibey built walls about the neighboring cities; and how Nero, upon Cestius's defeat, was in fcar of the entire event of the war, and thereupon made Vespasian general in this war; and how this Vespasian with the elder of his sons, made an expedition into the country of Judea ; what was ibe numa ber of the Roman army that he made use of ; and how many of his auxiliaries were cut off in all Galilee; and bow he took some of its cisies entirely, and by force, and others of them by treary, and on terms. Now when I am come so far I shall describe the good order of the Romans in war, and rhe discipline of their legions; the ampli. sude of both the Galilees, with its nature, and the limits of judea. And besides this I shall parricularly go over wbar is peculiar so the country, sbe lakes and fountains that are in them, and what miseries happened 10 every city as ihey were taken; and all this with accuray as I saw the things done, or suffered in them. For I shall not conceal any of the calamisies I myself endured, since I shall relate their to such as know the truth of them.

9. After ibis, (I shall relate] bow, when the Jews' affairs were become very bad, Nero died, and Vespasian, when he was going 10 asjack Jerusalem, was called back so take the government upon bimi

Titus,

wbar signs happened to him relating to bis gaining that government, and wbar mutations of government then happened at Rome, and boro he was unwillingly made emperor by bis soldiers, and bow upon bis departure to Egypi, 10 take upon him the government of the empires the affairs of the Jews became very tumultuous ; as also bow the Tyranis rose up against them, and fell into dissentions amongst themselves.

10. Moreover, [I shall relate] bow Titus marched out of Egypt in. 30 Judea, ibe second time ; as also how, and where, and bow many forces be gor rogether; and in what state the city was by the means of the seditious ar bis coming; what attacks he made, and bow many Tamparis be cast up ; of the three walls that encompassed the city, and of their measures ; of the strength of the city and the structure of the temple, and boly bouse ; and besides, the meas, ures of those edifices, and of the altar, and all accurately determined. A descriprion also of ceriain of their festivals, and seven* purifications of purity, and the sacred ministrations of the priests, with the garments of the priests, and of the bigh priests; and of the nature of she most holy place of the temple, without concealing any ibing, or adding any thing to the known truth of things.

11. After ibis, I shall relate the barbariry of the tyranıs towards she people of sbeir own nation, as well as the indulgence of the Romans in sparing foreigners; and bow often Tirus, out of his desire to preserve ide city and ibe temple, invited the sedirious 80 come to serms of accommodarion. I sball also distinguish the sufferings of the people and their calamities ; bow far they were afflicted by the sedition, and bow far by the famine, and at lengrb were taken. Nor shall lomis ro mention she misfortune's of sbe disserters, nor she punish. ments inflicted on the caprives; as also bow the temple was burnt, against the consent of Cæsar, and bow many sacred things shat had been laid up in the temple were snarched our of the fire; and the destruction also of obe entire city, wirb the signs and wonders that wert before it; and obe taking the tyrants caprives, and she multiYude of those thai were made slaves, and into what different misfor. tunes shey were every one distributed. Moreover, what the Romans did 10 the remains of the war; and how they demolished the strong bolds bar were in the country; and how Titus went over the whole country, and seriled its affairs ; together with bis return into lialy, and bis triumph.

* These seven or rather five degreesof purity, or purification, are enumerated hereafter, B.V.ch. v. sect. 6.Vol. 101. The Rabbins make ten degrees of them, as Reland there informs us.

12. I have comprehended all these rhings in seven books; and bave left no occasion for complaint or accusation to such as have been acquainted with this war; and I have written it down for the sake of those that love truth, but not for ibose that please themselves [wish fictitious relations.] And I will begin my account of these tbings, with what I call my First Chapter.

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THE

WORKS

OF

FLAVIUS JOSEPHUS,

CONTAINING

THE WARS OF THE JEWS;

OR, THE HISTORY OF THE

DESTRUCTION OF JERUSALEM.

BOOK I.

Containing the interval of one hundred sixty-seven

years. [From the taking of JERUSALEM by ANTIOCHUS Epiph

ANES, to the death of HEROD the Great.]

CH A P. I. How the City Jerusalem was taken, and the Temple pillaged [by.

Antiochus Epiphanes.] As also concerning the A&tions of the Maccabees, Matthias, and Judas; and concerning the

Death of Judas. $1. AT

T the same time that Antiochus who is called Epiph.

anes, had a quarrel with the sixth Ptolemy about his right to the whole country of Syria, a great sedition tell among the men of power in Judea, and they had a contention about obtaining the government while each of those that were of dignity could not endure to be subject to their equals. However, Onias, one of the high-priests got the better, and cast the sons of Tobias out of the city ; who fled to Antiochus, and befought him to make use of them for his leaders, and to make an expedition into Judea. The king being thereto disposed beforehand, complied with them, and came upon the Jews with a great army and took their city by force, and flew a great multitude of those shat favoured Ptolemy, and sent out his soldiers to plunder them without mercy. He ale so spoiled the temple, and put a stop to the constant practice of offering a daily sacrifice of expiation for three years and six months. But Onias the high-priest fled to Ptolemy, and

VOL. III.

received a place from him in the Nomus of Heliopolis, where he built a city resembling Jerusalem, and a temple that was like * its temple ; concerning which we shall speak more in its proper place hereafter.

2. Now Antiochus was not satisfied either with his unexpected taking the city, or with its pillage, or with the great flaughter he had made there ; but being overcome with his violent passions, and remembering what he had suffered during the fiege, he compelled the Jews to dissolve the laws of their country, and to keep their intants uncircumcised, and to sacrifice swines flesh upon the altar ; against which they all opposed themselves, and the most approved among them were put to death. Bacchides also, who was sent to keep the tortrelles, having these wicked commands joined to his own natural barbarity, indulged all sorts of the extremest wickedness, and tormented the worthiest of the inhabitants, man by man, and threatened the city every day with open

destruction, till at length he provoked the poor sufferers by the extremity of his wicked doings to avenge themfelves.

3. Accordingly Matthias, the son of Afamoneus, one of the priefts who lived in a village called Modin, armed himself, together with his own family, which had five sons of his in it, and flew Bacchides with daggers; and thereupon out of tear of the many garrisons [of the enemyl, he fled to the mountains; and so many of the people followed him, that he was encouraged to come down froin the mountains, and to give battle to Antiochus's generals, when he beat them and drove them out of Judea. So he came to the government by this his success, and became the prince of his own people by their own free consent, and then died, leaving the government to Judas his eldest son.

4. Now Judas, supposing that Antiochus would not lie ftill, gathered an army out of his own countrymen, and was the first that made a league of friendship with the Romans, and drove Epiphanes out of the country when he had made a lecond expedition into it, and this by giving him a great defeat there ; and when he was warmed by this great Tuccess, he made an assault upon the garrison that was in the city, for it had not been cut off hitherto; so he ejected them out of the Upper City, and drove the soldiers into the Lower, which part of the city was called the Citadel. He then got the temple under his power, and cleansed the whole place, and walled it round about, and made new vessels for sacred miniftracions, and brought them into the temple, because the former

I see little difference in the liveral accounts in Josephus about the Egyptian temple Onion, of which large complaints are made by his commentators, Onias, is seems, hoped to have made it very like that at Jerusalem, and of the same dimendons ; and lo tie appears to have really done, as far as he was able, and thought prober. Of this temple, lec Antiq. B. XIII. chap. iii $ 1, 2, 3. Vol. II. and or the War, B. VII.ch. x. $ 3.

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