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for the Jews in honour of him; for the number of those that were now flain in fighting with the beasts, and were burnt, and fought with one another, exceeded two thousand five hulle dred. Yet did all this feem to the Romans, when they were thus destroyed ten thousand several ways, to be a punishment beneath their deserts. After this Cælar came to Berytus*, which is a city of Phenicia, and a Roman colony, and staid there a longer time, and exhibited a still more pompous folem. nity about his father's birth-day, both in the magnificence of the shews, and in the other vait expences he was at in his de. vices thereto belonging ; so that a great multitude of the cap. tives were here destroyed after the same manner as before.
2. It happened allo about this time, that the Jews who remained at Antioch were under accusations, and in danger of perishing, from the disturbances that were raised against them by the Antiochians, and this both on account of the slanders Spread abroad at this time against them, and on account of what pranks they had played not long betore ; which I am obliged to describe without fail, though briefly, that I may the better connect my narration of future actions with those that went before.
3. For as the Jewish nation is widely disperled over all the habitable earth among its inhabitants, so it is very much interiningled with Syria by reason of its neighbourhood, and had the greatest multitudes in Antioch by reason of the large. ness of the city, wherein the kings, after Antiochus, had alforded them an habitation with the most undisturbed tranquil. ity ; for though Antiochus, who was called Epiphanes, laid Jerusalem waite, and spoiled the temple, yet did those that iucceeded him in the kingdom restore all the donations that were made of brass to the Jews of Antioch, and dedicated them to their synagogue, and granted them the enjoyment of equal privileges of citizens with the Greeks themselves; and as the lucceeding kings treated them after the same manner, they both multiplied to a great number, and adorned their templet gloriously by fine ornaments, and with great magni. ficence, in the use of what had been given them. They allo fuade prolelytes of a great many of the Greeks perpetually, and thereby after a fort brought them to be a portion of their own body. But about this time when the present war began, and Vespasian was newly failed to Syria, and all men had ta. ken up a great hatred against the Jews, then it was that a cer. tain person, whose name was Antiochus, being one of the Jew. ish nation, and greatly respected on account of his lather, who
This Berytus was certainly a Roman colony, and has coins extant that witness the same, as Hudson and Spanheim inform us. See the note Antiq. B. XVI. ch. xi § 1. Vol. II.
#is. Their fynagoguc. See the note osB. VI. ch. x. .
was governor of * the Jews at Antioch, came upon the thea. tre at a time when the people of Antioch were assembled to. gether, and became an informer against his father, and accuied both bim and others, chat they had resolved to burn the whole city in one night, he also delivered up to them fome Jews that were foreigners, as partners in their relolucions. When the people heard this, they could not refrain their pare fion, but commanded that those who were delivered up to them should have fire brought to burn them ; who were ac. cordingly all burnt upon the theatre immediately. They did also fall violently upon the muliitude of the Jews, as suppol. ing, that by punishing ihem suddenly they ihould save their own city. As for Antiochus, he aggravated the rage they were in, and thought to give them a demonstration of his own converlion, and of his hatred of the Jewilh customs, by lacrificing after the manner of the Greeks; he persuaded ihe rest also to compel them to do the same, because they would by that means discover who they were ihat had plotted against them, since they would not do lv; and when the people of Antioch tried the experiment, some few complied, bui thole that would not do so were slain. As for Antiochus himself, he obtained loldiers from the Roman commander, and became a levere master over his own citizens, not permitting them to rest on the seventh day, but forcing them to do all that they usually did on other days; and 10.ihat degree of dillreis did he reduce them in this matter, that the relt of the seventh day was dissolved not only at Antioch, but the same thing which took thence its rise, was done in other cities allo, in like man. ner, for some small time.
4. Now, after these misfortunes had happened to the Jews at Antioch, a second calamity befel then, the delcription of which when we were going about, we premised the account foregoing : For upon this accident, whereby the four-Iquare market-place was burnt down, as well as the archives, and the place where the public records were prelerved, and the royal palaces (and it was not without difficulty that the fire was then put a stop to, which was likely, by the fury wherewith it was carried along, to have gone over the whole city), Antiochus acculed the Jews as the occasion of all the mischief that was done. Now this induced the people of Antioch, who were now under the immediate perfualion, by reason of the dilorder they were in, that this calumny was rrue, and would have been under the same persuasion, even though they had not borne an ill.will at the Jews before, to believe this man's
• The Jews at Antioch and Alexandria, the two principal cities in all the calt, had allowed them, both by the Macedonians, and afterward by the Ruinans, a governor of their own, who was exempt from the jurisdiciion of the other civil governors. He was called iometimes barely governor, sometimes ethnarck, and at Alexandria) alabarch, as Dr. Hua fon takes notice on this place out of Fuller's Mil cellanies. They had the like governor er governors allowed them at Babylon under their captivity there, as the history of Sulanna implies.
acculation, especially when they considered what had been done before, and this to luch a degree, that they all fell vio. lenily upon those that were accused, and this, like madmen, in a very furious rage also, even as it they had seen the Jews in a manner setting fire themselves to the city : Nor was it without difficulty that one Cneus Collegas, the legate could prevail with them to permit the affairs to be laid before Cæiar; for as to Cecennius Petus, the president of Syria, Veipalian had already sent him away : And so it. bappened. that he was not yet come back thither. But when Collegas had made a careful inquiry into the matter, he found out the truth, and that not one of those Jews that were accused by Antiochus had any hand in it, but that all was done by some vile persons greatly in debt, who supposed, that if they could once set fire to the market-place, and burn the public records, they should have no farther demands made upon them. So the Jews were under great disorderand terror, in the uncertain expectations of what would be the upshot of those accusations against them,
CHA P. IV. How Vefpafian was received at Rome; as also how the Germans
Revolted from the Romans, but were Subdued. That the Sa. maritans over-ran Mysia, but were compelled to return to their own Country again. I. AND now Titus Cæsar, upon the news that was
I brought him concerning his father, and that his coming was much desired by all the Italian cities, and that Rome especially received him with great alacrity and splen. dour, belook hinself to rejoicing and pleasures to a great degree, as now freed from the solicitude he had been under, alter the most agreeable manner. For all inen that were in Italy shewed their respects to him in their minds, before he came thither, as if he were already come, as elleeming the very expectation they had of him to be his real presence, on account of the great delires they had to lee him, and because the goodwill they bore him was entirely free and unconstrained; for it was a desirable thing to the senate, who well reinembered the calamities they had undergone in the late changes of their gov. ernors, to receive a governor who was adorned with the gravi. ty of old age, and with the highest skill in the actions of war, whose advancement would be, as they knew, for nothing else but for the prefervation of those that were to be governed. Moreover, the people had been so harrassed by their civil mila eries, that they were still more earnest for his coming immea diately, as supposing they should then be firinly delivered from their calamities, and believed they should then recover their secure tranquillity and prosperity ; and for the soldiery, they had the principal regard to hun, for they were chiefly apprized of his great exploits in war; and since they had experie enced the want of skill and want of courage in other commanders, they were very desirous to be freed from that great fhame they had undergone by their means, and heartily to receive such a prince as might be a segurity and an ornament to them. And as this good will to Vefpafian was universal, those that enjoyed any remai kable dignities could not have patience enough to stay in Rome, but made haste to meet him at a very great distance from it : Nay, indeed, none of the rest could en. dure the delay of seeing him, but did all pour out of the city in such crowds, and were so universally possessed with the opinion that it was easier and better for them to go out than to Itay there, that this was the very first time the city joyfully perceived itselt almost empty of its citizens; for thole that taid within were fewer than those that went out. But as soon as the news was come that he was hard by, and those that had met him at first related with what good humour he received every one'that came to him, then it was that the whole multitude that had remained in the city, with their wives and chi). dren, came into the road, and waited for him there ; and for those whom he passed by, they made all sorts of acclamations on account of the joy they had to see him, and the pleasantnels of his countenance, and stiled him their benefactor and saviour, and the only perlon who was worthy to be ruler of the city of Rome. And now the city was like a temple, full of garlands and fweet odours; nor was it easy for him to come to the royal palace, for the multitude of the people that stood about him, where yet at last he performed his facrifices of thanksgiving to his household gods, for his fate return to the city. The multitude did also betake themselves to feasting ; which feafts and drink-offerings they celebrated by their tribes, and their families, and their neighbourhoods, and fill prayed God to grant that Vespasian, his sons, and all their pofterity might continue in the Roman government for a very long time, and that his dominion might be preserved from all opposition. And this was the manner in which Rome so joyfully received Vespasian, and thence grew immediately into a state of great prosperity.
2. But before this time, and while Vespasian was about A. lexandria, and Titus.was lying at the siege of Jerusalem, a great multitude of the Germans were in commotion, and tended to rebellion ; and as the Guals in their neighbourhood joined with them, they conspired together, and had thereby great hopes of luccess, and that they should free themselves from the dominion of the Romans. The motives that indu. ced the Germans to this attempt for a revolt, and for begin. ning the war, were thele: In the first place, the nature of the people which was deititute of just realonings, and ready to throw themselves ralhly into danger upon finall hopes; in the next place, the hatred they bore to those that were their gove eraors, while their nation had never been conscious of sub
jection to any but to the Romans, and that by compulsion onjy. Besides these motives, it was the opportunity that now offered itself which above all the rest prevailed with them so to do; for when they saw the Roman government in a great internal disorder by the continual changes of its rulers, and understood that every part of the habitable earth under them was in an unsettled and tottering condition, they thought this was the best opportunity that could afford itself for themselves to make a sedition, when the state of the Romans was so ill. Classicug* also and Vitellius, t two of their commanders, puffed them up with luch hopes. These had for a long time been openly delious of luch an innovation, and were induced by the present opportunity to venture upon the declaration of their sentiments; the multitude was also ready, and when these men told them of what they intended to attempt, that news was gladly received by them. So when a great part of the Germans had agreed to rebel, and the rest were no better disposed, Vefpafian, as guided by divine Providence, sent let. ters to Petilius Cerealis, who had formerly had the command of Germany, whereby he declared him to have the dignity of consul, and commanded him to take upon him the govern. ment of Britain ; so he went whither he was ordered to go, and when he was informed of the revolt of the Germans, he fell upon them as soon as they were gotten together, and put his army in batile array, and flew a great multitude of them in the fight, and forced them to leave off their madness, and to grow wiser ; nay, had he not fallen thus suddenly upon them on the place, it had not been long ere they would however have been brought to punishment; for as soon as ever the news of their revolt was come to Rome, and Cæsar Domitian was made aca quainted with it, he made no delay even at that his age, when he was exceeding young, but undertook this weighty affair. He had a courageous mind from his father, and had made greater improvements than belonged to such an age: Accord. ingly he marched against the barbarians immediately ; where, upon their hearts failed them at the very rumour of his approach, and they submitted themselves to him with fear, and thought it an happy thing that they were brought under their
* This Classicus, and Civilis, and Cerealis, are names well known in Tacitus ; the two former as moving fedition against the Romans, and the last as sent to rea press them by Vespasian, jnft as they are here described in Josephus ; which is the case also of Fonteius Agrippa and Rubrius Gallus in fe&t. 3. But as to the very favourable account presently given of Domitian, particularly as to his defignis in this lis Gallic and German expedition, it is not a little contrary to that in Suetonius, Velp sect 7. Nor are the reasons unobvious that might occasion this great diversity : Domitian was one of Josephus's patrons, and when he published thele books of the Jewilh war, was very wung, and had hardly began those wicked practices, which rendered him so infamous afterward; while Suetonius seems to have been too young, and too low in life to receive any remarkable favours from him ; as Domitian was certainly very lewd and cruel, and generally hated when Suetonius wrote about him.
+ Civilis. Tacir,