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old yoke again without suffering any farther mischiefs. W heri therefore Domitian had settled all the affairs of Gaul in such good order, that it would not be casily put into disorder any more, he returned to Rome with honour and glory, as having performed such exploits as were above his own age, but worthy of so great a father.
3. At the very lame time with the forementioned revolt of the Germans did the bold attempt of the Scythians against the Romans concur; for those Scythians who are called Samaritans, being a very numerous people, transported themselves over the Danube into Mysia, without being perceived ; alter which, by their violence, and entirely unexpected assault, they flew a great many of the Romans that guarded the frontiers; and as the consular legate Fonteius Agrippa came to meet them, and fought courageoully against them, he was sain by them. They then over ran all the region that had been subje&t to him, tear. ing and rending every thing that fell in their way. But when Vespasian was informed of what had happened, and how My. sia was laid waste, he sent away Rubrius Gallus to punih these Samaritans; by whose means many of them perished in the battles he fought against them, and that part which escaped fled with fear to their own country. So when this general had put an end to the war, he provided for the future security of the country also ; for he placed more and more numerous garrisons in the place, till he made ir alto. gether impossible for the barbarians to pass over the river any more. And thus had this war in My fia a sudden conclu. fion.
CH A P. V. . Concerning the Sabbatic River which Titus Jaw as he was four.
neying through Syria ; and how the People of Antioch came with a Petition to Titus against the Jews, but were rejected by
him ; as also concerning Titus and Vefpahan's Triumph. $1. N OW Titus Cæsar tarried some time at Berytus, as
TV we told you before. He thence removed, and ex. bibited magnificent shews in all those cities of Syria through which he went, and made use of the captive Jews as publicin. stances of the destruction of that nation. He then saw a river as he went along, of such a nature as deserves to be recorded in history ; it runs in the middle between Arcea, belonging to Agrippa's kingdom, and Raphanea. It hath somewhat very peculiar in it; for when it runs, its current is strong, and has plenty of water ; alter which its springs fail for six days to. gether, and leave iis channel dry, as any one may see; alter which'days it runs on the seventh as it did before, and as though it had undergone no change at all : It hath also been oblerved to keep this order perpetually and exactly : Whence
it is that they call it the Sabbatic river,* that name being taken from the sacred seventh day among the Jews.
2. But when the people of Antioch were informed that Ti. tus was approaching, they were so glad at it, that they could not keep within their walls, but hasted away to give him the meeting ; nay, they proceeded as far as thirty furlongs, and more, with that intention. These were not the men only, but a multitude of women also with their children did the same ; and when they saw him coming up to them, they stood on both sides of the way and stretched out their right hands, faluting him, and making all sorts of acclamations to him, and turned back together with him. They also, among all the acclama. tions they made to him, befought him all the way they went, to eject ihe Jews out of their city ; yet did not Titus at all yield to this iheir petition, but gave them the bare hearing of it quietly. However, the Jews were in a great deal of terrible fear under the uncertainty they were in what his opinion was, and what he would do to them. For Titus did not stay at Antioch, but conținued his progress immediately to Zeugma, which lies upon the Euphrates, whither came to him meslengers from Vologelus king of Parthia, and brought him a crown of gold upon the vi&tory he gained over the Jews ; which he accepted ol, and feasted the king's messengers, and then came back to Antioch. And when the Senate and people of Antioch earnestly entreated him to come upon their theatre, where their whole inultitude was assembled, and expected him, he complied with great humanity ; but when they prefled him with much earn. eltness, and continually begged of him, that he would eject the Jews out of their city, he gave them this very pertinent anIwer ; " How can this be done, since that country of theirs, whither the Jews must be obliged then to retire is destroyed, and no place will receive them besides." Whereupon the people of Antioch, when they had failed of success in this their first request, made him a second ; for they desired that he would order thole tables of brals to be removed, on which the Jew's privileges were engraven. However, Titus would not grant that neither, but permitted the Jews of Antioch to continue to enjoy the very same privileges in that city which they had betore, and then departed for Egypt ; and as he came to Jeru. salem in his progress, and compared the melancholy condition, he saw it then in with the ancient glory of the city, and called to mind the greatness ot its present ruins, as well as its ancient splendour, he could not but piry the destruction of the city, so
* Since in these latter ages this Sabbatic river, once so famous, which, by Jofephus's account bere, ran every seventh day, and rested on fix, but according to Pliny, Nat. Hift. xxxi 1. ran perpetually on six days, and rested every seventh, (though it no way appears by either of their accounts that the seventh day of this river was the Jewish seventh day or Sabbath), is quite vanilhed, I shall add no more about it; only see Dr Hudson's nutes. In Varenius's Geography, I. 17. the reader will find several instances of such periodical fountains and rivers, though none of their periods were that of a just week, as of old this appears to have been. VOL. III.
far was he from boafting, that so great and goodly a city as that was had been by him taken by torce : Nay, he frequently curf ed those that had been the authors of their revoit, and had brought such a punilhment upon the city ; inlomuch, that it openly appeared, that he did not defire that such a calumn y as this punishment of theirs amounted to, should be a demonstra. fion of his courage. Yet was there no fmall quantity of the riches :hat had been in that city. ftill found among its ruins, a great deal of which the Romans dug up ; but the greatest part was discovered by those who were captives, and so they carried it away ; I mean the gold and the filver, and the rest of that most preciousfurniture which the Jewshad, and which theowners had treafured up underground; against the uncertain fortunes of war.
3 SoTitus took the journey he intended into Egypt, and paf. sed over the desart very suddenly, and came to Alexandria, and took up a resolution to go to Rome by fea. Andas he was ac. companied by two legions, he fent each of them again to the places whence i hey had before come; the fifth he fent to My fia, and the fifteenth io Panonia ; as for the leaders of the capa tives, Simon and John, with the other leven hundred men, whom he had selected out of the rest as being eminently tall and hand. some of body, he gave order that they should be foon carried to Italy, as resolving to produce them in his triumph. So when he had had a prosperous voyage to his mind, the city of Rome behaved itself in his reception, and their meeting him at a distance, as it did the case of his father. But what made the moft fplendid appearance in Titus's opinion was; when his father met him, and received him; but still the multitude of the citizens conceived the greatest joy, when they saw them all three *together, as they did at this time: Nor were many days overpast, when they determined to have but one triumph, that should be com. mon to both of them, on account of the glorious exploits they had pertormed, although the senate had decreed each of them a separate triumphby himself. So when notice had been given be. forehand of the day appointed for this poinpous folemnity to be made, on account of their victories, not one of the immenfe multiiude was left in the city, but every body went out so far as to gain only a station where they might stand, and left only such a palsage as was necessary for those that were to be seen to go along ito
4. Now all the soldiery marched out beforehand by compa. nies, and in their several ranks, under their several commanders, in the night time, and were about the gates, not of the upper palaces, but those near the temple of Ilis ; for there it was that the emperors had reled the foregoing night. And as soon as ever it was day, Vefpafian and Titus came out crowned with laurel, and cloathed in those ancient purple habits which were proper to their family, and then went as far as Ottavian's walks ;
+ Vefpafian, and Iris two sons Titus and Domitian,
for there it was that the senate, and the principal rulers, and those that had been recorded as of the equestrian order, waited for them. Now a tribunal had been erected before the cloisters, and ivory chairs had been set upon it, when they came and fat down upon them. Whereupon the soldiery madeanacclamation of joy io them immediately, and all gave them attestations of their valour ; while they were themselves without their arms, and only in their filken garments, and crowned with laurel; then Vespafan accepted of these shouts of theirs.; but while they were still dispoied to go on in such acclamations, he gave them a signalof Glence. And when every body entirely held their peace, he stood up, and covering the greatelt part of his head with bis cloak, he put up the accustomed solemn prayers; the like prayers did Titus put up also; after which prayers Vespatian made a fhort Speech to all the people, and then sent away the soldiers to a dinner prepared tor them by the emperors. Then did he Tetire to that gate which was called the gate of the pomp, because pompous lhews do always go through that gate ; there it was that they tasted some tood, and when they had put on their tri. umphal garments, and had offered facrifices io the gods that were placed at the gate, they sent the triumph forward, and marched through the theatres, that they might be the more cafily seen by the muletudes.
5. Now it is impoflible to describe the multitude of the shews as they delerve, and the magnificence of them all : such indeed as a man could not easily think of, as performed, either by the Jabour of workmen, or the variety of riches, or the rarities of nature ; for almost all such curiosities as the most happy men ever get hy piece-meal, were here one heaped on another, and those both admirableand as costly in their nature; and all brought together on that day, demonstrated the vallness of the dominions of the Romans; for there was here to be seen a mighty quantis ty of silver, and gold and ivory, contrived into all sorts of things, and did not appear as carried along in pompous fhew only, but, as a man many say, running along like a river. Some parts were composed of the rareft purple hangings, and so carried a. long, and others accurately represented to the lite what was embroidered by the art of the Baby lonians. There were also pre. cious stones that were transparent, some set in crowns of gold,
and lome in other ouches, as the workmien pleased; and of these - such a vast number were brought, that we could not but thence learn how vainly we imagined any of them to be rarities. The images of the.gods were also carried, being as well wonderful for their largeness, as made very artificially, and with great skill of the workmen : Nor were any of these images of any other than very costly materials ; and many species of animals were brought, every one in their own natural ornaments. The men also who brought every one of these shews were great multi. tudes, and adorned with purple garments, all over interwoven with gold ; those sbat were cholen for carrying these pompoule thews having allo about them such magnificent ornaments, as were both extraordinary and surprising. Beside these, one might see that even the great number of the captives was not unadorned, while the variety that was in their garments, and their fine texture, concealed from the fight the deformity of their bodies. But what afforded the greatest surprise of all, was the structure of the pageants that were borne along; for indeed he that met them could not but be afraid that the bearers would not be able firmly enough to support them, fuch was their magnitude : For many of them were lo made, that they were on three or even four stories one above another. The magnificence also of their structure afforded one both pleasure and surprise ; for upon many of them were laid carpets of gold. There was also wroughe gold, and ivory fastened about them all ; and many resemblances of the war, and those in several ways, and variety of contri vances, affording a most lively portraiture of itselt. For there was to be seen an happy country laid waste, and entire squad. Tons of enemies flain; while some of them ran away, and iome were carried into captivity, with walls of great altitude and magnitude overthrowr., and ruined by machines, with the stron. geft fortifications taken, and the walls of mon populous cities upon the tops of hills leized on, and an army pouring itself within the walls; as allo every place full ot laughter, and fup. plications of the enemies, when they were no longer able to life up their hands in way of oppofition. Fire also lent upon temples was here represented, and houses overthrown, and falling upon their owners : Rivers also, after they came out of a large and melancholy delert, ran down, not into a land cultivated, nor as dink for men, or for candle, but through a land fill on fire upon every fide ; for the Jews related that such a thing they had undergone during this war. Now the workmanship of thele representations was so magnificent and lively in the construction of the things, that it exhibited what had been done to such as did not see it, as it they had been there really prelent. On the top of every one of these pageants was placed the commander of the city that was taken, and the manner wherein he was taken. Moreover, there followed those pa. geants a great number of ships ; and for the other spoils they were carried in great plenty. But for those * that were taken in the temple of Jerusalem, they made the greateft figure of them all ; that is the golden table, of the weight of many tal
* See the representations of these Jewish vessels as they fill stand on Titus's triumphal arch at Rome, in Reland's very curious book, de Spoliis Templi through out. But what things are chiefly to be noted are thele: (1.) That joiephus fay's, the candlestick here carried in this triumph was not thoroughly like that which was uted in the temple, which appears in the number of the little knops and flow. ers in that on the triumphal arch, not well agreeing with Moles's delcription, Exod. XXV 31,436 (2.) The Imailness of the branches in Josephus, compared with the thickness of thote on that arcb. (3) That the Law or Peotateuch does not apcar on that arch at all, though Jofephus, an eye-wituels, assures us that it was carried in this procession. All which things deserve the consideration of the inquiGtive reader