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ents; the candlestick also, that was made of gold, though its conftruction were now changed from that which we made use of : For its middle fnaft was fixed upon a basis, and the small branches were produced out of it to a great length, having the likeness of a trident in their position, and had every one a sock. et made of brals for a lamp at the tops of them. These lamps were in nurnber seven, and represented the dignity of the num. ber seven among the Jews; and the last of all the spoils, was carried the law of the Jews. After these spoils passed by a greai many men, carrying the images of victory, whose structure was entirely either of ivory, or of gold. After which Vespasian marched in the first place, and Titus followed him ; Domilian also rode along with them, and made a glorious appearance, and rode on an horle that was worthy of admiration.
6. Now the last part of this pompous lhew was at the temple ot Jupiter Capitolinus, whither when they were come, they stood ftill; for it was the Roman's ancient custom to stay till somebody brought the news, that the general of the enemy was Nain. This general was Simon, the ion of Gioras, who had then been led in this triumph among the captives : A rope had also been put upon his head, and he had been drawn unto a proper place in the forum, and had withal been tormented by those that drew him along; and the law of the Romans re. quired, that maletactors condemned to die, should be slain there. Accordingly when it was related that there was an end of him, and all the people had set up a shout for joy, they then began to offer those iacrifices which they had consecrated. in the prayers used in such solemnities, which when they had finished, they went away to the palace. And as for some of the spectators, the emperors entertained them at their own feaft; and for all the rest there were noble preparations made for their feasting at home ; for this was a festival day to the city of Rome, as celebrated for the victory obtained by their army over their enemies, for the end that was now put to their civis miseries, and for the commencement of their hopes of future prosperity and happiness.
7. Atter these triumphs were over, and after the affairs of the Romans were settled on the surelt foundations, Vespasian relolved to build a temple to Peace, which was finished in fo fhort a time, and so glorious a manner, as was beyond all human expectation and opinion: For he having now by Provi. dence a vast quantiiy of wealth, besides what he had formerly gained in his other exploits, he had this temple adorned with pictures, and statues ; for in this temple was collected and re. posited all such rarities as men atoretime used to wander all over the habitable world to see, when they had a desire to see one of them after another : He also laid up therein those gol. den vessels and instruments that were taken out of the Jewith temple, as enfigns of his glory. But still he gave order that they should lay up their law, and the purple veils of the holy place, in the royal palace itself, and kept them there.
C H A P. VI. Concerning Mucherus, and how Lucilius Bassus look that Cita
del, and other Places. $1. N OW Lucilius Bassus was sent as legate into Judea,
TV and there he received the army from Cerealis Vi. tellianus, and took that citadel which was in Herodium, to. gether with the garrison that was in it: Alter which he got together all the soldiery that was there. (which was a large body, but dispersed into several parties), with the tenth legion, and resolved to make war upon Macherus ; for it was highly necessary that this citadel should be demolished, left it might be a means of drawing away many into a rebellion, by reason of its strength : For the nature of the place was very capable of affording the surest hopes of safety to those that possessed it, as well as delay and fear to thole that should attack it; for what was walled in was itself a very rocky hill, elevated to a very great height, which circumftance alone made it very hard to be subdued. It was also so contrived by nature, that it could not be easily afcended ; for it is, as it were, ditched about with such vallies on all sides, and to such a depth that the eye cannot reach their bottoms, and such as are not easily to be passed over, and even such as it is impoflible to fill up with earth. For that valley which cuts it on the west, extends to threescore !urlongs, and did not end till it came to the lake Alphaltitis ; on the same side it was also that Macherus had the tallest top of its hill elevated above the rest. But then for the valleys that lay on the north and south sides, although they be not so large as that already described, yet is it in like man. ner an impracticable thing to think of getting over them; and for the valley that lies on the east side, its depth is found to be no less than an hundred cubits. It extends as far as a moun. tain that lies over against Macherus, with which it is bounded.
2. Now when Alexander [ Janneus], the king of the Jews, observed the nature of this place, he was the first who built a citadel here, which afterwards was demolished by Gabinius, when he made war against Ariftobulus. But when Herod came to be king, he thought the place to be worthy of the utmost regard, and of being built upon the firmest manner, and this especially because it lay so near to Arabia ; for it is leated in a convenient place on that account, and hath a prospect to. ward that country : He therelore surrounded a large space of ground with walls, and towers, and built a city there, out of which city there was a way that led up to the very citadel itself on the top of the mountain : Nay, more than this, he built a wall round that top of the hill, anid erected towers at the corners,of an hundred and fixty cúbits high; in the middle of which place he built a palace, alter a magnificent manner, wherein were large and beautiful edifices. He also made a great manj reservoirs for reception of water, that there might be plenty of it ready for all uses, and those in the properest places that wero afforded him there. Thus did he, as it were, contend with the nature of the place, that he might exceed its natural strength and security, which yet itself rendered it hard to be taken, by those fortifications which were made by the hands of men. Moreover, he put a large quantity of darts, and other machines of war into it, and contrived to get everything either that might any way contribute to its inhabitant's fecurity, under the longest liege possible.
3. Now within this place there grew a sort of rue *, that des ferves our wonder on account of is largeness, for it was no way inferior to any fig tree whatsoever, either in height, or in thickness ; and the report is, that it had lasted ever since the times of Herod, and would probably have lafled much longer, had it not been cut down by those Jews who took poffefsion of the place afterward. But still in that valley which encompasses the city on the north side, there is a certain place called Baaras, which produces a root + of the same name with itself; its colour is like that of flame, and towards the evenings it sends out a cer. tain ray like lightning ; it is not easily taken by such as would do it, but recedes from their hands, nor wilt yield itself to be taken quietly, until either the urine of a woman, or her men. ftrual blood be poured upon it : Nay, even then it is certain death to those that touch it, unless any one take and hang the root itselt down from his hand, and so carry it away. It may also be taken another way, without danger, which is this : They dig a treoch quite round about it, till the hidden part of the root be very small, they then tie a dog to it, and when the dog tries hard to follow him that tied him, this foot is easily plucked up, but the dog dies immediately, as if it were instead of the man that would take the plant away ; nor after this need any one be afraid of taking it into their hands. Yet alter all this pains in getting, it is only valuable on account of one virtue it hath, that if it be only brought to the sick perfons, it quickly drives a way thole called demous, which are no other than the spirits of the wicked, that enter into men that are alive, and kill them, unless they can obtain some help againft them. Here are also fountains of hot water, that flow out of this place, which have a very different taste one from the other; for some of them are bitter, and others of them are plainly
*Spanheim observes here, that in Græcia Major and Sicily they had rue prow digiously great and durable like this, rue at Macherus.
+ This Itrange account of the place and root Baaras, seems to bave been taken from the magicians, and the rent to have been made ute of in the days of Jolephus, in that superstitious way of caiting out demons, supposed by him to have been derived from king Solomon ; of which we have already seea he had a great opinion, Apriq B VIII. ch. ii. fect 5 Vol 1. We also hence maviarn the true notion Josephus had of demons and demoniacs, exactly like that of Jews and Chriftians in che New Testainent, and the first four centurice. Ses Antiq. B. VI. ch, vili kat. B B. XI. ch. iii lett. Vol. I,
sweet. Here are also many eruptions of cold waters, and this not only in the places that lie lower, and have their fountains near one another, but, what is still more wonderful, here is to be seen a certain cave hard by, whose cavity is not deep, but it is covered over by a rock that is prominent: Above this rock there stand up two shills or] breasts, as it were, but a little dil. tant one from another, the one of which sends out a fountain that is very cold, and the other sends out one that is very hot, which waters when they are mingled together, compose a most pleasant bath; they are medicinal indeed for other maladies, but especially good for strengthening the nerves. This place has in it also mines of sulphur and allum.
4. Now when Bassus had taken a full view of this place, he resolved to besiege it, by filling up the valley that lay on the east Gde ; so he fell hard to work, and took great pains to raile his banks as soon as possible, and by that means to render the siege easy. As for the Jews that were caught in this place, they separated themselves from the strangers that were with them, and they forced those strangers, as an otherwile useless multitude, to stay in the lower part of the city, and undergo the principal dangers, while they them felves seized on the upper citadel, and held it, and this both on account of its strength, and to provide for their own fatety. They also supposed they might obtain their pardon, in case they should (at last] surrender the citadel. However, they were willing to make trial in the first place, whether the hopes they had of avoiding a Gege would come to any thing, with which intention they made fallies every day, and fought with those that met them, in which confli&ts they were many of them flain, as they therein lew many of the Romans. But still it was the opportunities that presented themselves, which chiefly gained both sides their victories; thele were gained by the Jews, when they sell upon the Romans as they were off their guard; but by the Ro. mans when upon the other sallies against their banks they foresaw their coming, and were upon their guard when they re. ceived them. But the conclusion of this sige did not depend upon these bickerings; but a certain surprising accident, relating to what was done in this siege, forced the Jews to surrender the citadel. There was a certain young man among the besieged, of great boldness and very active of his hand, bis name was Eleazar, he greatly signalized himself in those falo lies, and encouraged the Jews to go out in great numbers, in order to hinder the raising of the banks, and did the Romans a vast deal of mischief when they came to fighting ; he so man. aged matters, that thole who lallied out, made iheir attacks easily, and returned back without danger, and this by ftill bringing up the rear himselt. Now it happened that on a cer. tain time, when the fight was over, and both sides were parted, and retired home, he, in way of contempt of the enemy and thinking that none of them would begin the fight again, at
that time, staid without the gates, and talked with those that were upon the wall, and his mind was wholly intent upon what they said. Now a certain person belonging to the Roman camp, whose name was Rutus, by birth an Egyptian, ran upon him suddenly, when nobody expected such a thing, and carried him off, with his armour itself; while in the mean time those that saw it from the wall were under such an amazement, that Ratús prevented their assistance, and carried Eleazar to the Roman camp. So the general of the Romans ordered, that he should be taken up naked, set before the city to be seen, and forely whipped before their eyes. Upon this sad accident that befel the young man, the Jews were terribly confounded, and the city, with one voice, sorely lamented him, and the mourning proved greater than could well be supposed upon the calamity of a single person. When Bassus perceived that, he began to think of using a stratagem ágainst the enemy, and was desirous to aggravate their griet, in order to prevail with them to surrender the city for the prefervation of that man. Nor did he fail of his hope ; for he commanded them to set up a crois, as if he were just going to hang Eleazar upon it immediately; the light of this occasioned a fore grief among those that were in the citadel, and they groaned vehemently, and cried out, that they could not bear to see him thus deftroyed. Whereupon Eleazar befought them not to disregard him, now he was going to suffer a most miserable death, and exhorted them to save themselves, by yielding to the Roman power, and good fortune, since all other people were now conquered by them. Thele men were greatly mo. ved with what he said, there being also many within the city that interceded for him, because he was of an eminent and veiy numerous family ; so they now yielded to their passion of commiseration, contrary to their usual custom. Accordingly They sent out immediately certain melsengers, and treated with the Romans, in order to a surrender of the citadel to them, and defired that they might be permitted to go away, and take Eleazar along with them. Then did the Romans and their general accept of these terms ; while that multitude of strangers that were in the lower part of the city, hearing of the agree. ment that was made by the Jews for themselves alone, was resolved to fly away privately in the night time ; but as soon as they had opened their gates, those that had come to terms with Bassus told him of it; whether it were that they envied the others deliverance, or whether it were done out of fear, left an occalon should be taken against them upon their elcape, is uncertain. The moft courageous, theretore, of chose men that went out prevented the enemy, and got away, and fled for it; but for those men that were caught within, they were slain, to the number of one thousand leven hundred, as were the women and the children made llaves. But as Bassus thought he must perform the covenant he had made with thofc