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are bound. But certainly our hands are still at liberty, and have a sword in them, let them then be subservient to us in our glorious design ; let us die before we becoine slaves under our enemies, and let us go out of the world, together with our children, and our wives, in a state of freedom. This it is that our laws command us to do; this it is that our wives and children crave at our hands ; nay, God himselt hath brought this neceflity upon us; while the Romans desire the contrary, and are afraid left any of us should die betore we are taken. Let us therefore make hafte, and instead of affording them so much pleasure, as they hope for in getting us under their power, let us leave them an example which shall at once cause their astonishment at our death, and their admiration of our hardness therein,"
CHA P. ix. How the People that were in the Fortress were prevailed on by
the words of Eleazar, two Women and five Children only ex
cepted, and all submitted to be Killed by one another. $1. N OW as Eleazar was proceeding on this exhortation,
TV they all cut him off short, and made baste to do the work, as full ot an unconquerable ardour of mind, and moved with a demoniacal fury. So they went their ways, as one still endeavouring to be before another, and as thinking that this eagerness would be a demonstration of their courage and good conduet, if they could avoid appearing in the last class ; so great was the zeal they were in to Day their wives and children, and themselves also. Nor indeed, when they came to the work itself, did their courage tail them, as one might imagine it would have done, but they then held fast the same resolution, without wavering, which they had upon the hearing of Elea. zar's speech, while yet every one of them ftill retained the natural passion of love to themselves and their families, because the reasoning they went upon appeared to them to be very just, even with regard to those that were dearest to them ; for the husbands tenderly embraced their wives, and took their children into their arms, and gave the longest parting-kisses to them, with tears in their eyes. Yet at the same time did they complete what they had resolved on, as if they had been exe; ecuted by the hands of strangers ; and they had nothing else for their comfort, but the necessity tbey were in of doing this execution, to avoid that proipeat they had of the miseries they were to suffer from their enemies. Nor was there at length any one of these men found that scrupled to act their part in this terrible execution, but every one of them dispatched his dearest relations. Miserable men indeed were they ! whose distress forced them to lay their own wives and children with their own hands, as the lightest of those evils that were before them. So they being not able to bear the grief they were under for what they had done any longer, and esteeming itan injury Vok. III,
to those they had lain, to live even the shortest space of time after them, they prelently laid all they had upon an heap, and fet fire to it. They then chose ten men by lot out of them, to Day all the reft : Every one of which laid himself down by his wife and children on the ground, and threw his arms about them, and they offered their necks to the stroke of those who by lot executed that melancholy office : And when these ten had, without fear, fain them all, they made the same rule for casting lots for themselves, that he whole lot it was should first kill the other nine, and after all Mould kill himself. Ace cordingly all these had courage sufficient to be no way behind one another in doing or suffering ; so, for a conclusion, the nine offered their necks to the executioner, and he who was the last of all took a view of all the other bodies, left perchance fome or other among so many that were flain should want his assistance to be quite dispatched, and when he perceived that they were all lain, he set fire to the palace, and with the great force of his hand ran his sword entirely through himself, and tell down dead near to his own relations. So these people di. ed with this intention, that they would leave not so much as one foul among them all alive to be subject to the Romans, Yet was there an ancient woman, and another who was of kin to Eleazar, and superior to most women in prudence and learning, with five children, who had concealed themselves in cay. erns under ground, and had carried water thither for their drink, and were hidden there when the rest were intent upon the slaughter of one another. Those others were nine hun. dred and fixty in number, the women and children being with. al included in that computation. This calamitous slaughter was made on the fifteenth day of the month Xanthicus [Nisan).
2. Now for the Romans, they expected that they should be fought in the morning, when accordingly they put on theirar. mour, and laid bridges of planks upon their ladders from their banks, to make an assauli upon the fortress, which they did ; but saw nobody as an enemy, but a terrible solitude on every fide, with a fire within the place, as well as a perfect silence. So they were at a loss to guess at what had happened. At lenth they made a fhout, as it it had been at a blow given by the bat. tering ram, to try whether they could bring any one out that was within ; the women heard this noise, and came out of their underground cavern and informed the Romans what had been done, as it was done, and the second of them clearly described all both what was said, and what was done, and the manner of it; yet did they not easily give their attention to such a desperate undertaking, and did not believe it could be as they said ; they also attempted to put the fire out, and quickly cutting themselves a way through it, they came within the palace, and so met with the multitude of the flain, but could take no pleasure in the fa&t, though it were done to their enemies. Nor could they do other than wonnder at the courage of their resolution, and theimmove
able contempt of death which so great a number of them had fhewn, when they went through with such an action as that was.
CH A P. X. That many of the Sicarii fled to Alexandria also, and what
Dangers they were in there; on which account that Temple which had formerly been built by Onias the High Priest was
Defroyed. $1. W HEN Małada was thus taken, the general lett a gar
VV rison in the fortress to keep it, and he bin selt went to Cesarea ; for there were now no enemies left in the coun. try, but it was all overthrown by to long a war. Yei did ihis war afford disturbances and dangerous diłorders even in pla. ces very far remote from Judea ; for Itill it came to pass, that many Jews were flaia at Alexandria in Egypt; for as many of the Sicarii as were able to fly thither, vut oi the feditious wars in Judea, were not content to have saved themselves but must needs be undertaking to make new disturbances, and persuaded many of thote that entertained them to aflert their liberty, to esteem the Romans to be no better than themselves, and to look upon God as their only Lord and Master. But when part of the Jews of reputation opposed them, they flew some of them, and with the others they were very pressing in their exhortations, to revolt from the Romans; but when the principal men of the senate law what madness they were come to, they thought it no longer safe for theinselves to overlook them. So they got all the Jews together to an assembly, and accused the madness of the Sicarii and demonstrated that they had been the authors of all the evils that had come upon them. They said allo, that "there men, now they were run away from Judea, having no sure hope of escaping, becaule as soon as ever they shall be known, they will be soon deftroyed by the Romans, they come bither and fill us full of those calam. ities which belong to them, while we have noi been partakers with them in any of their sins.” Accordingly they exhorted the multitude to have a care, left they should be brought to destruktion by their means, and to make their apology to the Romans for what had been done, by delivering theie men up to them; who being thus apprised of the greatness of the danger they were in, complied with what was proposed, and ran with great violence upon the Sicarii, and seized upon them ; and indeed six hundred of them were caught immediately : But as to all those that fled into Egypt,* and to the Egyptian Thebes, it was not long ere they were caught also, and brought back, whose courage or whether we ought to call it madness, or hardiness in their opinions, every body was amazed at. For when all sorts of torments and vexations of their bodies that could be devised were made use of to them, they could not get any one of them to comply so far as to confess or feem to con. fels, that Cæsar was their lord ; but they preserved their own opinion, in spite of all the di dress they were brought to, as if they received those torments and the fire itself, with bodies in. sensible of pain and with a loul that in a manner rejoiced under them. But what was most of all aftonishing to the behol. ders, was the age of the children ; for not one of these chil. dren was so far overcome by these torments, as to name Cæ. Car for their lord. So far does the strength of the courage (of the soul prevail over the weakness of the body.
* Since Jolephus here intorms us, that lorne of these dicarii, or Ruitians, went from Alexandria (which was it felf in Egypt in a large jense) into Egypt and Thebes, there situated, Reland well observes, from Vollius, that Egypt fumetimes denotes Proper or Upper Egypt as diflinct írom Delta, and the lower parts near Faleltine. Accordingly, as he adds, those that say it never rains in Egypt, mult mean the Proper or Upper Egypt, because it does sometimes rain in ti e other parts. , . See the polos oa Agrig. B. II. cb, vii. 6 7. aad Book III. chi in legat. 6. Vol. I.
2. Now Lupus did then govern Alexandria, who prelently sent Cæsar word of this commotion ; who having in suspi. cion the restless temper of the Jews for innovation, and being afraid left they should get together again, and periuade some others to join with them, gave orders to Lupus to demolish that Jewish* temple which was in the region called Onion, and was in Egypt, which was built and had its denomination from the occasion following: Onias, the son of Simon, one of the Jewith high priests, fled from Antiochus the king of Syria, when he made war with the Jews and came to Alexandria, and as Ptolemy received him very kindly, on account of ha. tred to Antiochus, he assured him, that if he would comply with his proposal, he would bring all the Jews to his affift. ance : And when the king agreed to do it so far as he was able, he desired him to give him leave to build a temple somewhere in Egypt, and 10 worship God according to the customs of his own country ; for that the Jews would then be so much readier to fight against Antiochus, who had laid waste the temple at Jerusalem, and that they would then come to him with greater good-will, and that by granting them liberty of conscience, very many of them would come over to him.
3. So Ptolemy complied with his proposals, and gave him a placet one hundred and eighty furlongs distant from Memphis. That Nonos was called the Nomos of Heliopolis, where Onias
* Of this temple of Onias's building in Egypt, see the notes on Antiq. Book XIII. ch. iii sect 1. Vol. II But whereas it is elsewhere, both of the War B. I. ch. i. i Vol. III. and in the Antiquities as now quoted, laid, that this temple was like to that at Jerusalemn, and here it was not like it but like a tower, leat 3. there is some realon to !uspect the reading here, and that either the negative particle is here to be hlotted out, or the word entirely added.
+ We must observe, that Josephus here speaks of Antiochus, who profaned the temple, a row alive, when nias had leave given him by Philometer to build his temple ; wb reas it seems not to have been actually built till about fifteen years afterwards. Yet because it is said in the Antiquities, that Onias went to Pbilometer, B. XII. ch. ix, f&. 7. Vol. II, during the lifetime of that Antiocbus, it is probable he peritioned, and perhaps obtained his leave then, though it were rot a&ually built or anished til sitgen yon alpwan.
built a fortress and a temple, not like to that at Jerusalem, but such as releinbled a tower. He built it of large stones to the height of fixty cubits; he made the structure of the altar in im. itation of that in our own country, and in like manner adorn. ed with gifts, excepting the make of the candlestick, for he did not make a candlestick, but had a lingle lamp hammered out of a piece of gold, which illumed the place with its rays, and which he hung hy a chain of gold; but the entire temple was encompassed with a wall of burnt brick though it had gates of stone. The king also gave him a large country for a revenue in money, that both the priests might have a plentiful provilion made for them, and that God might have great abundance of what things were neceffary for his worship. Yet did not Onias do this out of a fober disposition, but he had a mind to contend with the Jews at Jerusalem, and could not forget the indigna. tion he had for being banilhed thence. Accordingly be thought that by building this temple he should draw away a great num. ber from them to himiell. There had been also a certain an, cient prediction made by [a prophet, whose name was Ilaiah, about six hundred years before, that this temple could be built by a man that was a Jew in Egypt*. And this is the history of the building of that temple.
4. And now Lupus the governor of Alexandria, upon the receipt of Cæsar's letter, came to the temple, and carried out of it some of the donations dedicated thereto, and shut up the temple itself. And as Lupus died a little. afterward, Paulinus succeeded him. This man lett none of thole donations there, and threatened the priests severely if they did not bring them all out ; nor did he permit any who were desirous of worshipping God there, so much as to come near the whole sacred pal. ace. But when he had shut up the gates, he roade it entirely inaccellible, insomuch that there remained no longer the least foot-Iteps of any divine worship, that had been in that piace, Now the duration of this time from the building of this temple, till it was lhut up again was three hundred and forty-three years.
C H A P. XI. Goncerning Jonathan, one of the Sicarii. that fired up e Sedi.
tion in Cyrene, and was a false Accuser [of the Innocent.] $1. AND now did the madness of the Sicarii, like a difa
M ease, reach as far as the cities of Kyrene ; for one Jonathan, a vile person, and by trade a weaver, came thither and prevailed with no small number of the poorer sort to give ear to him : He also led them into the delert, upon promising them, that he would thew them signs, and apparitions. And as for the other Jews of Cyrene, he concealed his knavery from them, and put tricks upon them ; but those of the greatest dignity among them informed Catullus, the governor of the
Ifa, xix. 18-36