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ment with our books in other things also. Berosus shall be witness to what I say; he was by birth a Chaldean, well known by the learned on account of his publication of the Chaldean books of philosophy and astronomy among the Greeks. This Berolus, therefore, following the most ancient records of that nation, gives us an history of the deluge of waters that then happened, and of the destruction of mankind thereby, and a grees with Moles's narration thereof. He also gives us an account of that ark wherein Noah, the origin of our race, was prelerved when it was brought to the highest part of the Armen. ian mountains : After which he gives us a catalogue of the polterity of Noah, and adds the years of their chronology, and at length comes down to Nabolaffar who was king of Babylon, and of the Chaldeans. And when he was relating the acts of This king, he delcribes to us, “How he sent his son Nabuchodonosor against Egypt, and against our land, with a great army, upon his being informed that they had revolted from him; and how, by that means, be subdued them all, and set our temple that was at Jerusalem on fire; nay, and removed our people en. tirely out of their own country, and transterred them to Ba. bylon; when it so happened that our city was desolate, du. ring the interval of seventy years, until the days of Cyrus king of Persia.” He then says, That “this Babylonian king conquered Egypt, and Syria, and Phenicia, and Arabia, and exceeded in his exploits all that had reigned before him in Babylon and Chaldea.” A little after which Berosus fubjoins what follows in his history of ancient times: I will set down Berosus's own accounts, which are these: “When Na. buchodonofor, father of Nabolassar, heard that the governor whom he had set over Egypt and over the parts of Celelyria and Phenicia, had revolted from him, he was not able to bear it any longer, but committing certain parts of his army to his son Nabuchodonofor, who was then but young, he sent him against the rebel : Nabuchodonosor joined battle with him, and conquered him, and reduced the country under his dominion again. Now it so fell out, that his father Nabolalfar fell into a diftemper at this time, and died in the city of Babylon, after he had reigned twenty-nine years. But as he understood, in a little time, that his father Nabuchodonofor was dead, he set the affairs of Egypt, and the other countries in order, and committed the captives he had taken from the Jews, and Phenicians, and Syrians, and of the nations belong. ing to Egypt, to lome of his friends, that they might conduct that
part of the forces that had on heavy armour, with the reft of his baggage, to Babylonia ; while he went in hafte, having but a few with wim, over the desert to Babylon; whither, when he was come, he found the public affairs had been managed by the Chaldeans, and that the principal person arnong them had preserved the kingdom for him. Accordingly be now ontirely obtained all his father's dominions. He iben came, and ordered the captives to be placed as colonies in the most proper places of Babylonia : But for himself, be adorned the temple of Belus, and the other temples, after an elegant inanner out of the spoils he had taken in this war. He also rebuilt the old city, and added another to it on the outside, and so far restored Babylon, that none who should besiege it afterwards might have it in their power to divert the river, fo as to facilitate an entrance into it; and this he did by building three walls about the inner city, and three about the outer. Some of chefe walls he built of burnt brick and bitumen, and some of brick only. So when he had thus fortified the city with walls, after an excellent manner, and had adorned the gates magnificently, he added a new palace to that which his father had dwelt in, and this close hy it also, and that more eminent in its height, and in its great fplendor; it would perhaps require too long a nara ration, if any one were to describe it: However, as prodigious large, and as magnificent as it was, it was finished in fifteen days. Now in this palace he erected very high walks, supported by stone pillars, and by planting what was called a penfile paradise, and replenishing it with all sorts of trees, he reddered the prospect of an exact resemblance of a mountainous country. This he did to please his queen, because she had been brought up in Media, and was fond of a mountainous fituation * "
20. This is what Berosus relates concerning the forementioned king, as he relates many other things about him also in the third book of his Chaldean history; wherein he com. plains of the Grecian writers for supposing, without any foundation, that Babylon was built by Semiramis * queen of Assyria, and for her false pretence to thole wonderful edifices thereto relating, as if they were her own workmanship; as in. deed in these affairs the Chaldean hiftorý cannot but be the most credible. Moreover, we meet with a confirmation of what Berosus says in the archives of the Phenicians, concern. ing this king Nabuchodonofor, that he conquered all Syria and Phenicia; in which case Philostratus agrees with the others in that history which tre composed, where he mentions the
fiege of Tyre; as does. Megafthenes also, in the fourth book of his Indian history, wherein he pretends to prove that the forementioned king of the Babylonians was fuperior to Hercules in ftrength, and the greatness of his exploits; for be says ihat hre conquered a great part of Libya, and conquered Iberia also. Now as to what I have laid before about the tem. ple at Jerusalem, that it was fought against by the Babylonians, and burnt by them, but was opened again when Cyrus had taken the kingdom of Afia, fhall be now demonftrated
* The great improvements that Nebuchadnezzar made in the buildings at Babyon, do no way contradit those ancient and authentic teftimonies which alcribe its fortt building to Nimrod, and its first rebuilding to Semiramis, as Berolus scems here to suppole.
from what Berosus adds farther upon that head; for thus he fays in his third book : “Nabuchodonofor, after he had begun to build the forementioned wall, fell fick, and departed this life, when he had reigned forty-three years ; whereupon his ton Evilmeroduch obtained the kingdom. He governed public affairs after an illegal and impure manner, and had a plot Jaid against him by Neriglisfoor, his sister's husband, and was flain by him when he had reigned but two years. After he was flain, Neriglifloor, the person who plotted against him, suc. ceeded him in the kingdom, and reigned four years; his son Laborosoarchod obtained the kingdom, though he were but a child, and kept it nine months; but by reason of the very ill temper and ill practices he exhibited to the world, a plot was laid against him also by his friends, and he was tormented to death. After his death, the conspirators got together, and by cumaon consent put the crown upon the head of Nabonnedus, a man of Babylon, and one who belonged to that insurre&ion. In his reign it was that the walls of the city of Babylon were curiously built with burnt brick and bitumen ; but when he was come to the seventeenth year of his reign, Cyrus came out of Persia with a great army, and having already conquered all the rest of Asia, he came hailily to Babylonia. When Nabonnedus perceived he was coming to attack him, he met him with
his forces, and joining battle with him, was beaten, and fled away with a few of his troops with him, and was shut up within the city Borsippus. Hereupon Cyrus took Babylon and
gave order that the outer walls of the city should be demolished, because the city had proved very troublesome to him, and cost him a great deal of pains to take it. He then marched away to Borlippus, to besiege Nabonnedus ; but as Nabonnedus did not sustain the siege, but delivered himlelfinto his hands, he was at first kindly used by Cyrus, who gave hini Carmania, as a place for him to inhabit in, but sent him out of Babylonia. Accordingly Nabonnedus spent the ref of his time in that country, and there died.”.
21. These accounts agree with the true histories in our books: For in them it is written, that Nebuchadnezzar, in the eighteenth* year of his reign, laid our temple defolate, and so it lay in that state of obscurity for fifty years : But that in the fecond year of the reign of Cyrus its foundations were laid, and it was finished again in the secondt year of Darius. I will now add the records of the Phenicians; tor it will not be fu.
* This number in Jofephus, that Nebuchadnezzar deftroyed the temple in the 18th year of his reign, is a mistake in the nicety of chronology; for it was in the sgth.
t'lle true number here for the vear of Darius, on which the second temple was finished, whether the Second with our present copies, or the fixth with that of Syncellus, or the tenth with that of Eufebius, is very uncertain ; 1o we had bet follow jofephus's owo account elsewhere, Antiq Book XI. chap. iii. fec. I. which shows us that according to his copy of the Old Testament, after the ad of Cyrus, that work was interrupted till the lecond of Darius, when in leven years it was finished on the ninth of Darius.
perfluous to give the reader demonstrations more than enough on this occafion. In them we have this enumeration of the times of their several kings : “ Nabuchodonosor besieged Tyre for thirteen years, in the days of Ithobal, their king; after him reigned Baal, ten years ; after him were judges appointed, who judged the people. Ecnibalus, the fon of Bare lacus, two months ; Chelbes, the son of Abdeus, ten months ; Abbar the high-priest three months ; Mitgonus and Gerastratus, the sons of Abdelemus, were judges six years; atter whom Balatorus reigned one year; after bis death they sent and fetched Merbalus from Babylop, who reigned four years; after his death they sent for his brother Hirum, who reigned twenty years. Under his reign Cyrus became king of Persia.” So that the whole interval is fifty-four years befides three months; for on the seventh year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar he began to beliege Tyre, and Cyrus the Persian took the kingdom on the fourteenth year of Hiram. So that the records of the Chaldeans and Tyrians agree with our writings about this temple ; and the testimonies here produced are an indisputable and undeniable. atteftation to the antiquity of our nation. And I fuppose that what I have already said may be sufficient to such as are not very contentious.
22. But now it is proper to satisfy the enquiry of thole that disbelieve the records of barbarians, and think none but Greeks to be worthy of credit, and to produce many of these very Greeks who were acquainted with our nation, and to set before them such as upon occasion have made mention of us in their own writings. Pythagoras therefore of Samos lived in very ancient times, and was esteemed a person superior to all philo
fophers in wisdom, and piery towards God. Now it is plain · that he did not only know our do&trines, but was in very great measure a follower and admirer of them. There is not indeed extant * any writing that is owned for his ; but many there are who have written his history; of whom Hermippus is the most celebrated, who was a person very inquisitive into all sort of history. Now this Hermippus, in his first book concerning *Pythagoras, 1peaks thus : That “ Pythagoras, upon the death of one of his associates, whose name was Calliphon, a Crotoniate by birth, affirmed that this man's soul conversed with him both night and day, and enjoined him not to pass over a place where an ass had fallen down ;. as also not to drink such waters as caused thirst again, and not 10 abstain from all sorts of reproaches.” After which he adds thus, "This he did and faid in imitation of the doctrines of the Jews and Thracians, which he transferred into his own philofophy." For it is very truly affirmed of this Pythagoras, that he took a great many
* This is a thing we'l known by the learned, that we are not secure that we have any genuine writings of Pythagoras ; those Golden Verses, which are his best remains, being generally supposed to have been written not by himself, but by fome of his scholars only, in agreement with what Josephus here affirms of him,
of the laws of the Jews into his own philosophy. Nor was our nation unknown of old to several of the Grecian cities, and indeed was thought worthy of imitation by some of them. This is declared by Theophraftus, in his writings concerning laws ; for he says, “ That the laws of the Ty rians forbid men to swear foreign oaths.” Among which he enumerates some others, and particularly that called Corban ; which oath can only be found among the Jews, and declares what a man may call A thing devoted to God. Nor indeed was Herodotus of Halicarnassus unacquainted with our nation, but mentions it after a way of his own, when he saith thus, in the lecond book concerning the Colchians. His words are these : “ The only people who were circumcised in their privy members origin ally, were the Colchians, the Egyptians, and the Ethiopians; but the Phenicians and those Syrians that are in Paleftine contefs that they learned it from the Egyptians. And for thole Syrians who live about the rivers Thermodon and Parthenius, and their neighbours the Macrones, they say they have lately learned it from the Colcbians ; for these are the only people that are circumcised among mankind, and appear to have done the very same thing with the Egyptains. But as for the Egyptians and Ethiopians themselves, I am not able to say which of them received it from the other." This therefore is what Herodotus says, “That the Syrians that are in Palestine are circumciled." But there are no inhabitants of Paleline that are circumcised excepting the Jews ; and therefore, it must be his knowledge of them that enabled him to speak fo much concerning them. Cherilus * also, a ftill ancienter writer, anda
• Whether these verses of Chrrilus, the heathen poet, in the days of Xerres, bee long to the Solymi in Pildia, that were near a small lake, or to the Jews that duelt on the Solymean or Jerusalem mountains, near the g eat and broad lake Asphalitis, that were a strange people, and spake the Phenician tongue, is not agreed on by the learned. It is yet certain that Josephus here, and Eusebius, Præp. IX 9 p. 413. took them to be Jews ; and I confefs I cannot but very much incline to the latex opinion. The other Solymi were not a frange people, but heathen idolaters, like the other parts of Xerxes's arıy; and that thele Ipake the Phenician tongue, is next to impossible, as the Jews certainly did ; nor is there the least evidence for it ellewhere Nor was the lake adjoining to the mountains of the Solymi at all large or broad, in comparison of the Jewish lake Asphaltitis ; nor indeed were these fo confiderable a people as the Jews, nor fo likely to be desired by Xerxes for his arcy as the Jews, to whom he was always very favourable. As for the rest of Chetilas's description, that "their heads were sooty; that they had round rasures on their heads; that their heads and faces were like nafty horse heads, which had been har. dened in the smoke;" chese awkward characters probably fitted the Solymi of Pie fidia no better than they did the Jews in Judea. And indeed this reproachful izoguage here given these people is to me a frong indication that they were the poor despicable Jews, and not the Pisidian Solymi celebrated in Homer, whom CheriJus here describes; nor are we to expect that either Cherilus or Hecatous, or any other Fagan writers cite by Josephus and Eufebius made no mistakes in the few. ish history. If by comparing their testimonies with the more authentic records of that ration, we find them for the main to contirm the same, as we almost always do, we ought to be satisfied and not expect that they ever had an exact knowledge of all the circumstances of the Jewish affairs, which indeed it was almost always impose Able for them to brava See fec. 23,